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I 




^ J 



MUSICAL MEMORIES 



MUSICAL MEMORIES 

i • <^ 

I VCi RECOLLECTIONS OF CELEBRITIES 
OF THE HALF CENTURY 
1860—1900 



GEOBGE P. JPTON 

ACTHOB OF **T1U STAHDABlf^FEB^" KIO., KTO. 



WITH NDmEROUB lU^USTIUTIOMB 




NFDi'H/ Ln-n-:/ 


OHIOAOO 

A. a UCOLUBO k 00. 

1908 





\ 



' I - • ' f> / 

.{ ./ il b 



CoFrmiaHT 

A. C McCLuma & Co. 

1906 

PuUiBhed October 3, 1908 
Xattnd at StatloiMrt' Hall, London, Rnglaiid 



421468 



» • 






• • • 



* 
« • « 






* • 



• • • • ,♦ 

• • • : 



• * 



« • 






m trmmitTT psim, OAMBiirnoB, v.t.A. 



/ dedicate these Memories 
to the Ghosts 



I 



PREFACE 

T is with the purpose of preserving my records of 
music during the last half century in compact and 
accessible shape, and also to satisfy many friends 
who have suggested that I should undertake a work of 
this nature, that I have compiled these ^'Memories/' 
covering the half century 1850-1900. During nearly 
all that time I was engaged in the labor of musical 
criticism in Chicago, and therefore had unusual oppor- 
tunities to observe what was transpiring in the musi- 
cal world. I did not personally know Jenny Lind, 
Henriette Sontag, Marietta Alboni, Anna Thillon, and 
Catherine Hayes, the artists mentioned in the first 
two chapters, but I had the rare pleasure of hearing 
them in concerts. I have had personal acquaintance 
of a more or less intimate kind, however, with all the 
others. 

I have recalled the events herein set down from 
conversations, managerial statements taken with the 
proper discount, reviews, records, and programmes I 
have kept, as well as from a diary in which I jotted 
down much of interest for reference in my journalistic 
duty. In looking back over so long a period, memory 
may sometimes exaggerate and even play false, but I 
have striven to keep within the bounds of accuracy 



VI FBEFAOS 



and to avoid mere gossip or statements that might 
wound the sensitive. I have also made use of history 
and biography only so far as they are necessary to keep 
the context dear. As the public is sufficiently familiar 
in these days of personal journalism with artists stQl 
upon the stage, I have confined these ^'Memories" 
only to those who have retired into the shady nooks 
of life and to that other goodly company for whom 
are the last words of Canio in ^^ Pagliacci/' *^ La com- 
media h finita." 

It follows as a matter of course that these recollec- 
tions are mainly locals for I wrote the first musical 
criticism printed in a Chicago newspaper, and that 
means a far cry back into the past In the hope that 
the beginnings of music in Chicago may possess some 
interest I have gone back to the first note Chicago 
heard, at a time when Indians and coyotes outnum- 
bered whites there almost ten to one. But as the fifty 
years of Chicago's musical histoiy means fifty years 
of memories of all the great artists who have been in 
the United States, the mere location is not of any 
special significance. 

With these prefatorial remarks I venture to submit 
these memories of ^^ days that are no more '' with the 
hope that they will prove of value to musicians and will 
not be wholly unacceptable to the general public 

Q. P. U. 

Ckioaoo» Jjdj 1, 1908. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 

Jbhvt Loid 

AriWal of Jomiy liDd in New Yofk -- Hw Ffnt Ooooert -- Bar- 
num'i Metheds of Maaageme&t — The Jenny Lind Fever — Her 
Enthuaieetie Reoi^ylkm — Popular Ovatkma end EzliaTaganoes — 
The Oonoeri in Pnyvidenoe -- Student Delirium -- Rom's 1060 Tlo^ 
— Jenny Lind'e PerMnal Appearance on the Siege — HerVoioeand 
Method of Singii^— TheNoMlity of bor Chaiaeter— IMImoDy of 
her Great Oontemporariei 17 



CHAPTER n 

SoirrAo, Alsoki, ThilloNi Hatm 

A FHghtof SoogWrds — Heniiette Sontag — Her Numeroue Ad* 
mime — The Romance of her Oareer — Marriage to Count Rosri — 
Her PerKmal Appearance — Her Voice and Style of Sioging — 
TnmUee in her Last Days -^ Sudden Death in Mezioo — (Miel 
Rq[>orts of a Scandal — Sontag's Rival, Alboni, the Great Contralto 
— Her Finished Singing— Anna Thillon — Great Success in f Crown 
Diamonds" — Her Beauty and Magnetism — "Kate'' Hayes —The 
VwUm of Speoulaton — Her Success in Ballads 20 



CHAPTER m 

AnnLorA Patti 

Pittti's FbmHy — Her Career— Conoertiiing with Oie Bull — 
The Contract with Mapleson — Concerts m the Fifties — Her FInt 
CoDcett in Chicago ^ Her Love of Dolls — Charaoterisdcs of the 
Child Prima Donna — The Mapleson- Abbey CompeMon —The Patti 
Marriages — Her Success as a Vocalist— The Farewell Habit— At 
the Auditorium Dedication 33 



viii OOKTEtTK 

CHAPTER IV 
Thb Pattib and Pabodi 

GariottoPatti — Dedication of the Oentral Muaic Hall in Chicago 

— A Compariaon with Adelina Patti — Her LamenesB — Natural 
Sendtiveneaa — A flinpilar Combination of Qualities — Her Musical 
Career — Amalia Patti — How the was ovenhadowed — Garioe 
Patti — His Adventuitma and Melaneholy Career — Parodi — Why 

she came to the United States — Her Qualities as a Singer . • 44 

CHAPTER V 

Thb Qmif ania Socistt 

The Germania Society — Qungl's Opinion of Americans — Char- 
acteristics of the Germania — Its Visits to Chicago — A Critic's Sou! 
Longings — The Society's Lasting Influence upon Muidcal Piugie w — 
The Work of Individual Members — The Career of Cari Beigmann — 
The Sad End of his Life— JuUen, "The Charlatan of all the Ages" 

— His E^BOtism and Eooentridties — the !' Firemen's Quadrille/' etc. 61 



CHAPTER VI 

SOMB VlOUNIBTB 

Ole Bull — His Perw>nality — Manner of Playing — A Dreamer — 
Unsatisfied Visions — The Romance of his Life — His Numerous Fare- 
wells — Concerts in Chicago — Remenyi — His Far Wandering — 
Extravagances and Mannerisms — A Memorable Afternoon — Sudden 
Death — Vieuxtemps — Characteristics of his Style — Nilsson's 
Birthday and "The Arkansas Traveller" — Wieniawsky — Relations 
to Rubinstein — Gambling Losses — Wilhelm j — An Intellectual 
Flayer— Camilla Uno as Child and Wcmian — Her Last Days . . 57 



CHAPTER VII 

SoMB PiAinaTs 

Thalbeig as Man and Artist — His Sudden Disappearanoe — • 
Gottschalk — His Music and Style — An Afternoon with him — 
Rubinstein and the American Tour — Von BQlow and his Peculiarities 
— Jaell and the Drum — A Procession of Pianists — Wehli, the Left- 
hander, mm! tbs Greased Piano — S'Blind Tom" and his Feats — 
Carreno 73 



CKNiTENTB uc 

CHAFFER Vm 

8011B PsmA D0HNA8 

NibKtt — Qnafities of her Sbgmg — Her lioocb and Habits — 
Many Admiien — A Kemenble Birthday — Pauline Luooa and her 
Ronumtie Gareer — Etdka Gereter — A Brief and Brilliant Gareer — 
The Famooa Qenter-Patti Epiaode — Lagianse, Minnie Hauok, and 
Marie Rose — Another Famona Episode — Kellogg and Gary — 
Ckdennaand Gar Ventilation — Matema and Lehmann — Two Qreat 
Waganrflbgen — Tiehinann's Plea for the AnimalB 87 

CHAPTER IX 

MORB FOOTLIGHT FATORim 

Anne Biahop's Long Gareer — Fabbri and ^'The Star-Spangled 
Banner'' — Frenoiini's Vanity — Picoolomini, the Fascinating Im- 
postor — Her Farewell — Di Munka — Her Gadenias and Menagerie 
_ Emma Abbott's Gbueer — Albani, the f Ghambly Giri " — Bunneia- 
ter and Othen 112 

CHAPTER X 

Tenobs Ann BABBOa 

Thdr OomparatiTe Popularity — Brignoli, his Slyle and Voioe — 
fluperstiitiooa and Anecdotes — Gunpanini's Triumphs — Jealouqr 
of Gapoul — A Bout with Mapleson — Wachtel, the Gab-driver — 
(Hd-time Advertising Guriosities — Adams, best American Tenor — 
Amodio and Bellini in the "Liberty Duet" — Hennann's Interpola- 
tion — Formes in Gonoert and Opera — Myron D. Whitney's Ora- 
torio Triumphs 120 

CHAPTER XI 

EifoiiiBH Opbra 

The l^fne-Harrison Troupe — Garoline Riohiogs — Her Industiy 
and Various Ventures — The Old Quartette — Zelda, 8eguin, GasUe, 
and GampbeO — Henri Drayton -- The Soared Gat — Parepa — Her 
Ancestiy — Difficulties of Avoirdupois — Bouts with the Gleigy — 
Her Marriage — Madame Ruderwiorrs Tribute — The Bostonians — 
JesrieBartlettDavis — The "Pinafore" Fever 135 

CHAPTER Xn 

Opsra Boxjrwm 

First Perfoimaneea in CSuoago. — LambeM, Tostte, and Aim6e — 
Emily Soldene and the Galtons — Sddeno's Literary Ability — 



z OQNTERTB 

Ijdis ThompiOD and the f'Britiih Blondes'' — Her War wHh the 
New>{M4;wn — Her Aeiault upon an Editor — The TWblee turned — 
Offenbaeh'e ICusio 1A3 



CHAPTER XUI 

Bomb iMPBatAUoe 

Hablte of the Gla« — Bernard UllKian and hk Bad QuaiHki •--- 
Ifauiioe Strakosch and his Qood Qualities — Max Maretsek's Loqg 
Career — Jaeob Qrau and ICauiioe Grau — Gommeroialism m. Art — 
The only De Vivo — Philosophioal Max Strakoscb — Ool. James Honiy 
Mapleson S'of Her Majesty's" 169 



CHAPTER XIV 

TBBonoRB Thomas 

Eariy Visits to CSiioago — Our First Meeting — His Honesty df 
Charaeter — A Loyal Friend — His Broad Culture — Love of Con- 
viviality — Avennon to Sentimentalism — Three Disappctotments 

— Columbian Exposition — Qnoinnati College of Music — American 
Opera Company — Notable Sayings 180 

CHAPTER XV 

Musical FnsnTAiii 

Patrick Sarafield Qihnore — His Qualities as a Band Leader- 
Chicago Rebuilding Jubilee — National Peace Jubilee — Anvilsi Ar- 
tillery, and Church Bells — Parepa and Adelaide Phillips — Interna- 
tional Peace Jubilee — A Monster Aggregation — Musical Effect — 
International Bands — Johann Strauss and his Perw>nality — Plans 
Abt — Bendel and the Autograph Hunters ^- Madame RuderKlorf 

— Her Peculiarities and Will — Cincinnati Festivals — Chicago May 
Festivals 194 



CHAPTER XVI 
EIarIiT Days — a Pbbludb 

Mark Beaubien's Fiddle — Jean Baptiste's Piano — f'The Man 
of 0>lor'8 " Announcement — Mr. Bowen's Entertainment ^ The Old 
Settleri' Harmonic Society — Fint Oigan and Pint Church Choir 
Row — The First Theatre — Joseph Jefferson's Pint Appearance — 
The Old Ballads — Debut of Richard Hoffman » J. H. MeVioker in 
Song sod Dance — David Kennison's Donation Pftr^ — Misoellana- 
ous Concerts in 1850-1862 211 



CHAPTER XVn 

£4BI«T QPBBA m GmCAOO 

Tbt FInt Opeim— f'SoDBamtrak" at Bioe'a ThMtn — Buniinc 
of the Theatn •— The Artkto' AModation — Opera at MeVioker'B 
Theatre — The fint Italian Troupe — Gnat EnthuauMm — A Mia- 
hap at North's Amphitheatre -< Operatic Rivalry in 1860 — The 
War Period — The Qrau Traupee — Some Home Conoerto^The 
Fint Qeiman Troupe — Qrau'a Troupe of Mediocrities .... 236 

CHAPTER XVm 

Thb Crobbt Opbra Houaa 

Its CoDstniotion — A Hive of Art Industries — Dedication In 1866 
— An Ovation to Generals Grant and Sherman — Opera Seasons — 
Debuts and Fint Perforaianoes — The Lottery— The Mysterious 
Mr. Lee — U. H. Cresby loses the House — New Management — 
Gilmora Inaugurates the Clurity Balls — Period of Decad e n c e — 
From Opera to Vaudeville — Redeooration — Its Destruction in the 
Gnat Fin — Summary of Operatic Events 337 



CHAPTER XIX 
Thb OacBBmjL m Chicaoo 

Julius Dyhvenfurth's Story— Ibach's ''Sharp Comer ''—How the 
Fint Orehestra was oiganised — Various Philharmonio Societies — 
Qui Bergmann's Failun — The Flrrt Masquerade — Henry Aimer's 
Melancholy Fate — The Unger-Mosart Rivalry — Hans Balatka — 
The Philharmonic of the Sixties — Its Rise and Fall — The Philhar- 
monio Funeral — £ai|y Chamber Music — A Glimpse at the Sftnger- 
fests — Advent of the Thomas Orchestra 363 



CHAPTER XX 

MmUOAL SoCIBTIBi 

The Early Societies- The Musical Union and "The Haymaken" 
— The Mendelssohn Society — The Germania Minnerchor — Internal 
Dissensions — Rival Operatic Amateur Perfonuances — The Ger- 
mania QemQtlichkeit- Dyhrenfurth's Punches — Dietssch and his 
Coroner's Reports —The Concordia and Liederkrani — The Oratorio 
Society — A Victim of Fin — Winter Post-fin Entertainments — 
Orif^ of the Apollo Chib— A Remarkable Career — Cart Wolfsohn 
and the Beethoven Society S70 



zii OONTEliTB 

CHAPTER XXI 

WOHLP'8 FaIB ICUBIC 

The Worid's Fair ICusie— Its Inoeptum and Failim— What wm 
done and not done — The Foraee engaged — Mmie of the GIvfl War 

Period -- Dr. George F. Boot -- Hb £ai)y Gbueer --'' The Battle Cry 
of Freedom " — ^w it eame to be written — Bool ae a Gompoeer 
— The Auditorium — Home of Grand Opera — Its Dedication — 
Works performed in it — Milwaid Adame'a Kanagement — Hie 
Studebaker Theatre — Home of Opera in Engliah — Works Per- 
formed in it — Gharles C. Gurtim'e ICanagement 204 

CHAPTER XXII 
PoaTLUDB « 817 



Imsbx 823 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Paos 
Gxosos p. Uftom FfwUiipiece 

JSNMT LiND • • • • • S4 

HxmixiTB SoNTAO so 

Mabietta Alboni • • • • • 80 

Katx Haybs 80 

Anna Thellon 80 

Adsuna Patfi. Four Pofiraiis 86 

Amaua Path Straxosch • • . • 46 

Cablotta Patti 46 

Cakl Bxbgmann . . • • • 54 

Louis Antoine Julisn 66 

Olx Bull. Two PoriraUt 60 

AnouflT WiiASLifj 68 

SlGIBMUND ThALBEBO 74 

Chbistinb NiLsaoN 92 

Pauunk Luoca 92 

Etblsa Gebsteb 98 

Mabis Boze. Two PortraUi 100 

Minnie Hauck. T\do PofimUs 102 

Claba Louise Esllooo 106 

Annie Louise Cabt 108 

Anne Bisho? 112 

IfABinTA PlOCOLOMINI 114 



XIV HXUSTBATIOKS 

Pack 

luIA DI MiTBSKA • • • • • • • • 116 

P. BUGNOU ISS 

Tbeodoex Wachtbl U6 

Italo Campanini 1S6 

Mybok W. Whitnky 188 

Cakl Formss 182 

Casolinb Richings 188 

WiLUAM Castle 188 

Zblda Seguim 188 

S. a Camfbsll 188 

EupHBOBYNs Paeepa-Bosa 144 

Gael Rosa 144 

UufAE, Faestee, and St. Maue — ''The Three Little 

Maids from SchooP in ''The Mikado'' 148 

Mllb. Andbs 154 

Theodoee Thomas 18St 

JoHANN Steauss 904 

P. S. GiufOEB 204 

The Sauganash Taveen 212 

Ceobby's Opeea House, Chicago, in 1871 5288 

Thomas Whiffbn 246 

Hans Balatka • 262 

Adolph W. Dohn 274 

Cael Wolpsohn 290 

Geoegs F. Root 800 



MUSICAIi MEMORIES 



.• • 



••/•:.. 



■ * * 

• • ■ 
• • • ► 



MUSICAL MEMORIES 






CHAPTER I 

JENNY LIND 

ABBIVAL OF JKNNT USD IN NSW TOBK — HER FIRST CON- 
CERT — BARNUM'S methods of MANAQSMENT — THE 
JSNNT UND FEVER — HER ENTHUSIASTIC RECEPTION — 
POPULAR OVATIONS ANB EXTRAVAGANCES — THE CON- 
CBBT IN PROVIDENCE — STUDENT DELIRIUM — ROSS'S $650 
TICKET — JENNT LIND'S PERSONAL APPEARANCE ON THE 
STAGE — HER VOICE AND METHOD OF SINGING — THE 
NOBIUTT OF HER CHARACTER — TESTIMONY OF HER 
GREAT CONTEMPORARIES 

Ti MTT muacal memorieB reach back to Jenny land J 
jyj^mj dramatic memories to EUae Radiel~a 
span of more than fifty years. Becalluig those 
far-away days of youth, I count it exceptionally fortu- 
nate that I have heard and seen those two artists, as 
they have given me standards of appreciation and criti- 
cism. Making due allowance for the fact that J^my 
land was the first really great singer who came to 
this country, also for youthful enthusiasms, for the 
delirious effects of that extraordinary popular frenzy 
which everywhere characterized her reception, and for 
the enchantment which distance lends to the view, her 
singing still remains my ideal of the highest exposition 
of the art of song. 



. . . ' • 



18 iiusigaL memoeies 



«■ • • 



Jenny Lind .iMqi^ed in this country September 1, 
1850, oonvojiNsd. .by Phmeas T. Bamum. I have often 
wond^red^ (M^nflidering her rare simplicity and unoeten- 
tati(Hiy 'i| she did not suffer at times from the peculiarly 
bqixibitetic methods of management practised by that 
V^howman. Her first concert was given at Castle Gar- 
'.*. den, New York, September 11. Her supporting artists 
were Sir Julius Benedict, Richard Hoffman the pianist, 
who was engaged in New York for the American tour/ 
and Signer Beletti, barytone. Her numbers in the open- 
ing night's programme were the ^^ Casta Diva" from 
<< Norma " ; the ^^ Herdsman's Song/' popularly known 
as the <' Echo Song " ; and the ^^ Welcome to America/' 
the text of which was written by Bayard Taylor and 
the music hastily set by Benedict. She also sang with 
Beletti in the duet ''Per piacer alia Signora" from 
Rossini's ''II Turco in Italia/' and in a trio from 
Meyerbeer's "Camp in Silesia/' for voice and two 
flutes. 

I was a Freshman in Brown University when I 
caught the Jenny Lind fever. I heard her for the 
first time in Boston, but my recollections of that occa* 
sion are somewhat hazy, for the scenes attending the 
concert were quite as riotous as musical, owing to an 
oversale of tickets and the resultant rage of the crowd 
who could not get into the hall. But my recollections 

* The American tour included the following ctties, in the order named: 
New York, Boaton, Providence, Philade^hia, Bakimoie, Waahingtaa, 
Richmond, Charleston, Havana, ICatanias, New Orieans, Natchei, Mem- 
phis, St. Louis, Nashville, Louisville, Cincinnati, Wheeling, Pittsburg, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, and New York. Jenny Lind made a second tour 
after cancelling her contract with Bamum, giving six^-ooe concerts 
between June and December of 186L 



THE JENNY LIND FEVER 19 

of the sabBequent concert in IVovidence are as vivid as 
if it had taken place yesterday. The student body, and 
apparently the entire population of the city, were in- 
fected with the Jenny Lind fever. Thousands met her 
at the station^ crowded about her hotel, and lingered 
around the hall at night, hoping to hear a note now and 
then, or at least catch a glimpse of her after the con- 
cert. No other singer in the history of the stage has 
received such ovations. They can only be compared 
with the reception of Kossuth when he visited the 
United States as the champion of Hungarian liberty, 
and of (General Grant when he returned triumphant at 
the close of the Civil War. This Jenny Lind fever is 
worth dwelling upon, for it was unique. 

The fever began in Europe during her operatic 
career. Even Berlioz wrote to a friend at that time : 
'^ I fiball not go to London this season. The Lind fever 
makes all musical enterprises impossible.'^ . Bamum's 
keen eye recognized an opportunity for rich profits 
after she retired from the operatic stage. He sent 
his agents abroad and made a contract, engaging to 
give her a thousand dollars for each concert and her 
expenses, also the expenses of a lady companion, the 
services of a maid and servant, and a carriage and pair. 
Probably misled by the belief that Jenny Lind's art 
was above the comprehension of that day, he treated 
his new venture after the manner of a musical circus. 
He set afloat stories ahnost as remarkable as those 
which illustrated the astonishing careers of Joyce 
Heth, the Mermaid, and the Behemoth of Holy Writ, 
exaggerated her goodness and generosity, and flooded 



20 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

the newspapers with portraits, sketches, and letters. It 
was an mcongruous partnership, but genius maintained 
its dignity and truth as against the cunning tricks of 
the showman. 

As the steamer approached New York, the bay was 
alive with boats which had gone down to meet it. She 
was welcomed at the landing with the enthusiastic 
shouts of thousands and passed to her carriage under 
arches erected in her honor. Spirited white horses 
conveyed her to her hotel, followed by an enormous 
crowd. She was serenaded at midnight by singing 
societies and the city firemen, for in those days firemen 
were the spectacular feature of every public event. 
This was in the days when Chanfrau's ^^ Mose " used to 
delight us boys. On the following day she was visited 
by the leading officials and citizens. Public reception 
days were also appointed, and at such times the hotel 
was thronged with people of all classes. She literally 
absorbed ever3rth]ng. Maretzek, the impresario, once 
told me they were trying days for him. He was boom- 
ing Parodi, a really excellent prima donna, whose 
superb personation of ^^ Norma" still lingers in my mem- 
ory ; but resourceful and plucky as he was, he could not 
stand the pressure. Before the week was out the store 
windows were filled with Jenny Land bonnets, gloves, 
coats, hats, parasols, combs, jewelry, bric-a-brac, and 
fineries, and tradesmen sent their wares to her rooms, 
eager for an advertisement. Quacks used her name. 
She was besieged by autograph hunters and genteel 
beggars. The music stores published hundreds of 
songs, waltzes, and polkas named after her. Her 



POPULAR EXTRAVAGANCES 21 

portrait was in every shop window. The choice dishes 
of the hotel menus were ^^d la Jenny Lind." The Jenny 
Lind pancake, that choice German confection, survives 
even to^ay. Toung women dressed their hair in her 
style and tried to imitate her naturally graceful gait. 
Jenny lind tea-kettles were advertised by one dealer, 
^^ which, being filled with water and placed on the fire, 
commenced to sing in a few minutes." Provision dealers 
sold Jenny land sausages, and even ctxfSs and bar-rooms 
took her name. During that week's fever, however, 
one person is recorded as immune. He was a Bowery 
boy, and he is said to have replied to a friend who told 
him Jenny Lind was the greatest singer in the world : 
" I don't know about that." " Who is her equal ? " 
said his friend. " Who ? why, Mary Taylor. Our Mary 
would sing the clothes off her back." The fever lasted 
during the entire American tour. There was a trotting 
match in St. Louis, March 19, 1861, on the Prairie 
Horse Course, and the entries were Jenny Lind, Bamum, 
Benedict, and Beletti, Benedict winning the race. Jenny 
Lind never came to Chicago, as many suppose. * Chicago 
was not much of a city, musically or otherwise, in her 
time, but the following advertisement, which appeared 
in one of its papers, October 26, 1860, shows that the 
city had the symptoms of the fever. 

* Sfc. Louis WM the nearest to CSuosgo that Jenny Lind came on her 
fint tour. She sent, however, during the firat week of her season in New 
York, $1000 to the Swedish church of St. Ansgarius, then in process of 
erection in Chicago. During her second tour in 1851, she sang in Buffalo, 
CSeyeland, Columbus, and Cincinnati, and was to have sung also, I believe, 
in Detroit and Chicago. For some reason, however, she gave up her final 
ooooerts and returned East. 



22 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

^JU8T ASBIVXD 

^ At 168 Lake Streeti a beautiful lot of Jenny Lind long 
and squaie ahawlB, extra fine qualitjr and neat and elegant 
fltylee, such as adorn the graoefol form of that nniTconl 
charmer, the Swediah Nightingale, whoee inimitahle warblings 
and acts of noble benevolmce are now the admiration of the 
worUL Aleo Jenny Lind drees goods, etc., at onr one-price 
cash store. 

Of course we had the fever in Providence. Every one 
had it — men^ women, and children, — and the students 
had it worse than the rest. They even forgot to go 
down to the Arcade just to see Gertude Dawes, the 
graceful danseuBe, walk and teach the ladies of Provi- 
dence how to wear a shawl. They even neglected those 
infant phenomena, the Bateman children, and declined 
to see Gteorge Vandenhoff and Mrs. Forrest in the *^ Lady 
of Lyons.'' Alma Mater threw up her ancient hands in 
despair and let her children have their way. The fever 
was intensified by local pride, for had not Ross, the 
expressman, friend of all students, paid the highest 
price for choice of seats, higher even than Qenin in 
New York and Dodge in Boston, although of course 
he did not attend the concert.* He never did anything 
like other people. His eccentricities would fill a vol- 
ume. My room-mate, a wild Hoosier, who knew no more 
about music than a hen, had a most violent attack of 
the fever. He invested all his scanty pocket money in 

* Tbe Tsrioot pfemiiiiiM pM. for fiist ehoioe durii^ the tour mm as 
foHcms: N««r Yodc, 1226; Bortoii,l626; Proridenoe, t060; PhilsHfilphia, 
9626; Battimora, $100; New OileuiB, $240; St. Louii, $160; NaahTiUe, 
$200; Lmnmlle, $100; and Gndnnati, $676. 



HER PERSONAL APPEARANCES ON THE STAGE 23 

hairs supplied by one of the hotel chambermaidsi who 
declared she took them from Jemiy land's brush* He 
paid a tidy sum for these souvemrs of the divinity and 
brought them back exultantly. He reluctantly allowed 
me to have one or two^ and I kept them as precious 
lelicsy until it was ascertained lat» that this thrifty 
commercial maid had been doing a lucrative business 
disposing of her own and others' hairs. I have known 
of other sach transactions in artistic hair, which will 
appear later in these recollections. 

At last the eventful night came — October 7, 1860, — 
a redrletter date in memory. The usually staid city was 
in a state of delirium^ whidi astonished those conserva- 
tive old families — the Iveses, Browns, Ooddards, and 
Hoppins. I can see it all now — the crowds, the 
enthusiasm, the great audience inside, and the vastly 
greater crowd outside wishing it were inside. I see 
Jenny Lmd gliding down the stage with consummate 
grace, — she never seemed to walk, — amid theacdamar 
tions of the audience ; a girlish figure of medium height, 
with fair hair and blue eyes, gowned in velvet, and 
wearing a single rose in her hair. She was plain of 
feature, and yet her face was expressive and in a sense 
fascinating. It was a wholesome face. She may not 
have been beautiful, judged by the conventional beauty 
tests ; but if not extremely good-looking, she '^ looked 
good^" as some one has said« And that goodness drew 
every one to her, and die was '^ Jenny '' with every one, 
— not Signora Lind, or Mademoiselle Lind, or Miss LLod^ 
bat Jenny liod, as we say Amue Cary or Ulli Leh- 
mium. Her voice, as I remember it, was of full volume 



TESTIMONY OF HEB GREAT CX)NTEMFORARI£S 25 

thdr hearts across a generatioiii and their hearts still 
rise at the mention of her name^ as the Garde du Boi 
sprang up cheering to their feet when the Queen ap- 
peared.'* I was one of those youths, and I have borne 
her in my heart and memory across two generations 
and she remains for me still the one peerless singer I 
have heard on the concert stage. 

What did some of the great ones think of Jenny Lind 
in her own day ? Chopin said : ^* She does not show 
herself in the ordinary light, but in the magic rays of 
the aurora borealis. Her singing is infallibly pure and 
true and has an indescribable charm/' Lablache said 
to Queen Victoria : '^ I caxt say I have never heard any- 
thing like her singing/' and to Orisi, '^ Every note was 
a pearV a remark which Grisi may not have relished. 
Clara Schumann said : ^* What a great, heaven-inspired 
being she is ! What a pure, true artist soul ! Her songs 
wiU ever sound in my heart." And Mendelssohn said : 
<< She is as great an artist as ever lived and the greatest 
I have known." 

Surely these should know. 



CHAFTSB n 

SONTAG, ALBONI, THILLON, HAYES 

A FLIOHT OF 80N0BIRD6 — HENBIETTB SOMTAO — REB IHJUXB^ 
OtJB ADMIRERS --r THE ROMANCE OP HER CAREER — MAR> 
RIAGE TO COUNT R068I — HER PERSONAL APPEARANCE — 
HER VOICE AND STYLE OP SINOINQ — TROUBLES IN HER 
LAST DATS — SUDDEN DEATH IN MEXICO — CRUEL REPORTS 
or A SCANDAL — SONTAG'S RIYAL, ALB0NI» THE GREAT CON- 
TRALTO — HSR PINISHED 8INGINO — ANNA THILLON — 
GREAT SUCCESS IN *' CROWN DIAMONDS*' — HER BEAUTT 
AND MAGNETISM — ''KATE'' HATES — THE VICTIM OP 
SPECULATORS — HER SUCCESS IN BALLADS 

REPORTS from the United States must bAVB in- 
duced the belief among European songbirds that 
Jenny Ltnd had discovered an inexhaustible mu- 
sical and golden bonanza, for they began flocking over 
here before her second tour was concluded. Among 
them were four whom it was my good fortune to hear, 
— Henriette Sontag (Countess Bossi), Ifarietta Alboni 
(Countess Pepoli), and untitled Anna Thillon and 
Catherine Hayes. They did not all have Jenny Lind's 
good fortune, however, and two of them were bitterly 
disappointed, as will appear. They only gleaned after 
her abundant reaping. 

Of these four, Sontag attracted most attention and 
admiration, though Alboni was a better musician and 
a more finished singer. Sontag's success was due in part 



SONTAQ'S MABRIAOE TO OOUNT R0B8I 27 

to her beauty and engaging manners. About the time 
she came to this country (1862) Von Btilow aptly called 
her ^ a forty-eight year old aoubrette/' She had a rep- 
utation indeed as a fascinator long before her American 
tour. Goethe in his seventy-^hth year^ after meeting 
her in Paris^ said : ^' She must needs remain a sweety 
agreeable enjoyment/' and Goethe was a judge of the 
wAg wdbUehe. He expressed no opinion of her sing- 
ings possibly because music generally confused him. 
Apparently he knew little of the technic of the art 
beyond what Bettina von Amim told him. Rossini, 
Gherubiniy Boieldieu, Auber, De Beriot, and Walter 
Scott were among her devoted admirers. She was litr 
erally pursued by some, among them Lord Clanwilliamy 
British Ambassador at Berlin, who was so persistent in 
his unwelcome attentions that he was called ^'Lord 
Montag following Sontag." Her success was also due 
in part to the romantic events in her career. Berlios, 
Weber, Lisst^ and Beethoven were among her friends 
and advisers. Liszt, who was always gallant, called 
her ^ the Thalberg of Song," and Berlios rather neatly 
discriminated when he said, ^' She was first in her class, 
but the class was not the first.'' At the very zenith of 
her career, while enjoying the plaudits of the multitude, 
the friendship of great musicians, and the adulation of 
titled and untitled admirers, Sontag attracted the atten- 
tion of Count Rossi, an Italian diplomat, who wooed 
her with such ardor that they were speedily married. 
They went immediately to The Hague, where he was 
representing iSardinia. The King of Prussia granted 
her the patent of nobility, whereupon she retired from 



28 MU8ICAL MEMORIES 

the 'stage. After a quiet life of eighteen yean together, 
reverses overtook them. She lost her fortune and de- 
cided to return to the stage, and Count Bossi resigned 
his position so that he might be at liberty to aooompany 
her. As it eventuated, he might better have remained 
at home and permitted her to be wage-earner under 
some competent manager. 

They came to this country in 1852, bringing with 
them Pozzolini, tenor, and Badiali, barytone. The 
stories of her great success abroad, of her remarkable 
beauty, and of the romance of her career, had preceded 
her and aroused much interest. Her reception was 
cordial, but there was no ''fever,'' as in the case of 
Jenny Lind. As I remember Sontag, she was a blonde, 
somewhat slight of figure, with large, bright blue eyes 
and hair inclining towards auburn in color. I am 
quite sure I am right about this, as I have a little lock 
of her hair which came from Germany in a letter writ- 
ten by Sontag to a friend — I think I am justified in the 
belief that it did not come from any chambermaid's hair- 
brush. As she was very pretty and her toilettes were 
elegant, she of course became the fashionable rage and 
was guest of honor at innumerable society functions. 
Her carriage was exceedingly graceful and her manner 
on the stage sprightly, coquettish, and fasaiTiating. Von 
Biilow was right when he called her '' a f orty-^ight year 
old soubrette." She was about that age when I saw 
her, and her elegance of manner and personal charms 
are still vivid in my recollection. In these respects she 
was ihe Sembrich of her day. Her voice was an ex- 
quisitely pure high soprano, wiUi a mezzo piano in it 



SUDDEN DEATH IN MEXICO 29 

which Nilason afterwards used so efEectively. Her exe- 
cation was graceful and refined^ and her style must have 
lent itself best to roles requiring coquetry and archness^ 
like Martha^ Bosina, or Amina. 

Poor Sontag's &te was a sorrowful one. Prkna 
donnas* husbands are notorious mischief-makers and 
intermeddlers, if not hoodoos, for their wivesy and im- 
presarios always dread them. The bonanza in her case 
proved to be rich in troubles, ^e had to contend in 
the first place against Alboni, greatest of contraltos, 
and, beautiful and fascinating as she was, she could not 
make headway against her. Count Bossi kept her in 
litigations, so irascible was he, as well as ignorant of 
stage matters. Yielding to his importunities and dis- 
r^^iding the advice of friends, they went to Mexico 
at a time when the cholera was epidemic tiiere. After 
a performance of ^^Lucrezia Borgia,*' she suddenly 
caught the disease and died in a few hours.* Six otiiers 
of her troupe, among them Pozzolini, her tenor, were 
also victims. I well remember the excitement which 
was caused when the first report came that Count Bossi, 
furious at a scandal which concerned his wife and Pos- 
zolini, had poisoned them both. Perhaps the report, in 
some indirect manner, may have grown out of the Bor- 
gia poisoning scene in the opera. Beports of many 
apparently startling events have had as absurd a foun- 
dation. In time, however, it was well established that 
she had died of cholera. She now rests in peace iu the 
convent cemetery of St. Marienthal, near Dresden, by 
the side of her loved sister, who was a nun there, 

^ Jima 17, 1864. 



k 



so MUSICAL MEMORIES 

seduded from the world in which the CSountees had had 
such a brilliant career* 

Sontag^s dangerous rival was Marietta Alboni^ the 
greatest contralto of her time, and indeed of her century. 
She had also been a rival of Jenny Lind in London 
before the latter abandoned the operatic stage. She 
was the greatest of contraltos in a double sense^ for 
besides being a most finished singer^ with a glorious 
Toice, she was blessed with a most generous degree 
of corpulency^ which, however, did not detract from 
her singing or prejudice her admirers against her. 
I remember her even more distinctly than Sontag, for 
it is impossible to foi^ either her proportions or her 
voice. She could not be called handsome, like Sontag, 
nor could she glide gracefuUy over the stage, like J^my 
land, and yet her face wore a genial and good-naturedly 
attractive expression, and she carried herself with a cer- 
tain dignity and high-bred manner that soon made you 
forget her embonpoint. Her voice was full, rich, and 
son<MrouSy of extraordinary range, and, for so big a voice, 
of unusual flexibility. Moreover she was musical, — a 
quality not always found in great singers. That is, she 
sang with gieai feeling, with an intellectual comprehen- 
sion, as evinced by her interpretation of sentiment and 
idea, with absolute accuracy, with pure, clear enuncia- 
tion, and with instrumental facility and finish, much 
in the style Madame Schumann-Hdnk sings to^y. 
Sontag charmed every one ; Alboni specially charmed 
musical people. 

And next came Anna Thillon, an English girl, whose 
maiden name was Hunt, and who married Monsieur 




Henriette Sontaq Kate Hayes 

Mambtta Alboni Anna Thillon 



ANNA THILLON 81 

Thilloiiy her French muaio^teacher, I wonder if there 
are any of the old fellows left, who have presumed to 
live beyond the Osier limit, who heard Thillon when I 
did in the early fifties, and who were carried o£E their 
feet, as I was, when I heard her in ^^ Crown Diamonds,'' 
which Auber wrote for her. I wonder if they remember 
how forioasly they applauded when Catarina sang that 
brayora aria, '^ Love I at once I break thy fetters,'* or the 
cavatina, ^^ Love dwelleth with me," and how they fan- 
cied she was looking at and singing to them only. I 
wonder if they still recall ihe lustre of her hair and its 
ravislung curls (there were no colossal pompadours then), 
the flash of her eyes, and the elegance of her figure. If 
there are any of them left, be sure they will rise again 
at the sound of her name and declare to a man there 
never was such a fascinator on the stage. She was by 
no means a great singer compared with those of whom 
I have been writing. Indeed, they say she could not 
b^in to sing the role of Catarina as well as Louise 
Pyne, who really first made the success of ^ Crown 
Diamonds." And yet she was one who cannot be for- 
gotten. Though English, she was a beauty of the Span- 
ish type. She had a rich olive-hued skin, glorious black 
hair, and dark lustrous eyes, which languished sensuously 
and flashed wickedly. She was one to rave over because 
of her personal grace and fascinating eyes ; and all golden 
youths, and some youths who were not golden, conse- 
quently raved. There may be some of these youths slill 
left, with gray or whitening polls, who as they recall her 
will echo Villon's plaint, '^ Where are the snows of yester 
year ? " and wonder if there are such divinities now. 



32 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

The last of the four flongbirda is poor Catherine or 
^* E[ate '* HayeB« There was no bonanza for her. She 
wai mistreated, mismanaged, and duped. She was an 
Irish girl, and when she left for this country her ad- 
mirers thronged the quay and Thackeray bade her good- 
bye in some graceful words. She was the victim of 
speculators, who foolishly tried to boom her after the 
Bamum style, but without Bamum's judgment and 
knowledge of human nature. Because Bamum called 
Jenny lind '^ the Swedish Nightingale," they advertised 
''Kate'* Hayee as ^the Swan of Erin." They set all 
manner of silly stories afloat about her and extravar 
gantly advertised hw virtues, goodness, and benevolence, 
as Bamum had done for Jenny Lind. But it was of 
no avaiL As her concerts were not profitable, she re- 
mained but a short time in the East, and then went to 
San Francisco, where the people had not been surfeited 
witii music, as it was too far off for singers and too 
expensive to get there. So she had a few months of 
success and then went back to Europe. ^^ Kate ** Hayes 
had an ethereal kind of beauty and a very pleasant 
voice, and while she had not achieved much success as 
an operatic singer, few in her day could sing songs and 
ballads more delightfully. It was a rare treat to hear 
her sing Tom Moore's lyrics. She deserved a better 
&te. It was a brilliant galaxy, these five artists of the 
fifties whom I have recalled, but I am not through with 
that period yet. I came to Chicago in the early fifties 
and met a little singer first entering her teens, whose 
name is writ large in the operatic history of this 
country. 



CHAPTER III 

ADEUNA PATn 

PATTl'S PAIOLT — HKB CABESB — CONCSBTIZINO WITH OLE BULL 

— TBOB CONTRACT WITH IfAPLEBON — CONCEBTB IN THS 
FimBS — HKB FIB8T CONCKBT IN CHICAGO — HKB LOVX 
or I>0LL8 — CHABACTBBISTIG8 OF THX CHILD PBDIA DONNA 

— THS IfAPLBSON - ABBEY COlfPSnnON — THX PATH 
MABBIAGES — HEB SUCCESS AS A VOCALIST — THX PABE- 
WELL HABIT — AT THX AUDITOBIUM DEDICATION 

▲ DELINA PATTI has recently retired from the 
/A stage and is now living in the enjoyment of 
an ample fortune, for, unlike many of the 
prima donnas of her time, she has provided for ihe 
rainy days. Her career has been exceptionally long; 
her stage life a continuous triumph. In a remote way 
she can be affiliated with Jenny Lind, for though but 
a mere child when she heard the great Swedish singer, 
she imitated her manner of singing so closely that her 
parents at once put her under musical instructora It 
seems but yesterday that she was in her prime, and yet 
she was a public singer fifty-five years ago. So, witii 
apologies for even suggesting a lady's age, I must assign 
her to the period of the fifties, — a young contemporaiy 
of Jenny land, Sontag, and AlbonL 

I must say a little about her family, iot its history 
throws some light upon her musical environment and 
heredity. There was not an impulse, an influence, or a 
purpose in her early life which was not musical These 

8 



34 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

are the facts as told to me years ago by Maurice Stra- 
kosch^ her brother-in-law. Her mother was Oatanna 
Chiesa, a prima domia, who married Barili, her teacher. 
After his death she married Salvatore Patti^ and as 
Catarina Barili-Patti she sang in this country with con* 
siderable success. The mother must have been a more 
dramatic singer than Adelina^ for Norma was her best 
role. 

Adelina's brothers and sisters were — Antonio^ Ni- 
colo^ Ettore, Clotilde^ Carlos^ Amalia, and Carlotta. 
Antonio, the eldest, bom in Rome, was both composer 
and director, and ended his days in New York as a 
teacher. Nicolo was a basso of considerable reputation. 
Ettore was a barytone, and became a teacher after his 
„tir«n»t faJLe .;.g.. He ...g witt Ade.u» in 
Chicago as early as 1855, and again in 1859 in opera, 
when he appeared in ^' Rigoletto.'' Clotilde made her 
operatic debut at nineteen. She was a creature ^^of 
fire and dew," and so enraged aristocratic old Colonel 
Thome of New York by marrying his son, that the 
young pair fled from his wrath to Pera. Little was 
heard of them afterwards, except that the husband died 
at sea and Clotilde followed him a few years later at 
Matanzas, Cuba. I will speak of Amalia, Carlotta, and 
Carlos in the next chapter, from personal acquaintance. 

I must say a few words also about Adelina's career 
before I record any impressions of her. She was bom 
in Madrid, of a Sicilian father and a Boman mother, 
and never had a real home until in her later years she 
reached that castle, so strongly fortified with conso- 
pants, — Craig y nos, Ystradgynlais, Breconshire, South 



ADELINA PATTI'S CABEER 35 

Wales. She k literally oosmopoUtan and a child of the 
theatre. Maurice Strakosch used to insist that she was 
bom in 1842, but she herself has always declared Feb- 
ruary 19, 1843, to be the date of her birth. Her 
mother, while playing the title role of Norma in 
Madrid, was taken ill as the curtam rose on the last 
act. The next morning Adelina's little feet awaited the 
road that was to lead her to fame and fortune. Her 
parents brought her to the United States in 1846, and 
a year or two later they were identified with opera in 
New York, under the management of Maretzek, who was 
just begiiming to experience the many ups and downs 
of Ids checkered career. Adelina's first public appear- 
ance was at a charity concert in 1851. Though she 
was only in her eighth year, she had skill enough to 
sing the '^ Ah ! non giunge *' from ^^ Sonnambula,'* and 
the courage also to sing the '^ Echo Song," which Jenny 
land was then making so popular. Two years later 
die went West and sang in Chicago. She was in the 
same city in 1855, concertizing with Paul Julien, the 
violinist In 1856 she made a concert tour with Mau- 
rice Strakosch. During the tour she met Ole Bull in 
Baltimore, and Strakosch induced him to join the conk- 
pany, which also included Morini, barytone ; Schreiber, 
cometist; and Both, pianist. She afterwards made a 
short tour with Grottschalk, the pianist. On November 
24, 1859, she made her operatic debut in New York in 
the title role of Lucia. Ulmann, the impresario, at 
first objected to her taking a leading role, because she 
was so young and childish in figure, but at last he gave 
his consent, and he never regretted it, for he found that 



36 MUSICAL MEMORIES 



this girl of sixteen had an exceptionally beautiful yoioey 
a brilliancy of execution equal to that of the older art- 
istS) and that she was conversant with the leading roles 
in " Sonnambula," « The Barber of Seville," " Traviata," 
^^ Martha," and a doasen more operas. Her knowledge 
of languages was a great help to her at that time. As 
she was destined for the stage, even in her infant days, 
her parents gave special attention not only to her musi- 
cal, but also to her linguistic, training. She could speak 
French, Italian, and English fluently, and later she ac- 
quired German and Spanish. In 1860 she made another 
western tour with her sister Amalia, Brignoli, the tenor, 
and the bassos, Ferri and Junca. In 1861 she went to 
London and made her English debut. The metropolis 
was wild over her. Then followed a series of triumphs 
in Brussels, Berlin (where she sang in the same company 
with Lucca), Amsterdam, The Hague, Paris, and Vienna. 
In 1860 she was under engagement to Mapleson, senior, 
and the Colonel once showed me a copy of the contract. 
As I remember it, it provided fhat she should not sing 
on days of travel or sickness ; that she should sing two 
or three times a week, as she chose; that she might 
select the operas in which she appeared ; and that her 
remuneration should be $2500 a night, besides the 
travelling expenses of herself, her husband, and four 
other persons. This was liberal pay when it is consid- 
ered that about this time Nilsson was paid $1000 for 
each performance, with certain allowances, and that 
Jenny Lind's first contract with Bamum called for 
only $1000 and expenses. But Patti, it is reported, 
has been paid as high as $5000 a night since those 




Ad ELI N A Patti 



ADELINA PATrra CAREER 87 

dayB.* With her cmmt nnoe 1869 my readen ue 
raffidently acquainted. 

Ab will be seen by these brief statements of famify 
history and of her own career^ Adelina Patti was bom 
in music and has lived in a musical atmosphere all her 
life — and this means everything to a singer. She was 
xm the stage continuously from her eighth year to that 
of her retirement. She was taken to the theatre when- 
ever her mother sang, and the details of the stage were 
firmly impressed upon her young mind. Sometimes its 
proprieties were impressed upon her in other ways. Upon 
one occasion, when her mother was singing in ^' Norma/' 
Adelina went to the rehearsal, as she was to be one of 
the children. Not content with her voiceless role, she 
persisted in singing her mother's part, whereupon she 
was soundly spanked before the company and the or- 
chestra. I first heard her in the early fifties at the 
Tremont House, Chicago, where she sang in a dining- 
room concert. She was singing bravura arias with the 
utmost ease and facility at an age when most children 
are contented with '^ Twinkle, twinkle, little star." As 
I recall her, I see a somewhat ddicate, pale-faced, 
dark-browed child, with thick glossy black hair hanging 
in two long braids down her back, dressed in rose- 
colored silk, pink stockings, and pantalettes. She is 
perfectly at ease and glances around confidently, with a 
mischievous smile lurking about her mouth, but reserv- 
ing her special radiance for rows of young girls in the 

* These are the prioee nid to be paid to eeveral leadiiig artieto at the 
pneeiit tme: Melba, $9000; Oaniao, $9000; Noidioa, $2000; Schii- 
maim-Heiiik, $1800; Framstad, $1800; Sembrioh, $1600; Eamea, $1600; 
Oaddd, $1200; IlaiigoD, $1200. 



88 HUSIGAL MEMORIES 



front chain, with some of whom she has made a hotel 
acquaintance. Upon thiB occasion she followed up the 
execution of a brilliant aria witii a request most uncon- 
yentionally made to her friend Nellie, who seemed to be 
the favorite in the little diva's dominion, to come to her 
room when the concert was over and get acquainted 
with the sweetest doll in the world. At that time she 
doted upon children, dolls, candy, and birds. She could 
be induced to sing any time by the promise of a box of 
candy or a bird in a cage. She was an imperious little 
creature also. She hated encores as bitterly as Theodore 
Thomas did. When they were called for, she would re* 
fuse to give them. The insistence of the audience at 
last would exasperate her, and she would shake her 
head vigorously. Thereupon the amused audience would 
redouble its efforts, only ceasing when she began to 
manifest anger by stamping her little foot It was a 
gala season in Chicago when ^' Signora Adelina Patti " 
was advertised to appear with Ole Bull at Tremont 
Music HalL Ole himself was comparatively young in 
those days, but he looked ancient by the side of the as- 
sisting prima donna in her short skirts. It was at this 
period, by the way, that he began his dangerous practice 
of farewelling. It rapidly grew into a habit, and at 
last he could not shake it off. He gave plain farewells, 
" grand " farewells, " last " farewells, " absolutely last " 
farewells, and '^ positively last " farewells all the rest of 
his life, and blithely reappeared in Chicago almost every 
year during the next quarter of a century. Perhaps it 
was not his fault He may have had a retiring disposi- 
tion. It was unfortunate, however, because Adelina 



CONGERTIZINa WITH OLE BULL 89 

caught the infection and gave us many farewells, pa- 
thetic and lovely, closing each with ^^Home, Sweet 
Home " ; but she was always forgiven, for who could sing 
^^ Sweet Home ** like her ? In these concerts Ole Bull 
made us acquainted with ^^The Mother's Prayer/' Paga- 
nini's '' Witch Dance/' and « The Carnival of Venice/' 
and threw audiences into spasms of patriotic enthusiasm 
with variations on national airs. And what was the 
chfld who should have been singing children's songs at 
her age doing 7 She was executing ^* 0, Luce di quest' 
anima " from ^^ Linda/' '^ Ah 1 non giunge " from ^^ Son- 
nambula," '' Ah 1 f ors e lui " from '' Traviata," and the 
bravura arias, with <^C!oming through the Rye" and 
Jenny Lind's ^' Echo Song " thrown in for good weight. 
And how the youngster sang them! And how those 
men and women, most of whom are now under the 
daisies, applauded ! It was a young city then, had n't 
heard much fine music, and took to the young singer. 
There was not much temperament, not much feeling or 
thrill to her singing, but who could resist the spell of her 
ease and facility of execution, the deamess and purity of 
her tones, and her absolute musical self-possession, — in 
a word, the perfect mechanism which nature had put in 
her throat, even if there was not much soul behind it 7 
I believe the chfld knew she was to be one of the great- 
est vocalists of all time and needed no one's assurance 
to that effect. Three or four years after this period, on 
the eve of her operatic debut in New York, some one asked 
her if she did not dread it. She looked up in the most 
unconcerned manner and replied that she did not dread 
it at all. She had always known she must make a 



40 MUSICAL MiaiORIES 

debuty and she might as well make it then as any time. 
She anticipated it with joy^ for she knew she would 
sncoeed — and she did. 

Adelina Fatti's most remarkable appearanoes in 
Chicago were in the eighties. In 1884 she headed 
Colonel Mapleson's troupe, which also comprised 
Gerster, Fappenheim, Vicmo^ Oalassi, Perugini, and 
her husband^ Nioolini.* Chicago has not had such a 
feast of operatic music since. It was the year of the 
famous competition between Abbey and Mapleson. The 
pompous but optimistic old Colonel had out-manoeuTred 
Abbey by getting Patti, who really wished to go with 
the latter; but on the other hand, Abbey had Nilsson^ 
Sembrich (her first appearance in Chicago), Fursch- 
Madi, VaUeria, Scalchi, Campanini, Trebelli, Capoul, 
and Del Puente. These two companies were housed 
under the same roof, and for a wonder were a happy 
family, for Mapleson and Abbey monopolized all the 



* Adelina F^tti has been married three times. In 1808 she mm b^ 
trothed to Henri de Loasy, Baron de Ville, a minor like herself, but it is 
said that the match was broken up by her father and Maurice Strakosch, her 
brother-in-law. She was married in 1868 to the Marquis de Oaux, "officer 
of ordnance to the Emperor, and aide-de-camp of the Empress as director 
of court cotillons." The banns were very stately: "M. Louis Sebastian 
Henri de Roger de Cahusac, Marquis de Oauz, fils du Comte et de Demoi« 
selle Huguet de Vanuoge, actuellement fenmie du Due de Velney, et BfUe. 
Ad^le Jeanne Marie Patti, propri^taire, fille de M. Salvatore Patti et de 
Catherine Bhina, rentiers." Th^ were divorced in 1877, Patti averring 
that the Marquis was violently and ridiculously jealous, that he abused 
her and struck her, and insulted her by <tffeen telling her that he cursed 
the day when he married a strolling actress, and the Marquis averring 
that in his marriage he was actuated by tender affection, and that she 
gradually grew cold and irritable, disregarded her duties, and fived away 
from him. In 1886 she married Nicolini (stage name for Ernest Nicholas), 
the tenor, with whom die Hved happily. After his death, a few years 
later, she married her present husband. Baron Rolf Oedarstrom (1899). 



THE MAFLE80N-ABBBY OOMPETITION 41 

hostility. To add to the attnotioiui of that memorable 
neuoBj Henry Irving and Ellen Terry were playing an 
engagement. It was an embarrawinent of entertain- 
ment. Adelina Patti appeared again at the brilliant 
Opera Festival in the old Exposition Building in 1886, 
and again at the dedication of the Auditorium in 1880. 
She retained her girlish personal charm in opera, and 
added to it a certain dignity and refinement and ap- 
parently absolute self-possession. She walked the 
stage as one ^'to the manner bonu'^ This, however^ 
must have been something of an effort, for she once told 
me that it made her nervous to see her name on a pro- 
gramme, and that when she came out on the stage and 
faced an audience she had a feeling of fear. She ap- 
parently knew the secret of perpetual youth, for to the 
very last of her stage appearances she seemed to be 
the Patti of the olden days, fresh, young, and charming. 
When she was sixty-four, she told a friend that up to 
the time she was forty she ate and drank what die 
pleased, but after that followed a stricter regime, never 
touching liqueurs or spirits, but limiting herself to white 
wine diluted with soda, eschewing heavy food, and 
sleeping with open windows but avoiding draughts. In 
this way she had preserved her youthful appearance. 
She had preserved her voice so long by her perfect 
Italian method and avoidance of exposure, and by 
never forcing it. 

Considered purely as a vocalist, Adelina F^tti was 
the most consummate and brilliant singer of her time. 
In roles requiring grace, elegance, and ornate vocaliza- 
tion she was unrivalled. Her voice kept youthfully 



42 ICUSIOAL MiaiORIES 

fresh, and her command of it, even to the most delicate 
shading, was absolute. In runs and staccato passages 
who could surpass her? Every phrase, every trill, 
however long, was delivered with the facility and per- 
fection of an instrument. As to her characters, I 
always liked her Zerlina in *^ Don Giovanni,'' for its 
spontaneousness'; her Rosina in ^^The Barber of Seville," 
for astonishing technic; and Violetta in ^^ La Traviata,'' 
best of all, for its display of all the Patti qualities. 
She never sang m the Wagner operas, but at one tune 
she wanted to sing Elsa in '^Lohengrin." It is said that 
the Marquis de Caux, her husband, who disliked Wag- 
ner, would not let her. She also said once that Wagner 
wrote the part of Kundry in ^^ Parsifal'' for her, but 
she declined to sing it, as it did not suit her voice and 
called for ^^ too much screeching." It is likely that she 
found all the Wagner roles unsuited to her voice. It is 
fortunate that she did not undertake them. I think 
Theodore Thomas summed up Patti when he said in his 
terse way : ^^ Patti's voice was of delicate quality and 
great charm, easy in delivery, and true, like the song of 
a bird — but it expressed no more soul than the singing 
of a bird." 

Patti, as I have already said, bade us many sweet 
and tuneful farewells. The first one was in 1856, she 
being at that time twelve years of age. Upon that oc- 
casion she bade ^^ farewell to America " at Metropolitan 
Hall in Chicago, and was assisted in the parting by 
Paul Julien, the violinist, and her brother Ettore. In 
that concert she sang a waltz song, written by herself 
and dedicated to 'Hhe ladies of America." I think it 



THE FAREWELL HABIT 43 

was called ^^ Fior di primavera." Its life, however, was 
very briel Then she bade us another graceful and 
touching good-bye in 1882, when she sang in concert 
in Chicago with Nicolini, who sometimes accidentally 
sang a note or two in tune. The last farewell which 
I att^ided was at the dedication of the Auditorium in 
1889. At that time, in her fortynsixth year, she dis- 
played the same ease of manner, the same fine method 
of vocalization which had so long characteriased her, but 
there were clearly apparent the necessity of husbanding 
her resources and of greater care in singing, a lack of 
the old strength in the high notes, and a suspicion of 
wavering intonation. I heard her at that time in 
Gounod's ''Romeo and Juliet." The waltz arietta 
failed of an encore, but Fabbri in the '' Page's Song " 
carried off one. That told the story. Five or six years 
ago Patti was announcing another last, final, tmunder- 
ruflioh dUerletzte farewell in Germany. Last year I 
read that Patti made a final appearance at Belfast, 
and the good-bye song was ''Home! Sweet Home." 
How she used to sing that simple old melody! And 
" II Bado " and the " Venzano " and the " Echo Song " 
and " Robin Adair " ! She amply fulfilled the prediction 
of Jenny Lind and Alboni that she would become a 
great artist. She has delighted thousands with her art, 
and she now rests upon her laurels, well and honorably 
earned. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE PATTIS AND PARODI 

CABLQTTA TATTl — DEDICATION OV THE CBNTaAL IfUBIC HALL 
IN CmCAGO '— A COlfPABIflON WITH ADKUNA PATTI — 
HER LAMENESS — NATUBAL SENSTITVENESS — A SINGULAB 
COMBINATION OT QUALITIES — HER MUSICAL CAREER — 
AMAUA PATn — HOW SHE WAS OVERSHADOWED — CARLOS 
PATTI — HIS ADVENTUROUS AND MELANCHOLY CAREER — 
PARODI — WHT SHE CAME TO THE UNITED STATES — HER 
QUALITIES AS A SINGER 

OABLOTTA PATTI should not be forgotten in 
Chicago. Adelina, her sister^ dedicated the Audi- 
torium, but Carlotta, on the evening of Deoem- 
ber 8, 1879, dedicated the Central Music Hall. The 
latter has now been demolished to make room for the 
spread of trade, but its associations, even more pleasant 
than those of the Auditorium, will always be cherished 
by its old patrons, and its history marks one of the most 
interesting chapters in the local musical records. Upon 
the above mentioned evening Carlotta Patti had the 
assistance of Eelten, pianist; Toedt^ tenor; Ciampi- 
Cellag, barytone, and Ernest de Munck, 'cellist. I think 
she was the wife of the latter musician at that time. 
She made her Chicago debut in 1869 at a concert with 
Bitter, pianist; Henry Squires, tenor; Frame, an ele- 
gant violinist; and Hermanns, the ponderous-voiced 
basso, who subsequently made a notable reputation 



CARLOTTA PATTI OOMPABED WITH ADELINA 46 

as Mephiitopheles in Goimod's ^' Faust." She made 
anoiher visit to Chicago in 1870 with Bitter and Her- 
mannsy also with Habehnan^ the tenor^ and Sarasate, 
violinist. 

I have often thought that if Carlotta had not been 
handicapped by lameness^ occasioned by the fracture of 
her hip in childhood, she would have eclipsed Ade- 
lina's fame in opera. She was the more beautiful of 
the two — indeed she was the most beautiful member 
of a very handsome family. Her voice was as rich in 
quality as Adelina's and its range even highw. Her 
technical accomplishments were fully as wonderfuL 
She delighted in singing music written specially to show 
off the violin technic. In all these respects she was as 
bountifully equipped for the operatic stage as her sister, 
but the unfortunate mishap in her childhood confined 
her within the narrow limits of the concert stage. Be- 
sides these qualities she not only had genuine feeling 
and fine sentiment, but decided dramatic ability. It was 
evidenced in every song she sang. It must have been 
bitter for her to endure her confinement to the concert- 
room, and now and then she must have envied the bril- 
liant career of her sister in that particular realm of music 
for which she was so richly endowed. This feeling once 
came to the surface. It was in Birmingham, England, 
in 1871. Her manager imprudently advertised her as 
<« the sister of the celebrated Adelina PattL^' The Fatti 
wrath flamed up in her, and she refused to sing. When 
it had cooled down and she had taken the sober, second 
thought, she consented to appear, but she sent a letter to 
the press, from which I make the f oUowing quotation : 



46 WJSIGAL MEMORIES 

^^ I did indeed think it strange that under my nama on the 
plaoaidB, as well as on the programmes, should have been 
placed the words, 'sister of Adelina Patti/ Though but a 
twinkling star by the side of the brilliant planet called 
Marchioness de Cauz, I am nevertheless too proud of the 
humble reputation which Europe and America have con- 
firmed to allow anybody to try to eclipse my name fay the 
dangerous approximation of that of my dear sister, to whom 
I am bound by the tenderest affection.** 

When it is considered that the relations of the two 
sisters were reported at that time to be friendly but not 
intimate^ much may be read between the lines of this 
diplomatic note. The member of the family with whom 
she was most intimate was her unfortunate brother, 
Carlos, whom also she most closely resembled in facial 
appearance. 

Carlotta Patties nature was made up of a singular 
combination of qualities. When among her intimates, 
she was the very soul of good nature, and I have seen 
her when she was bubbling over with fun and sparkling 
with repartee. But with strangers, or persons seeking 
to make her acquaintance out of mere idle curiosity, 
she was reserved and forbidding. She was by nature 
imperious and haughty, quick tempered, and brusque of 
speech. She was very fond of social functions, although 
her lameness prevented her from dancing. She was 
also devoted to dress and personal adornment, and was 
luxurious in her habits and fond of elegant ease, — 
conditions which may have been superinduced by her 
physical impediment. 

Carlotta Patti's musical career, though confined to 
the concert stage, was exceptionally brilliant. She made 









^Hj^kf^!;^ -W^sKk 








AMALIA PATTI 47 

her debut in 1861, and her suoceas was instantaneous. 
She gave concerts all over this country and Europe, 
and became a universal favorite. She died in Paris, the 
city die loved best, in 1889. The gayety and excite- 
ments of that dty just suited her pleasure-craving 
nature. 

With one sister queen of the opera, and another sister 
queen of the concert-room, what was left for Amalia 
Patti but a quiet, uneventful stage life in this double 
shadow, the applause only of those who really knew 
something about music, and devotion to the interests 
of her manager-husband, Ifaurice Strakosch ? She was 
graceful and handsome, — all the Pattis were, as I have 
said. She was an excellent singer, as a matter of course, 
being a Patti She had decided talent, but it was not 
sufficient to place her in the highest rank. Unlike her 
two more gifted sisters, she had a contralto voice. She 
was the oldest child of the second marriage, and made 
her debut in ** Beatrice di Tenda," at the Astor Place 
Opera House, New York, in 1847. Maurice Strakosch 
first met her in 1848, when arranging a concert tour 
with Anna Bishop, Parodi, and herself. They were 
married at the close of that tour, and, as far as I know, 
^^ lived happily ever after/' She came to Chicago 
during the tour, again in 1863 with StefEanone, Paul 
Julien, and her husband, who was an excellent pianist, 
the most dignified of managers, and most philosophical 
of men. He always rose superior to the accidents men- 
acing the box-office and the absurd caprices of artists. 
Amalia Patti's next concert visit was in 1864 with Ole 
Bull. Her voice was not a powerful one, nor was it 



48 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

very dramatic, but she was always an enjoyable singer. 
It was a pleasure to listen to her smooth, quiet, melo- 
dious, and well-trained manner of singing, as it was to 
watch her pretty face, her graceful, high-bred person- 
ality, and the quiet elegance of her stage deportment. 
She appeared many times in Chicago in opera, and while 
she never roused wild enthusiasm with furious outbursts 
of declamation or brilliant feats of technic, she was a 
favorite with musical people because they were confident 
she would do everything correctly. I have known an 
audience to go wilder over a single sforzando of Bri- 
gnoFs, a high C of Wachtel's, or one trill by Adelina 
Patti, than they would over an evening of perfect en- 
sembles. In a word, Amalia's career was colorless 
because it was continually in the Adelina-Carlotta 
penumbra. 

I never met Carlos Patti, the brother, but once. He 
was bom in Lisbon and studied the violin in Milan. 
Then he went with his half-brother Antonio to Mexico 
and played in concerts. He was of a roving, adventur- 
ous nature and had so many of the Southern qualities 
that he became a favorite in New Orleans, Mobile, St 
Louis, and other Southern cities. He was in the Confed- 
erate States Signal Service and for a time was a member 
of General Beauregard's staff during the Civil War 
period. He did not remain long in the service, however, 
but drifted about from place to place. At one time he 
was leader at the New Orleans Opera House, at another 
at the Wakefield Opera House, St. Louis, and at another 
conducted Fisk's opera troupe. It was about this time, 
I believe, that he estranged himself from his family by 



CARLOB PATTI— PARODI 49 

marrying a member of this troupe. He made one or 
two yisits Norths and it was during one of these, in 1863, 
that I met him. He was in the same company with 
Gottschalk, Brignoli, and Angiolina Cordier. He was 
a handsome, graceful young fellow, but reserved, melan* 
choly, and evidently disappointed with his career and his 
life. It was difficult to make conversatioti with him, 
he was so shy and reticent. He had all the family 
pride, but he knew he had not kept up the family prestige 
or kept pace with its success. He alone of the four 
was not well received. He played accurately and skil* 
fully, but coldly and perfunctorily. His heart was not 
in it. He had had many troubles, and at last the bur- 
den became too heavy for him, and he died alone in 
St. Louis in 1873. 

I have mentioned Parodi in connection with Amalia 
Patti and must say a little about her, as she played quite 
an important part on the concert and opera stage during 
the fifties. Maretzek had an opera company in New 
York in 1860, and when he heard of Bamum's contract 
with Jenny Lind, he prepared for a struggle by sending 
to London for Parodi. She had . been a pupil of the 
great Pasta and had a European reputation behind her. 
As an offiset to the Bamum fictions. Maretzek started 
the story that just as Parodi was about to leave Lon- 
don, the Duke of Devonshire offered her his hand and 
fortune, but so great was her sense of duty that she 
declined both rather than break her engagement. Other 
myths were set afloat by Ifaretzek, but he was no 
match for Bamum in short stories. The people had 
caught the Jenny Lind fever, and Maretzek and Parodi 



50 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

must perforce wait until it subsided After it had 
run its course, Parodi had quite a little success under 
Maretzeky and later under Strakosch and Mapleson, 
and deserved more, for die was really an excellent 
artist. She was of the Italian type of beauty, tall and 
stately, and a prima donna of the robust school. Her 
voice was rich in quality, and she sang in good tune and 
not without brilliancy, although she was often intensely 
energetic and ^^ ranted,'' if I may apply that dramatic 
term to siniring. Her commanding presence and superb 

and Norma. She was in Chicago many times during 
the fifties — in 1851 with Amalia Patti and Arthurson, 
the tenor; in 1855 with Amalia Patti and Giovanni 
Leonardi, the tenor; and in 1866 with Tiberini, the 
tenor, Morini, the barytone, Paul Julien, the violinist, 
and Henry Ahner, the cometist of the famous Germania 
Orchestra, which had disbanded a short time before. 
All the prima donnas were patriotic in those days, or at 
least found it profitable to cater to the popular patri- 
otism, as will be observed in more than one instance in 
these pages. So at this concert Parodi sang the unaing* 
able *^ Star-Spangled Banner " and the ^^ Marseillaise,'' 
which last she delivered with as much vigor as if she 
were shouting it on a barricade to the mob of the Paris 
streets. In 1859 she was a member of the first regular 
Italian opera company which appeared in Chicago. I 
do not remember her after that. 



CHAPTER V 

THE GEBMANIA SOCIETY 

THK OSRIIANIA SOaETT — QUNOL's OPINION OF AMKRICANB — 
CHABACTERISnCS OF THX QERMANIA — ITS VISIT TO CHICAGO 

— A CRITIC'B SOUL-LONOINGS — THE SOCIETT'B LASTING 
INFLITKNCE ITPON MUSICAL PROGRESS — THE WORK OF 
INBIYIDUAL MEMBERS — THE CAREER OF CARL BERGMANN 

— THE SAD END OF HIS LIFE — JULIEN, "THE CHARLATAN 
OF ALL THE AGES" — HIS EGOTISM AND ECCENTRICITIES 

— THE '' firemen's QUADRILLE/' ETC. 

I HEARD the Gennania Orchestra play in Boston 
before I came to Chicago, This remarkable band, 
officially known as the Germania Society, was the 
real pioneer of instrumental music in the United States, 
and deserves to occupy first place in the history of early 
musical progress in this country by reason of the high 
standard which it maintained, the new works which it 
introduced, and the model which it set for the then ex- 
isting orchestral organizations. There were orchestras 
at that time in New York, Boston, and a few other places, 
and there had been some European bands here before 
the Germania Society arrived, the best of which was 
Gungl's from Berlin. The latter, however, did such an 
unprofitable business that the disgruntled Gungl went 
back to Berlin and made a savage onslaught upon Amer- 
icans. He declared that they were incapable of enjoying 
music and much preferred circus riders, rope dancers, 



i 



52 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

beast tamers, giants, dwarfs, and such like freaks, to mu- 
sicians. Gungl said this more than fifty years ago. It 
is curious in this connection to note that Chaliapine, the 
Russian basso, after his operatic engagement in this 
country in 1908, said he pitied Americans because they 
had ^' no light, no song in their lives/' and that they 
are ^' children in eveiything pertaining to art" Be this 
as it may, it does not affect the high esteem in which the 
Oermania Society was held by lovers of good music 

The Society came to this country in 1848, and gave 
concerts for five or six years. They were not profit- 
able, and it disbanded after a prolonged effort to gain a 
foothold. Nearly all its members remained here and 
continued their labors for the higher music individu- 
aUy. It was a comparatively small orchestra, but it was 
composed of earnest, honest, cultivated musicians, who 
believed in their art and presented it in the noblest 
form of exposition. It was a hard road they travelled, 
but they never lowered their standard nor degraded 
themselves by submitting to commercial considerations 
When they could go no farther, they continued their 
work individually, as I have just said, and several of 
them took high rank as musical educators. The Society 
introduced its audiences to the classic symphonies. It 
incited local orchestras to more convincing work and 
paved the way for that orchestral development and 
musical progress achieved by Carl Bergmann and Theo- 
dore Thomas a few years later. 

The first conductor of the Germania Society was Lens- 
chow, who became disheartened and resigned in 1860. 
His place was filled by Carl Bergmann, first 'cellist in 



A CRITICS SOUL-LONQINQS 63 

the Society. Business improved under his manage- 
menty but notwithstanding its acknowledged reputation, 
its technical ability, and its extraordinary solo work, 
for nearly every member was an accomplished solo 
performer, it disbanded in 1854, after having given 
concerts in nearly every part of the country. During 
its travels the Society visited Chicago in 1863, with 
Camilla Urso, the violinist, then a mere child, and 
Alfred JaeU, the pianist, as soloists, and upon that occa- 
sion Chicago heard a symphony for the first time. It 
was Beethoven's Second. A short time before this 
the Society had played the same symphony elsewhere, 
and a reporter for the ^' Chicago Journal " thus naively 
expressed his musical soul-longings : 

^* In St Louis and Louisville the (Jermania Orchestra has 
played a whole symphony of Beethoven and has really brought 
tears to the eyes of musicians and amateurs. How we shouM 
like to witness a performance of such a symphony I Never, 
perhaps, shall we have an occasion during our lifetime to hear 
such a performance I " 

It is consoling to know that the Second Symphony 
was not his Carcasonne. His pathetic longing for 
symphonic joy was satisfied, for a few weeks later the 
Society played the same work in Chicago. I regret, 
however, that I have been unable to find any record of 
his feelings on that occasion. Perhaps he was too 
greatly overcome to trust them to cold type. But I 
have found what he said about the Society's second 
concert, and much to my astonishment discover that he 
transferred his affections to the sepulchral ^^Zampa," for 
he says : 



54 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

t^The concert wm magnificent in all its parts, ee] 
Zampa'B grand oTertuie. The audience was never more 
enraptured. Camilla Urso, a child of twelve, performed some 
of the most difficult pieces that were ever composed for violin. 
The whole band won golden opinions. We heard some of the 
best judges of music remark that it was the best instrumental 
concert ever given in Chicago." 

This is not very searching criticism, but it clearly 
describes the reporter's liking. I regret that he was 
silent about the effect of the Second upon him, but 
perhaps, like the old lady in the Louvre, he had seen the 
Apollo Belvidere and Baggies and preferred Baggies. 

After the disbanding of the Society, Carl Zerrahn, 
the first flute, was for many years the accomplished 
conductor of the Boston Handel and Haydn Society. 
Carl Bergmann became leader of the New York Philhar- 
monic Society. William Schultze was for many years 
first violin in the Mendelssohn Quintette Club and 
afterwards professor of music at Syracuse Uniyersity. 
Carl Lentz became an orchestra leader in Philadelphia, 
and Albrecht and Plagemann were leading spirits in 
the organization. Thiedemann went to Baltimore, where 
I believe he is still living, and did a great work for 
music in that city. Henry Ahner, first comet, went to 
/•^Chicago and organized orchestral concerts of a high 
order. 

Of all these men, Carl Bergmann was the most 
prominent and best known as a musician. His instru- 
ment was the 'cello, but he understood them all. He 
was well equipped for leadership by his musical scholar- 
ship as well as by his executive ability, and he kept 



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THE CAREER OF CARL BERGMANN 66 

pace with musical progress. He was the first to intro- 
duce Wagner and Liszt in this country, while conduct- 
ing the New York Philharmonic concerts, though it 
was Theodore Thomas who developed the recognition 
of these composers into a close intimacy. He was for 
a considerable time also a member of the Mason- 
Thomas Quartette, which fought the early battles for 
chamber music. Bergmann went to Chicago in the 
fifties to lead its Philharmonic Society, but retired in 
disgust when he found that local musicians were en- 
gaged in a cabal against him. With all his ability and 
his scholarship, howeyer^ Bergmann was not an industri- 
ous worker, nor was he regardful of his duties. If his 
associates took the initiative in such periods of n^lect, 
it angered him. At last he gave himself up to an indo- 
lent, pleasure-loving manner of life, and this alienated 
many of his musical associates. Near the end of his 
career he became very despondent. Friends abandoned 
him, and he died at last in a New York hospital in 
1876, almost alone and forgotten. But he was a great 
musician, and greatly advanced the cause of music in 
his earlier and happier days. 

It was not long after hearing the Oermania Society 
that I went to a Julien concert. There never was but 
one Julien; there never will be another. Theodore 
Thomas, while conceding his ability, aptly called him 
^' the charlatan of all the ages." He was the vainest of 
men in his dress, adornments, and personal demeanor. 
His egotism was so sublime that he made no conceal- 
ment of his conviction that he was a great genius. His 
gestures and gyrations in conducting were even more 



66 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

absurdly violent and eocentric than those of the present 
acrobatic Italian conductors in the summer gardens. 
It was a joyous spectacle to see him sink exhausted into 
his chair at the close of one of his grotesque programme 
music stunts, with his rose-colored gloved hands tightly 
clasped and weanng an expression of mingled satisfac- 
tion and superiority that exasperated men and thrilled 
women. He produced many descriptive pieces of his 
own, with huge bands, provided with more accessories 
for evoking noise than Tschaikovsky even dreamed of 
in his ^' 1812 " overture, and with more singular sounds 
than Strauss produces in his ^^ Don Quixote '' symphonic 
poem. The one I particularly remember is ** The Fire- 
men's Quadrille.'' It was performed in the days when 
Mose asked Sykesey to '^take the butt" while he 
'^ lammed " a gentleman of the rival machine who was 
standing on the hose, but neither Mose nor Sykesey en- 
countered a conflagration fiercer in its progress than 
'^The Firemen's Quadrille." Julien may be credited 
with introducing programme music of the melodramatic 
sort in this country. It is entirely logical that he should 
end his days in Bedlam. 




Louis Antoine Juubn 



CHAPTER VI 

SOME VIOLINISTS 

OLE BULL — HIS PSRSONALTTT — liANNER OF PLATING — A 
DBXAMER — UNSATISnED VISIONS — THE ROHANCE OF HIS 
UFE — HIS NUMEROUS FAREWELLS — CONCERTS IN CHICAGO 

— RElfENTI — HIS FAR WANDERING — EXTRAVAGANCES 
AND MANNERISMS — A MEMORABLE AFTERNOON — SUDDEN 
DEATH — VIEUXTEMPS — CHARACTERISTICS OF HIS STYLE 

— NIUfSON^S BIRTHDAY AND '^THE ARKANSAS TRAVELLER*' 

— WIENIAWSKY — RELATIONS TO RUBINSTEIN — GAM- 
BLING LOSSES — WILHELMl — AN INTELLECTUAL PLAYER 

— CAMILLA URSO AS CHILD AND WOMAN — HER LAST DAYS 

I BEGIN my lecollections of the famous old vio- 
linists with Ole Bull, not because he was the 
greatest of them — far from it, — but because for 
several curious reasons he was the best known and most 
popular. One of these reasons is purely personal. He 
was tall, strongly built, with a fine, erect figure, kindly 
eyes, and light hair which became snowy white before his 
long career was ended. He was a typical Norseman, and 
looked, while playing, as Frithjof might have looked 
when he sang his farewell to the North on the deck 
of EUida. His personality was so magnetic that even 
musicians overlooked his eccentricities and occasional 
trickeries of technic. It added to the effect of this 
magnetic influence that he had a poetical nature, sym- 
pathetic disposition, and vivid imagination — in a word, 
he was a dreamer, but not an inspired one. 



58 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

Though greatly lauded^ Ole Bull was not a great 
musician nor a great artist. He was rather a wander^ 
ing Blondel, who played most fascinatingly. It was 
impossible to resist the magic of his bow even when 
you suspected it of sleight-of-hand. Who could believe 
that his closing pianissimo did not end and vanish into 
the air long before his bowing ceased ? And yet who did 
not raptly listen and wonder, as if he really recognized 
the ghost of the last tone floating off ? Perhaps it was 
a ghost, but this ghostly practice was not artistic. With 
what exaggeration he was praised one or two instances 
will show. George William Giirtis wrote that his play- 
ing was '^smooth as the summer seas, embosoming 
deep chromatic shadows and full sunlight, but no lesser 
things/' and Lydia Maria Child called him ^^ a Persian 
nightmgale." It may be objected that these two were 
not musicians, only rhapsodists. But old John S. D wight 
surely was musical to his finger tips, and he said that his 
playing was ^^ between a canary's and a thrush's singing." 
It is a long distance from a canary's shrilling to a thrush's 
luscious melody, so that Dwight's comparison is some- ( 

what misty ; but it shows that Ole Bull bowled him over 
like all the rest. 

Ole Bull was capricious, but he was so strong in in- ' 

dividuality, so fervid of nature, so graceful and yet so 
vigorous in his work, and so hypnotic in his appeal, that 
he had little difficulty in carrying away any audience 
captive. Sometimes there were individual exceptions. 
A certain critic in the early fifties wrote : ''Mr. Woodruff \ 

performed on the violin scientifically and gave some most 
exquisite touches that would gore Ole Bull. By the bye. 



/ 

I 

I 



OLE BULL'S MANNER OF PLAYINQ 69 

Mr. Bull does not seem disposed to come this wayagain. 
Perhaps he has heard of Woodruff.'' At one of his eon- 
oerts in Peoria an old farmer came to the door of the 
hall and asked Maretzek when all that confounded fid- 
dling would stop. Maretzek asked the man if he did 
not like music. '^ Tes,'' said the farmer^ ^ but I did n't 
come to town for that. I want to see the old bull and 
-^ home." 

Ole Bull belonged to no school. Perhaps that was 
another secret of his success, for people neither know 
nor care about schools, but like a player to be himself. 
Ole Bull certainly was all that. He imitated certain 
of Paganini's eccentricities by attempting effects of' a 
bizarre sort, but yet he was always Ole Bull. He re- 
minded you of no one else, and he always played Ole 
Bull in all his versatile moods. To this extent he was 
the most eccentric of modem virtuosi^ with Bemenyi a 
close second. Who but these two would have climbed 
to the top of Cheops' Pyramid and played for the ben- 
efit of the Sphinx ? He rarely attempted the classical, 
probably because it is so unyielding in construction that 
it does not admit of moods or humors» so his repertory 
was comparatively small. He resembled Paganini in an- 
other respect : he was an ordinary composer. He wrote 
two pieces in this country, ^ Niagara " and ^^ Solitude of 
the Prairie," but they were ephemeral He was more 
at home in variations and Norwegian fantasies like his 
. own '^ £1 Saterbesok," some measures of which he wrote 
out in his sprawling notation and gave to me with the 
remark that it was one of his favorites. And when 
the kindly faced old man, lovingly bending over his 



60 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

violin with his eyes closed, played these fantasies, I 
used to think he was at his besl Perhaps they called 
up visions of the land he loved very dearly and for 
which he made many sacrifices. He was, as I have said, 
a dreamer; but, alas 1 few of his dreams came true. He 
dreamed in 1866 of being an impresario, leased the New 
York Academy of Music, and five or six performances 
under his management ended this dream. Then he 
dreamed of a great school of music with opera for its 
basis, but it came to naught. In 1876 he had a dream 
of giving Italian, Oerman, and English opera. All the 
great artists were to be engaged, and Verdi was to write 
an opera for him ; but the dream was only an iridescent 
bubble — nothing more. Then he dreamed of estab- 
lishing a Norwegian colony in Pennsylvania for the 
benefit of his countrymen, but he fell into the hands of 
swindlers and lost heavily. He dreamed of a national 
theatre in Norway, but whenever was a national theatre 
successful without a government back of it ? It is not 
remarkable that he was a dreamer, for his life was 
tinged with romance from his childhood, when he de- 
voured fairy tales and the sagas of the Northland. He 
travelled far and vdde, and everywhere popular love 
and popular enthusiasm followed him. He was almost 
as much of a nomad as Bemenyi. Perhaps it was his 
Wanderlu8t that made him uncertain about returning 
to a place when he left it, and was the cause of so 
many Concerts des Adieux. He began farewelling at an 
early period of his career, and kept it up to the last. 
My records show that his first appearance in C!hicago 
vdth Adelina Patti, April 21, 1863, was announced as 



I 

I 

I 

I 

i 



HIS NUMEROUS FAREWELLS 61 

a ^^ Farewell to America/' and yet he said that lonely 
word three times more^ on April 26, May 2, and Decem- 
ber 14 of that same year. (I wonder if any one remem- 
bers that at the concert of April 26 coupon tickets 
were used and ushers employed for the first time at a 
concert in Chicago.) Why, you could n't drive Ole Bull 
away I ^ He loved Chicago, and Chicago loved him. On 
June 29, 1867, he gave ^^ one farewell concert " with 
Harrison George, an English ballad singer, Homcastle, 
most delightful of buffo bassos, and Dressier, pianist, 
and on the next evening gave a second concert, which 
was ^^a positive farewell." In 1868 we had another 
parting, when he came with Madame Yarian Hoffmann 
and Edward Hoffmann, pianist. In April of the fol- 
lowing year he came to us with the gloomy tidings that 
he must say a last loving good-bye, as he was going to 
Norway, never, never to come back, and we sorrowfully 
parted, never expecting to meet again ; but lo ! in 1872 
the big fire had hardly cooled before he was here again 
with Oertrude Orme, soprano, Candidus, the big sweet- 
voiced German tenor, and Alfred Bichter, the pianist, 
as chief mourners. Then there was another farewell 
in 1877, when he came with Isidora Martinez, the 
pretty little Spanish soprano, Tom Earl, the tenor, and 
Emma Thursby, expressly to say farewell. In 1880 he 
was here on the same errand with Alfred Pease, the 
Beau Brummel of the keyboard, Brausen, tenor, and 
FerrantL Does any one remember Ferranti's inimitable 
singing of ^^ Bevare, bevare, she is a-f ooling thee " ? 
Ole Bull appeared here as regularly after a f arewdl as 
^ the flowers that bloom in the Spring, tra la ** I But 



62 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

there must be a last time, and it was in 1880, for shortly 
after he left us the delightful, kindly old man died. 

The name of Bemenyi next suggests itself to my 
memory, for this Hungarian in some ways resembled 
Ole Bull. He was even more nomadia His home was 
everywhere, and he was everywhere at home. He was 
a Romany roamer by instinct. He wandered further 
afield than Ulysses and his '^disastrous chances,'' and 
'^ moving accidents by flood and field" were as nu- 
merous as those which Othello related to Ophelia's 
father. He played in European cities, on the Pyramids, 
in the South Sea Isles, in the African diamond fields 
and among Transvaal kopjes, in New England school- 
houses, Southern plantations, and Western mining 
camps, amid the pomps of courts, the conventionalities 
of concert-rooms, and the flippancies of vaudeville the- 
atres. Though a Hebrew by nationality, he had all the 
gipsy traits, and it was the czardas which were his chief 
delight and highest inspiration. He looked as unlike 
a professional musician as it is possible to imagine. 
He was short, corpulent, heavy-featured, and somewhat 
shambling of gait. A stranger might have mistaken 
him for a hon vivant, or a justice '^ with good capon 
lined,'' but his looks belied him, for he was at no time 
in his life ^* a very valiant trencher man." On the con- 
trary, he was a most austere ascetic at table. A friend 
^f^ m GUcag., widu,« to eutertm bim, <»ce gave 
him a dinner of several courses. He declined the 
oysters, soup, and fish, and seemingly appalled by the 
entries^ called for crackers, milk, and water. During 



BEMBNTI'S HAMlfKaiBMB CS 

my aoquaintaooe with him he neither smoked, nor drank 
even lig^t wine. 

Remenyi had certain little trioki of teehnic like 
Ole Bull, and what seemed to be affectationB, sach aa 
swinging his bow around his head like a scimitar and 
smiting the strings, but I do not think he meant it as 
an affectation. He had the same magnetic effect upon 
audiences as Ole Bull, but not produced by his person- 
ality, for he had not the impressive physique of the Nor- 
wegian. When in the mood, he could play to musicians 
so that they sat up and listened. He could always 
play to the people and set them wild with enthusiasm. 
He performed the czardas with the true gipsy feeling, 
and the ^^ B6k6czy March " so that you understood why 
its fieiy rhythm roused the Magyars to revolution. It 
seems to me, however, that he played best when free 
from the restrictions of the concert-room and the di»* 
tractions of an audience — in musical neglig^ej so to 
speak. I spent a Sunday afternoon once with him 
at the house of a mutual friend. Yogridh, his prot6gi, 
a young musician of extraordinary talent, who has 
since become a lost Pleiad, was at the piano and played 
his accompaniments. It was a hot day, and Bmnenyi 
soon shed his coat. I can see him now, padng the 
room and playing piece after piece, softty talking to 
himself, and now and then calling attention, with 
pardonable vanity, to the manner in which he jdayed 
a phrase or produced an effect, his face wreathed with 
smiles, for he was the soul of good nature. I do not 
think he was reaUy vain. He simply had aa abiding, 
kken faith in BemenyL The signature to the 



Hi':'« 



64 MUSICAL MEMORIBB 

letters he wrote to me usually occupied the larger 
part of the page, and curious polyglots they were, 
sometimes made up of half a dozen languages 1 He 
never spoke in an uncertain tone about his playing. 
After performing a Hongroise at a friend's house, he 
walked to the mantel, stopped the pendulum of the 
dock, and solemnly said : ^^ Let this dock forever mark 
the hour when Bemenyi played to you." His ^ptism 
was colossal^ but it was the harmless egotism of a child. 
To return to the extempore concert. It lasted until 
dinner. He was in the playing mood, as well as 
Vogrich, and neither thought much about time. Their 
programme reached from the Bach *^ Chaconne " to Hun- 
garian folk songs. Bemenyi's memory was prodigious. 
At the dose of one piece Theodore Thomas, who was 
present, asked him to play a certam concerto. Be* 
menyi replied that he had not played it for many 
years, but he would do his best My friend brought 
the score to Vogrich, and Bemenyi played the violin 
part, still pacing the floor, without missmg a note. Like 
Ole Bull, again, he had no school. He was unmfluenced 
by precedents and cardess of traditions. He played 
Bemenyi. His tone was bright and appealing, his 
mastery of technic absolute. He once tdd me that 
he always jdayed for one person in an audience. His 
words were: ^^ There is sure to be in every audience 
at least one heart to which I may talk. That is 
enough. I fix my eyes upon him ; we understand each 
other." He was not an intellectual player, like C^sar 
Thompson or WUhelmj, for instance, but an emotional, 
impulsive, temperamental player, governed by vagrant 



HIS 8UDDEN DEATH 66 

fancies and the moods of the moment. He had ex* 
travagances and mannerisms^ for he was a creature of 
caprice and impulse. He was always a child, and he 
kept the freshness, buoyancy, and optimism of childhood 
to the very last. And how mournful his end! He 
died in San Francisco in 1898, from the effects of an 
apoplectic stroke while playing in a concert But he 
died as he had wished. In a letter to a friend some 
months before his death he wrote: ^'I know and I 
feel that I shall die in harness. Yes, my dear boy, I 
shall die fiddling/' He was a worshipper of beauty, 
a musical poet whose fancies were informed by the 
Oriental spirit. In his quaint way he once said : '^ All 
beauty is a spree to me. It is so I live my life. It 
is thus I keep life happy when I am getting old my- 
self, for life could get very, very dreary if one did not 
search out the sprees/' Possibly if he had studied 
severely and grounded himself in the classics, he might 
have been a greater artist, but he would not have been 
Bemenyi. His favorite maxim was, *^ Die echte Verk- 
lUrung in dem Eunst ist das ewig natiirliche" (^^The 
true ideal in art is eternally the natural "). Certainly 
Bemenyi lived up to that ideal. In one of his letters 
to me, received not long before his death, he writes: 
^ I have been playing now many years. But my arm 
is stUl strong, and so I will keep on. And I will play 
after I have gone, ten million years, for the cherubim 
and seraphim, nicJd wakrf*^ 

Going back again several years, I come to Henri 
Vieuitemps, one of the great violinists of his time. He 



66 IfUSIGAL MEMORIES 

lived in a violin atmoBphere, for he began playing al- 
most as soon as his tiny hands could hold a bow. He 
was on the concert-stage at six and touring at seven. 
He came from Belgium, which has produced so many 
excellent string players, to this country in 1846 ; but I 
first heard him in 1857, and again in 1870. In 1857 he 
played in Chicago with Thalberg, — a rare combination, 
for Thalberg was considered the leading pianist of that 
period ; but a mysterious misadventure, of which I shall 
speak when I come to the pianists, suddenly cut short 
the Western tour. Some rather crude Wild West criti- 
cisms, with pointed suggestions for more tunes and less 
flourishing, probably helped to make it easy for him to 
have the tour come to any sort of a close. One of these 
critics went so far as to say that Vieuxtemps was a good 
enough fiddler considering his opportunities, but he 
would n't go to hear him again unless they reduced the 
price of tickets to sixty-two and a half cents a dozen. 
During the season of 1870 Vieuxtemps returned to 
Chicago with Christine Nilsson, and I had the pleasure 
of meeting him personally and very informaUy. The 
occasion was a birthday dinner which Nilsson gave to 
some friends, and I shall refer to it more in detail when 
I come to speak of that Swedish fascinator. Vieuxtemps 
was there, and the function lasted far into the small 
hours. Several of the artists present did extraordinary 
stunts, and conventionalities were thrown to the winds. 
It was a ludicrous spectacle, that of Vieuxtemps un- 
bending far enough to play ^^ The Arkansas Traveller," 
following it up with ^* Money Musk," in the most rol- 
licking manner. His violin bubbled over with fun as 



VKUXTEIfFS 67 



the player stood leaning against the piano upon which 
Brignoli was improvising a genuine vaudeville aooom- 
paniment, the great Belgian looking as solenm and 
lugubrious as if he were conoertmeister for ^' Siegfried's 
Tod/' At the dose of "^ The Arkansas Traveller "there 
was ¥rild applause, but he only looked up with a kind of 
sickly and fairway expression, as if he were inwardly 
saying his Peccam to Frau Musica for the affront he had 
put upon her. He was plain of appearance and seldom 
smiled, so that his seriousness still further accentuated 
the ludicrous performance. He was a very quiet man in 
those days, but in his early life he had been quite gay, and 
fond of adventure and a good time. He also had a tem- 
per of his own, but age had sobered him down. Upon this 
Bohemian occasion he was the personification of dignity, 
Yieuxtemps was in most respects the best trained and 
most cultivated violinist of his day, and played with an 
elegance of style, a richness of tone, and a perfection of 
technic which have rarely been excelled even in these 
d»y«, when the woods are fuU of good violinistB. Hedied 
three years after I met him, a wretched sufferer from 
paralysis of the arm which had been so industrious, 
ophthalmia, pneumonia, and finally congestion of the 
brain, caused by an accident. If he had accomplished 
nothing else, all violinists would have respected his 
memory, for he left them a concerto which even yet has 
not been outlawed, but hcdds its place still in the violin 
repertory. 

Wieniawsky, the Slavic violinist, whom Theodore 
Thomas called ^^ one of the greatest violinists of the ages,'* 



68 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

was remotely connected with Vieoxtemps, for he left his 
American tour before it was finished to take the place 
of violin teacher in the Brussels Consenratory, made 
vacant by Yieuxtemps's illness. He first came to this 
country in the season of 1872-1873 with Rubinstein, 
under Maurice Grau's managementi and after giving sev- 
eral concerts a combmation was effected with the Thomas 
Orchestra, and they gave memorable concerts. They set 
the standard for piano, violin, and orchestra playing. 
Wieniawsky had been solo violinist for the Emperor of 
Russia for twelve years before he came to the United 
States, which suggests that Czars have some compen- 
satory enjoyments even if they are targets for bomb- 
throwers. He was a master of his instrument, and 
played not only in artistic style, but with a fervor and 
at times a boldness and dash that thrilled you. It was 
a ddight to hear him play his own ^^Legende" and 
** Polonaise," and a still greater one to listen to his 
passionate performance with Rubinstein of Beethoven's 
Kreutzer Sonata. The two ^dayers were admirably 
mated, both trained musicians, skilled interpreters, and 
players for whom difficulties did not exist, and both 
infused with a divine fury at times. Will any one who 
heard that performance of the great sonata ever forget 
it ? I met Camilla Urso one evening not long before 
she died. The Thomas Orchestra a few nights before 
had played Mr. Thomas's arrangement of the Kreutzer 
Andante and variations for strings. We were speaking 
of it, and I remarked that I had not heard it before since 
Rubmstein and Wieniawsky played it. ^^ But,'' said the 
little solemn-faced hdj, looking at me out of those big 




AuausT WiLHiLMJ 



WIENUWSKT'8 RELATIONS TO RUBINgTEIN 69 

ezpressiYe eyes with an inquiring glance^ << you did not 
want to hear it again, did you ? '' That expressed its 
effect in a word. 

It was not long after I saw Wieniawsky that he died. 
He had a bad temper, and Rubinstein had a worse one, 
and the old friendly relations were soon severed. They 
never spoke to each other again. His health broke down, 
and he lost nearly all his earnings at the gaming-table 
and in speculations, for gambling was one of his passions. 
I have often wondered why it is that the violins gamble 
so frequently. I cannot recall violas, 'cellos, or double- 
basses doing it. I am quite certain the trombone never 
loses money by chance, and that the bassoon, clarinet, 
and trumpet never take risks in any kind of game. But 
I know of several violinists who every now and then 
have '^ gone broke." Is it because the violins alone of 
the orchestral family have all the wild, wayward, pas- 
sionate work to do, and the other instruments have more 
staid, dignified, and conservative duties to perform ? 

Tidings of the death of August Wilhelmj, Wagner's 
concertmeister at the first Bayreuth performance of the 
'^Nibelungen Trilogy," comes as I am writing this 
chapter. In some respects he was the most impressive 
of all the violinists I have heard. He made his Chicago 
debut in a concert with Carreno, Kate James, and Taglia- 
pietra in 1878, but I best remember him in a Turner 
Hall Sunday afternoon concert, amid a cheery Gemiith- 
Kchkeitj which soon developed into a wild display of Hn- 
thima8mu8. He was a man of dignified presence, fine 
figure, and commanding aspect, with a face that reminded 



70 MUSICAL mafORIES 

me a little of Rubinstein. He had abeolute command 
of the leaoniees of his instrument. I have heard no 
other violinist with such breadth^ nobility, and distinc* 
tion in his work. His tone was not only pure and beau- 
tifuly but it was big and noble, a sonorous dang, indeed, 
of most majestic sort, which was well adapted to the 
higher music. He seemed to evoke the noblest qualities 
of his instrument, and his repertory was largely composed 
of the works of the masters. His technic was devoid of 
tricks of any sort. With all his qualities so honest, 
legitimate, and noble, and with all his broad musical 
culture, he had not the popularity of some of the other 
players I have mentioned. I do not think, indeed, that 
he would have valued it if he had had to secure it by 
the same means, for he was first musician and then 
violinist^ and his playing above all was intellectual, and 
marked by classic repose, noble dignity, and most sono- 
rous volume. And what Wilhelmj was as virtuoso he 
was as man, — a man of solid attainments, sterling 
character, scholarly and literary culture, and one of the 
most delightful of talkers. 

And now there comes into my memory a little maiden, 
hardly in her teens, playing the violin with all the ease, 
facility, and self-possession of a mature artist. She 
was a most serious child, with large dark eyes and with a 
manner and dignity that seemed strange in one so young. 
I do not think she was ever childish. Her face was so 
solemn and unchanging in its expression that it seemed 
as if a smile had never visited it She began playing 
the violin in her sixth year. I think when I first met 



CAMILLA UB80 AS CHILD AHD WOMAN 71 

and heard her she was about foarteen, and she then ap- 
peared on the stage as if bom to it. Even as a child 
Camilla Urso was an extraordinary player, with a re- 
markable technic as well as purity of tone. I next heard 
her in 1866, when she played in a Philharmonic Concert 
in Chicago, and again in 1867, when she appeared with 
the old Boston Mendelssohn Quintette Club, then in aU 
its glory.* She was then in her twenty-fourth year, but 
still had that same pale, serious, inscrutable face, the 
same dark, lustrous, melancholy eyes, and the same calm 
but gracious dignity of manner ; but with the advancing 
years she had gained a more finished style, greater indi- 
viduality, and exquisitely graceful motions of the arm in 
bowing. Camilla Urso was a true, honest artist. She had 
no affectations, no trickeries. Everything she did was 
legitimate. She had travelled far and wide. Few if 
any women violinists have travelled as far, and every- 
where she made a success of enthusiasm and was rec* 
ognized as an artist of distinction. But suddenly she 
dropped out of the musical world as a performer. Why 
she did it I think no one knows ; but possibly she may 
have felt that she had reached the limit of her ability, or 
her physical strength had begun to wane. When I re- 
call that little serious maiden who visited me one day so 
many years ago, the young woman who travelled so far 
and played with great orchestras and with great artists 
and made her name known and honored, not by press 
agents and advertising, but by her own merits, the 

* The otigmal Mendelswhii Quintette Club wm eompoied of WiUiam 
Sehultee, fizit violin; Oari Meiael, aeoond violin; ThomM Rjut, daiinet 
and viola; Edward Heindl, flute; and Wulf Fiiee, cello. 



72 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

woman who saddenlj dropped out of her proleasion, 
and in the closing year of her life sought to make 
a living by hard teaching and died almost forgotten, 
I sometimes wonder what that mask of seriousness hid 
behind it. 



CHAPTER Vn 

SOME PIANISTS 

THALBEBO AS MAN AND ABTI8T — HIS SUDDEN DISAPPKARANGK 
— GOTTSCHALK — HIS MUSIC AND STTLB — AN AFTERNOON 
WITH HIM — RUBINSTEIN AND THE AMERICAN TOUR — 
TON BttLOW AND HIS PECULIARTnES — JAELL AND THE 
DRUM — A PROCESSION OF PIANISTS — WEHU, THE LETIV 
HANDER, AND THE GREASED PIANO — " BLIND TOM " AND 
HIS FEATS — CARRENO 

THALBERO came to Chicago in the mid fifties. 
The city at that time was hardly graduated from 
its five-finger exercises, but it was greatly excited 
over the advent of a real pianist and put on its best clothes 
to go to the Thalberg-Vieuxtemps-D'Angri concerts, for 
it had heard that Thalberg was one of the world's grealr- 
est players and it wished to do him honor. It was not 
sure it would mtelligently appreciate him, but it would 
at least pretend to do so. Then, again, few great artists 
had visited Chicago up to that time. True, Ole Bull 
had been here, but he came quite informally, like one 
just dropping in for dinner; but here was a distin- 
guished guest, son of a prince and a baroness, a 
grand virtuoso, an elegant man of the world, a fa- 
vorite of courts, and all that, and he must be received 
politely. So Chicago turned out in full force and 
finery, and Thalberg played to ^* large and fashionable 
audiences." 



74 MUSICAL MEMORIEB 

The triple combination came to Chicago in 1856. 
Madame D'Angri, contralto, was a handsome, stately 
woman, with wicked eyes and a fine voice. A contem- 
porary criticism in one of the city papers will show how 
Chicago rose to the occasion: ^'Thalberg's melodies 
are of a simple character, like the ripple of the waves 
on the beach of a summer evening when the moon- 
beams sleep on a placid sea. To our mind this is a 
mark of the highest genius. The profoundest philoso- 
phers always find its illustration in the conmionest 
objects; witness Plato and Him who spake as never 
man spake. The concert last night was a triumph.'' 
The citation is interesting as showing the ndiveli and 
terseness of criticism in the early days, but the reader 
must remember that the city was very young in the 
early fifties, that one could shoot wild pigeons on the 
North Shore, that coyotes used to sneak about on 
the West Side, and that beyond Twelfth Street on the 
South Side stretched the lonesome prairie. 

Thalberg came again the next season with Parodi, 
Amalia Patti, Nicolo, and MoUenhauer, and Chicago 
again made its handsomest courtesy. The series of 
concerts, however, was left unfinished, for Thalberg 
suddenly dropped out of si^t. One morning the 
papers contained the announcement that ^ owing to 
circumstances rendering Mr. Thalberg^s immediate re- 
turn necessary, the concerts advertised in the West will 
be indefinitely postponed, with the exception of the one 
advertised for Chicago, this evening, at Light Guard 
Hall." What were the drcumstanoes ? There was at 
once a flight of rumors. His agent said he was ill. 




SioiSMUND Thalberq 



THALB£BG« SUDDEH DISAPPEARANCE! 75 

No one bdieved him. It was TqK>rted that he had had a 
faUing out with D'Angri. But most startling of all was 
the rumor that Madame Thalberg had arrived in New 
Totk and was anxious to see him. The manager gave 
me some information^ but it was purely confidentiaL 
As long experience with managers has made me distrust 
their stories^ confidential ones in particular, it is not 
worth relating, though the confidence was outlawed 
long ago. Besides, I doubt not it was idle gossip. 

Notwithstanding his aristocratic antecedents, Thal- 
berg was not a distinguished looking man, nor had he 
any of those personal affectations cultivated by mu- 
sicians who wish to be known as such. His playing 
was almost entirely confined to his own operatic fan- 
tasies, like the ^ Moise '' and ^' Luda,*' and as he was 
absolutely at home at the piano, this of course made 
largely for ttie succeas of hiB playing. These fantodes 
were something new in the world. The melody of the 
aria stood out very clearly in the midst of a most 
dazzling display of scales, arpeggios, shakes, and corus- 
cations of every sort, and the whole keyboard was none 
too big for the exhibition of his elegant and absolutely 
perfect technic. But there was no more soul in it than 
there is in the head of a kettledrum. It was simply 
marvellous mechanism. Our sentimental critic was 
dear off the track with his ^'rippling waves'' and 
^^ sleeping moonbeams." It was rather a pyrotechnic 
display, with the rockets left out, for Thalberg never 
soared. The real attraction of his work was its ele- 
gance and its clearness, even in the most intricate mazes 
with which he enclosed a melody. He had a host of 



76 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

imitators, and the Thalberg fantasies were all the rage 
for a time. Every little piano thumper tackled them. 
But Thalberg, his school of virtuosity, and his fantasies 
are now only memories. The fantasies to^y are as 
empty as last year's birds' nests. 

Two or three years later came Louis Moreau Ootts- 
chalk He was the rage for a time. He was a charmer 
at the piano and fascinating as a fellow-being. I think 
he made his first appearance in Chicago in December, 
1860, with Oarlotta Patti, and what a handsome couple 
they were I I am not certain as to the exact date, but 
I am sure about the extraordinary performance at one 
of the concerts of the ^^ TannhHuser Overture '' arranged 
for five pianos, Gottschalk being assisted by Irma de 
Pelgrom, Franz Staab, Israel, and Behrens. That per- 
formance would have made Wagner himself sit up and 
take notice. Gottschalk was here again in 1862 with 
Oarlotta Patti, when she gave us the ^^ French Laughing 
Song " and the ^' Venzano Waltz " for the first time, as 
only she could sing them, and in 1864, when, together 
with Lucy Simons, soprano, Morelli, barytone, and 
Doehler, violin, he opened Smith and Nixon's Hall, on 
the comer of Olark and Washington streets. This was 
Gottschalk's farewell season. 

Grottschalk was often criticised for the class of music 
which he played. It consisted principally of his own 
compositions, ^* Bamboula," '^ Le Savane,'' ^^ Becordati,'' 
'' La Marohe de Nuit," ''0 ma Oharmante," ''Le Man- 
cilliner," « Ojos OreoUos," the ''Berceuse," "Last 
Hope," and others. In reality, the music which he 



AN AFTERNOON WITH GOTT80HALK 77 



played was not a fair test of his taste or his ability. 
He once told me that he played these and similar pieces 
because people liked them, and because he needed the 
money they brought himi for his own expenses were 
large, and besides that he was supporting five sisters 
and a brother at that time. Gk>ttschalk was a great 
lover of Beethoven's music, especially the 8onata& 
How well I remember the last time I saw him I We 
spent an afternoon together in 1864, and he played 
for me in his dreamy way the so-called ^^ Moonlight '' 
sonata of Beethoven, some of Mendelssohn's <^ Mid- 
summer Night's Dream " music, and his ^* laeder ohne 
W5rte," running from one piece to another with hardly 
a pause except to light a fresh cigar or interview the 
merry Widow Clicquot. I remember asking him why 
he did n't play that class of music in his concerts. He 
replied : '^ Because the dear public don't want to hear 
me play it. People would rather hear my ^ Banjo,' 
or ^ Ojos Creollos,' or ^ Last Hope.' Besides, there are 
plenty of pianists who can play that music as well or 
better than I can, but none of them can play my music 
half so well as I can. And what difference will it make 
a thousand years hence, anyway ? " All his music was 
either sensuous or sentimental, for he was tropical by 
nature, — a wayward, passionate creature, who delighted 
in reveries and wild, strange rhythms. He had an ex- 
tremely delicate touch, and a singing quality which I 
have never heard excelled. And yet he had great power 
when it was needed, for he was a very strong man, not- 
withstanding his delicate appearance. Personally he 
was very fascinating. He had beautiful hands, and was 



78 MUBIOAL MEMORIES 

BB vain of them as Artemus Ward used to be of his. 
He had a fastidioua way of encasing them in the most 
immaculate of gloves, which it took him some time to 
remove before he began to play. This was not an affec- 
tation, as many thought. He said it gave him time to 
compose himself and get at ease. As he was very shy, 
he did not make many intimate friends. He was poet- 
ical in his conceptions, and yet had a keen sense of 
humor. He used to exhibit with great glee the follow- 
ing poem, written by a New Orleans bard, which ha 
said was the loveliest tribute ever paid him: 



I could sit entranced and drink, 
And feel thy mellow music sink, 
Deep, deep in my boeom's core, 
TUl liqaefted, I felt nothing more ; 
My tool all wrapt up in ecstasy, 
And my frame in numb catalepsy. 



From heaTen the listening star 

Entranced looked down 
And stopped the heavenly car 

By charm unknown, 
And I with mournful strain 

The whippoorwill 
Beyond LiJce POntohartrain 

Bejoice I wiU. 

His last letter to me, enclosing his picture, was writ- 
ten from Bio Janeiro only a few weeks before his death. 
It seemed fitting that he should die in the tropics which 
he loved so well, for the nature of this Hebrew CSreole 
was tropical. 



RUBmSTEIN 79 

Bubinstein was master of them all. He comes back 
to me most vividly in his concerts at Aiken's Theatre 
in 1872 with Wieniawsky, and Louise Ormeny and 
Louise Liebharty two mediocre vocalists. He was the 
Jupiter Tonans of the keyboard. His personal appear- 
ance was impressive. He was athletic in mould, his 
head was large, and his hair luxuriously abundant and 
carelessly worn.* His features were rugged, reminding 
one of some of the portraits of Beethoven, whom he 
also resembled in some of his traits of character. He 
was outwardly a cold, stem man, with a face as rigid 
as stone. He almost utterly ignored audiences, and the 
more frantic the applause the less likely was he to rec- 
ognize it. It was only when he was disturbed by the 
idle chatter of people that he recognized any one, and 
those recognized under such conditions were not likely 
to forget the manner of it. He was a man of strong 
passions, but in performance they were tempered by 
his dominant artistic nature. He could play with tre- 
mendous power, sometimes with such vehemence as 
threatened disaster to the wires, and, on the other hand, 
his melody-playing was characterized by a delightful 
singing quality, for with all his energy, which some- 
times appeared ferocious, he still had great beauty of 
tone. When it is considered that he played every- 
thing from memory, and that his repertory embraced 
hundreds of compositions for piano alone, as well as 

* I have aometiines wondered why it la that violinists and pianists so 
often belong to the long-haired genus. I cannot recall a long-haired 
'cellist or double-bass player. 'Cellists usually are also short and fat, fike 
their instruments. Trombonists and cometists are usually 
and ophicleidists and bassoonists are nearly always bald. 



80 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

coBoertoB, and that he never practised^ only now and then 
going to the piano to run over a few measures of a 
piece he had not played for a long time, his great talent 
will be best appreciated. He was at his best, it seemed 
to me, in concertos. By his titanic power and impul- 
sive force he not only made his piano take its proper 
place in the sea of sound, but he fairly led the orchestra 
in an authoritative manner. In a word, he dominated 
audience, players, and sometimes conductors. Such 
playing had not been heard before and is not likely to 
be heard again, for no one can imitate him. He has 
left no school. He belonged to no school. He was a 
great musician playing Rubinstein. 

It is somewhat strange, considering his great success 
and the large remuneration he received, that he was 
dissatisfied with his American tour, with the business 
arrangements, and with piano-playing altogether. It 
is a little consoling, however, to know that he disliked 
England more than he did the United States. He once 
said in my hearing that Americans were too much en- 
grossed with the love of money to have a real love of 
art, but they were more impressionable than the English, 
who were the most unmusical people on earth. I have 
heard more than one eminent musician say the same 
thing. In one of his letters about this time he says : 
^' I put myself for a certain time at the entire disposi- 
tion of the impresario, and may Grod preserve you from 
ever falling into such slavery. It is all over with art ; 
only the shop remains. You become an automatical 
instrument and the dignity of the artist is lost." Long 
after this tour he wrote to a friend : ^^ The whole time 



RUBINSTEIN'S AMERICAN TOUR 81 

I was displeased with myself to such a degree that 
when a few years later another tour was proposed to 
me with the ofEer of fees amounting to half a million, 
I flatly refused." 

Rubinstein had peculiarities which society might call 
rude, such as his impatience with interruptions or dis- 
tractions of any kind while he was playing, and his 
refusals to attend receptions and social functions or to 
exhibit himself for the gratification of lion-hunters. 
Oritics of a small kind did not like him because he re- 
fused to recognize them as a class. And yet there have 
been few musicians who were more genial or larger 
hearted than Rubinstein, and never was there a more 
honest or conscientious musician. His purpose in com- 
ing to this country was to raise the standard of art, but 
he found he was expected to lower his own standards, 
and this he was too honest to do, so his tour was a dis- 
appointment. Perhaps also the fact that he was eager 
to abandon the keyboard altogether and devote 
entire time to composition may have contributed to 
dissatisfaction. But who could make his instrument 
play with such superb control ? Who could impart to 
it such an orchestral effect, even to the shimmer of 
strings and the shrilling of trumpets, and thus ennoble 
it and give it a dignified position in the instrumental 
family? 

I first heard Von Biilow in 1876. A numerous flight 
of stories, growing out of his musical and somewhat 
peculiar domestic relations with Liszt and Wagner, pre- 
ceded his coming, and his departure was followed by a 

6 



82 MUBIGAL MEMORIES 

long trail of myths and romances. His was an interest- 
ing personality. He was a little below medium stature, 
with receding forehead, large, sharp eyes, a somewhat 
belligerent aspect, and martial bearing. ' Perhaps it was 
this latter feature in his make-up that made him so 
partial to the drum, which he used to say quieted his 
nerves and soothed his temper because drum-beating 
was true rhythm. Though he was small in figure, he 
was big in spirit and tense of nerve, and he played with 
both as well as with great power and extraordinary 
facility of technic. He was autocratic, at times belliger- 
ent, and was even more impatient with audiences than 
Rubinstein. I saw him once leave the piano in a rage 
because a lady in the front row was fanning herself out 
of time. She did not desist until an usher explained to 
her the cause of his sudden flight. But when engaged 
in playing, and everything was normal in the audience, 
he was very cool and self-possessed. He had a phe- 
nomenal memory, as is well known, and his exploits 
with the Beethoven sonatas and the symphonies when 
he conducted them do not need retelling. His pro- 
grammes were noble models and his readings a fine 
display of musical scholarship. He bid good-bye to 
Chicago in May, 1876, and went away, taking with him 
the good-will of Americans. He was not so fortunate 
with his own countrymen. Some of them had sharply 
criticised his readings, particularly of Beethoven. In a 
parting speech he alluded to it as '' beer criticism," cen- 
sured his countrymen for their copious libations to Gam- 
brinus, and followed it up with a general philippic on 
beer-drinking. This was too much for the Teutonic 



A FROGE88ION OF PIANISTS 83 

tem|ter in Chicago. Hence the outbreak. Probably 
it did not worry the little man much, for he dearly 
loyed a row. 

I recall sereral other pianists, but I can only refer to 
them briefly. Among them are Alfred Jaell, who came 
to this country with the Germania Society, abready re- 
f erred to, — a showy, brilliant player in the Thalberg 
manner, and a charming, likable man, whose greatest de> 
light, moved perhaps like Yon Billow, by sense of rhythm, 
was to beat the bass drum when the Germania drummer 
had a night off ; De Meyer, the Vulcan of the keyboard, 
who astonished every one with his rapidity and nearly 
deafened them with his thundering sonority ; Riv^-ELing, 
who came in the eighties, and of whose work I princi- 
pally remember that wonderful shake in Liszt's Second 
Rhapsody; Essipofi, the Russian lady, who played 
Chopin divinely and without the antics of another well- 
known Chopin player, and who was one of the most 
refined and poetical pianists I have ever heard ; Joseffy, 
who made his Chicago debut in 1879, a most graceful, 
polished player, who was a great favorite for many 
years, but has practically retired now, I believe ; poor 
Rummel, a player of much ability, who showed the first 
symptom of musical decline by a sudden loss of memory 
at a concert I attended ; and Anna Mehlig, a fine, well- 
trained musician, who first appeared in Chicago with the 
Thomas Orchestra. Mr. Thomas used to call her his 
'^ piano pounder " because of her massive tone. He was 
a warm admirer of her musical ability and artistic play- 
ing and once said to me she was almost the only one 



84 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

who played under his baton to whom he did not have 
to give a thought He knew the piano was all right 
and 80 could give his entire attention to his orchestra. 

I must not omit Wehli, the left-hander^ from my list, 
though ^^he never would be missed/' He made a 
specialty of pieces for the left hand alone, whence he de- 
rives the above sinister appellation. His name recalls a 
ludicrous episode which happened many years ago in 
the Crosby Opera House, during a German opera season. 
Grover, the manager, very foolishly arranged for piano 
solos by Wehli in the encodes. Habelman and Her- 
manns were respectively the leading tenor and basso. 
Upon one occasion Wehli took his seat at the piano, ran 
his hands over the keys, suddenly held them up and 
looked at them, and left the stage. A '^ super '' came in 
and wiped the keys carefully, and Wehli returned. 
Supposing that he had been offended because of dust on 
the keyboard, I somewhat sharply criticised his action 
on the next morning. In reply, I received the follow- 
ing note explaining the situation. 

Trbmoht Housb, Sundaj. 

^^Deab Sir, — Your remarks would have been very just you 
made that day but I hope you will permit me to explain the 
reason for my wanting to have the piano cleaned. The Ger- 
mans are jesJous at my uniform success and at the kind sup- 
port I receive from the critics. The piano was besmeared 
with German lard or tallow of some kind about half an inch 
thick and prevented my playing as the fingers slipped about. 
I would feel deeply obliged if you would give this affair proper 
puUicily in your valuable paper. Jab. M. Wxhll'* 

I learned afterwards that the greasing of the keys 
ivas done by Hermanns and Habelman. Hermanns's 



"BLIND TOM"— CABRENO 85 

artistic sense of the unities was affronted because he 
thought the piano solo interrupted the movement of the 
opera, and Habehnan was enraged because Wehli had 
expressed an ardent desire to slap the face of the sweet 
singer of ^^ Adelaide/' though for some unknown reason 
he never gave himself that pleasure. 

^' Blind Tom '' can hardly be classed as a pianist, but as a 
lustM muskoB he was certainly remarkable. He flourished 
in Chicago in the seventies, but he had been exhibited in 
public eight or ten years previous to that time. He had 
a wonderful memory, though it was given out that he 
was feeble-minded. It added to the remarkable char- 
acter of his feats that he was also blind. He had had no 
instruction and did not even know the rudiments of 
music, and yet he could play three airs at once and re- 
peat any piece after a single hearing of it, rarely missing 
a note or striking a false one. He enjoyed his own per* 
f ormances quite as heartily as his audience did, and when 
they applauded he joined in, clapping his hands with 
great glee. His father and mother were slaves in Greorgia, 
and when they were offered for sale, the price was $1500 
without Tom and $1200 with him. His purchaser made 
a fortune exhibiting him. I think he is still living, but 
whether he retains his musical faculty I do not know. 

When I began this work, I intended not to recall 
any one now actively engaged in the profession of 
music, but Carreno is nearing the close of her remark- 
able career and has proved such a striking exception 
to most musical experiences that I cannot refrain from 



86 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

saying Bomething about her. She is one of the few in- 
fant phenomenons who have more than made good the 
promise of childhood. She was bom in Veneasuela in 
1853, and consequently is now in her fifty-fifth year. 
As a child she was possessed of great personal charm 
and beauty, and she is stUl a beautiful, stately woman. 
As a young player (I first heard her, I think, in 1868) 
she was moody, sometimes playing divinely, sometimes 
recklessly, as she happened to feel. Time, howeyer, has 
softened her moods. She is growing old in years with 
exceeding grace and growmg old in music with all the 
grace df the finished artist. When I heard her only 
a few evenings ago, playing poor MacDowell's Concerto, 
it seemed to me that the kindly faced, gray-haired 
woman played far more artistically than she had done 
as the young woman of passionate moods, and that she 
had developed wellnigh perfect artistry. I remembered 
her well as a frirl, and now, after all these years, it 
w« ple««,t J^rit ^^^,. her pU^g Li 
recall the old days with a pleasure not marred by the 
old lament, ^^JEheu^ fugaces annir* 



CHAPTER Vm 

SOME PRIMA DONNAS 

NIIBSON — QUALinES OF H£B SINGING — HER IfOODS AMD 
HABITB — MANY ADMIRERS — A MEMORABLE BIRTHDAY — 
PAULINE LUCCA AND HER ROMANTIC CAREER — ETELKA 
GER8TER — A BRIEF AND BRILUANT CAREER — THE 
FAMOUS GERSTER-PATn EPISODE — LAGRANGE, MINNIE 
HAUCK, AND MARIE ROZE — ANOTHER FAMOUS EPISODE — 
KELLOGG AND CART — CADENZAS AND CAR VENTILATION — 
MATERNA AND LEHMANN — TWO GREAT WAGNER SINGERS 

— lehmann's plea for the ANIMAUS 

IF ever a priioa donna has had a charmed life it 
is Christine Nilsson. I wonder was it because 
she was the seventh child of a seventh child! 
She told me so once with such a serious expression 
of face that I think she really believed in the nu- 
merical significance. It seems to me but yesterday 
that I saw her, — tall, willowy, with high cheek- 
bones, expressive blue eyes, flashing teeth, ash-oolored 
hair, and shapely hands. The outlines of her face 
were a little severe, yet how attractive, even fasci- 
nating, she was, especially if you happened to see her 
in her favorite color of gray! And can it be pos- 
sible that she is now a sedate, retired old lady in her 
sixty-fifth year? It must be so, for all the ''Who's 
Whos" affirm she was bom in 1843. 

Christine Nilsson first appeared in concerts in Chicago 
with Brignoli, Yieuxtemps, Verger the barytone, and 



88 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

Annie Louise Cary, and daring the same year (1871) 
she sang in the oratorios of ^^ The Messiah " and '^ The 
Creation" with Imogene Brown, Annie Louise Cary, 
Alexander Bischo£E, and Myronvt Whitney. She also y( 
sang here in concerts in 1883 with Hope Glenn, Del 
Puente, and the Mendelssohn Quintette Club, and in 
opera in 1884, as well as in ''The Messiah" and 
''Elijah," with the long-ago defunct Oratorio Society. 
Has any one who heard her sing in the great duet 
from " The Huguenots " or " I know that my Redeemer 
liveth " ever forgotten it? She had a voice of remark- 
able sweetness and beauty, vocalization of the most 
skilful and fluent sort, and brilliant fioriture. She had 
a peculiar grace of manner and seemed to smg with 
her expressive eyes and every motion of her supple 
figure. She was also capable of producing certain rare 
effects, such as the aotto voce, which she would employ 
when she wished to make an unusual impression, so 
that in one sense her smging appeared calculated. Her 
finest operatic roles, it always seemed to me, were those 
of Valentin in " The Huguenots," in which she reached 
a powerful dramatic climax; Alice in "Bobert the 
Devil," which afforded her an opportunity of displaying 
her qualities in all their perfection; the title role of 
Mignon, which was rewritten for her,* and in which 
she was very fascinating by reason of her remarkable 
singing, though she was not so great a Mignon as 
Lucca; and Marguerite in "Faust." I have seen 
every variety of Marguerites from the passionate to 
the cold-blooded, from satin-gowned and bediamonded 

* The part was onginally written for measo-eopnuio yoioo. 



NILSSON'S MOODS AND HABITS 89 

Marguerites to Marguerites in peasant garb. The stage 
Marguerites indeed seem to belong to one extreme or 
the other, — all nature, all art, or all nobodies; but 
Nilsson found a happy medium by a combination of 
art and nature, though again her Marguerite was not so 
great as Lucca's. But whose was, unless it was Ellen 
Terry's on the dramatic stage ? It is a long slant from 
Gounod's garden music to burnt-cork minstrelsy, but 
how effective she made '' The Old Folks at Home " — 
a fitting pendant to Patti's '^ Home, Sweet Home ! " 

Nilsson was a singular bundle of moods, contrarieties, 
and little superstitions, and yet she was a sunshiny, opti- 
mistic creature. She would have made an accomplished 
diplomat. She could say more without committing her- 
self than any one I ever knew. She always observed 
a most courteous demeanor before audiences and had a 
personal appeal in her singing that gave each one in the 
audience the impression that she was singing for him or 
her. She never permitted herself to be disturbed or sur- 
prised or to confess she was in an awkward situation. 
She had no quarrels with her fellow artists, for she kept 
a naturally imperious disposition in check, nor did she 
display jealousy, except perhaps upon one occasion when 
she forced her manager to give her a sum equivalent to 
that which Mapleson was paying Patti. She was diplo- 
matic in her card-playing, of which she was fond. Upon 
one occasion, during a game in the Lenten season, a 
caller was announced. The cards disappeared as if by 
magic, and the caller found her deeply engrossed in a 
devotional work and reluctant to be torn away from 
it. Here is one of her diplomatic little speeches to an 



90 MUSICAL MEai OKIES 

audience : '' I am so sorry to bid you good-bye, bat per- 
haps I will come back, buy a little home, and stay with 
you always, if you will let me/' Was there ever neater 
blandishment for a guileless, unsuspecting audience? 
Oh ! but she was a past mistress of flattery I Here is an 
extract from one of her diplomatic letters : ^ I love the 
Americans. I send them my love, and I beg them to 
understand that on no account would I quit the stage 
without singing again in the United States. I am sorry 
I cannot go again this year, but I cannot. They are not 
to think it is because I do not want ta I long to see 
your country and your people once more. Some of the 
dearest friends I have in the world are there. They are 
all my friends, are they not ? I assure you I admire 
America, and I want you to say so. And don't forget 
to give them my love, and say I shall be sure to go and 
see them as soon as I can." Nilsson was also demo- 
cratic as well as diplomatic. As the gallery is not in 
the habit of passing bouquets up to the stage, she now 
and then would provide them herself, and have some one 
take them to the upper proscenium box and throw them 
to the stage at the proper time. Then she would pick 
them up, kiss them, lift her eyes with a rapturous smile, 
and thus acknowledge the gift the gods had sent her. 
She also had her little superstitions, which she sought to 
overcome by carrying a horseshoe with her as a mascot. 
A gipsy once told her she must beware of fire. She 
lost somewhat heavily by the Chicago fire, and also by 
the subsequent fire in Boston, against which her horse- 
shoe failed to protect her. Her superstitions, however, 
were hafmiesB, for she had strong common sense back of 



NILSSON'S MANY ADMIRERS 91 

thenL It was eminently sensible advice which she once 
gaye a young operatic aspirant : '^ It is not enough to 
possess a yoice and knowledge of music and some his- 
trionic talent, or whatever it is, to carry you through an 
opera; you must be physically, brutally strong. It 
is the knowledge of this which makes lyric artists so 
sensitive when they are said to be ill They know that 
without physical strength to sing through such an opera 
as ^ Lohengrin/ for instance, art, talent, genius, what 
you will, are of no avail/' 

Nilsson had a host of admirers of all conditions. She 
once wrote : ^' My ambition is to make heaps of money, 
invest it well, fall desperately in love with a handsome 
man, and in the course of time go back with him and a 
couple of handsome children to Sweden. I should like 
to ride about with them in a nice carriage, showing 
them to old friends.'' There was once some gossip about 
her betrothal to Gustav Dor^, the artist. He proposed 
to her, but was rejected. Far from being discouraged, 
he proposed a second time, whereupon she told him she 
would take six months to think it over ; but at the end 
of that time her reply was in the negative, and Dor^ re- 
treated from the field. She had a devoted admirer in 
Chicago in 1871, one Jerome Meyer, who seized every 
opportunity to see her at the Sherman House, followed 
her carriage in the streets, and at last went to the hotel 
with a coach and four to urge her to elope. It became 
necessary to call in the police and have the frenzied 
suitor removed. But, as Nilsson said in the above letter, 
she did make heaps of money, and invested it, and al- 
though she lost some of it, she married a handsome 



92 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

man ; for the half Creole, August Bouzaud, was a very 
handsome man with a very cavalier maimer, as I re- 
member hinL But he was not happy long. He was 
possessed with the idea that he was responsible for her 
financial losses, and when he tried to make up for them, 
he only made bad matters worse. This preyed upon 
his mind so continuously that reason finally gave way, 
and he was removed to an asylum, where he died. She 
subsequently married Count de Miranda, a Spanish noble- 
man, and retired from the stage. 

My pleasantest memory of Christine Nilsson is con- 
nected with her birthday celebration at the Sherman 
House in Chicago in 1871, to which I have already 
made allusion. She was in the gayest of moods that 
evening, waived all the conventionalities, and showed 
herself a Bohemian of the most rollicking, sunshiny 
kind. Verger sang musical caricatures of the leading 
barytones on the stage. Vieuxtemps sacrificed his high 
art ideas to the humor of '^ The Arkansas Traveller '' and 
the fascinations of '^ Money Musk '' ; Brignoli played his 
Battle March, which he thought was an inspiration, and 
was inclined to be offended when he looked round and 
saw the company, with Nilsson in the lead, doing an 
extraordinary cake walk to its rhythm, for Brignoli 
took that inarch very seriously. Nilsson gave some 
ludicrous imitations of the trombone, double-bass, tym- 
pani, and bassoon, and sang humorous songs. The 
closing act of the revelry, which lasted far into the 
small hours, was a travesty on the Garden Scene in 
'^ Faust" by Nilsson and Brignoli, in which the big 
tenor's gravity of mien and awkwardness of love-making 



PAULINE LUOCA 93 

was admirably set o£E by Nilsson's vol&tile foolery. It 
was a night of hilarity and fun-making long to be re- 
membered. And now I read that the once famous singer 
spent her sixty-fourth birthday in the Swedish village of 
Gardsby and delighted an enthusiastic audience with 
the song, ^' I think I am just fourteen/' I should not 
be surprised if she honestly belieyes it, for she is one 
of the elect who can never grow old in spirit. 

While I am writing this (diapter, a cablegram brings 
the tidings of Lucca's death in Vienna. The despatch 
gives her more stately name, Baroness Pauline Wall- 
hofen-Lucca, but I remember her as simply Pauline 
Lucca. She was sixty-seven years of age when she 
died, and had been teaching most of the time since 
1884, when she retired from the stage she had so 
brilliantly adorned. When I saw her she was in the 
very prime of her career. She made her Chicago debut 
in 1873 in '^ Favorita," but not in her best part. Her 
most successful roles were Zerlina in ^' Fra Diavolo," 
Cherubino in ^'Nozze di Figaro," Zerlina in ^^Don 
Giovanni," the title role in ^^Mignon," Selika in 
^' L'Africaine," and Marguerite in '^ Faust." Meyerbeer 
was such an admirer of her talent that he made a 
codicil to his will to the effect that if Lucca were 
engaged to play Zelika at the Berlin Opera House, 
^ L' Af ricaine " might be produced in Germany in the 
German language. She appeared in his opera in the 
same year, at London in Italian, and at Berlin in 
German. Her Marguerite was not only one of the 
most artistic performances on the operatic stage, but 



94 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

also an innovatioii upon the conventional representa- 
tions of the part, for she was a brunette Gretchen with 
black braids reaching nearly to her pretty feet. She 
created as much surprise at the tune as Fechter^s blond 
Hamlet did a few years previously. She was a graceful, 
handsome, and sprightly little creature, a most accom- 
plished actreas, and one with the highest regard for 
dramatic truth and propriety. In fact, it is difficult to 
say which was her greatest attraction, her beautiful, 
sympathetic singing, teste ^^ Eennst Du das Land 7 '' in 
** Mignon,'* or h&L dramatic power, teste the scene with 
Mephistopheles at the church door in ^' Faust" If she 
had devoted her talent to the dramatic stage, she might 
have been one of the great actresses of her time. She 
not only identified herself with the character she was 
representing, but her respect for the unities was so 
great that she paid little attention to applause or 
demands for encores. 

On the stage Lucca was engrossed with her art. Off 
the stage, she was a different person. She had a pecul- 
iar personal fascination which few could resist. The 
Emperor William had yielded to it and appointed her 
his favorite court singer. Bismarck was a victim and 
frankly declared he would give much to possess a con- 
fidential secretary with so clear a head as that of his 
'^ amiable little Pauline," and publicly exhibited his 
admiration by having his picture taken with his ^^ amia- 
ble" friend at his side — a German Hercules and Om- 
phale. Even stem old Von Moltke succumbed in spite 
of all his strategetical defences. She was devoted to the 
army, and the army was devoted to her, and it was this 



LUOGA'B ftOICAMna caxEEB, 95 



deKition which led to her rosuoitic marital ezperiences* 
She had an alkr from Prince Lobkowits^ but notwith- 
standing hiB mnsical toMtitions^ahe rejected hm^ where- 
upon he generoDudy got himsell killed in a duel. The 
storyr of her two husbands is interesting. The first cme^ 
Baron ycmi Ri^den^ was wounded in the Franco-German 
War^ and she went to the military hoq[>ital to nurse him. 
The second husband. Baron Wallhofen, a cavalry of- 
ficer, was wounded at the same time, was an inmate of 
the same hon^ital, and shared her attentions. In 1&72 
she brought a siut in this country for divorce from Yon 
Bahden without his knowledge, alleging infidelity as 
the cause* He tried to have it set aside subsequently^ 
but &dled, and consoled himself by promptly marrying 
the object ci Lucca's jealousy. Thereupon Lucca married 
Wallhof en, who had followed her to the United States^ 
and, I presume, lived as happily and contentedly with 
him as such an impulsive, exacting little woman could. 
Like the Duchess of Oerolstein, she dearly loved ^' the 
military." She would have made a stunning vmrndilin. 
In private life she was quite democratic, plain of speech, 
unassuming of attire, and fond of Wurst and SehwmnArod 
— perlutps became they were military rations. She was 
ako frank, forcible, and independmit in expression of 
opinion. Upon one occasion I was her n^ghbor at 
dinner, and observing that she frequently held her hand 
to her hmd, I asked her if she was in pain, to which 
Ae replied die had a headache. She tiien proeeectod 
to anathematize both her head and the ache with most 
ornate and ingeniously combined German mititary e:i^ 
pletives. Evidently she had no use for expletives 



96 ICUSIGAL MEMORIES 

were not military. Ordinary ones were inadequate to ex* 
press her feelings or relieve her mind. Then^ again, they 
were the vernacular of the camps^ and for this reason she 
chose them. Perhaps also, as she was at that time 
somewhat tangled up in the affairs of her two soldier 
barons, they may have been a still further reliel Any* 
way, they seemed to comfort her and restore her equa- 
nimity, for she soon was vivacious and talkative and 
became the life of the company. She evidently was not 
overcome with the consuming love for America which 
Nilsson displayed with such protestation. She had just 
come from New York, which she described as a colossal 
city with a million people indefatigably trying to get 
each other's money away. It would take another Ck>- 
lumbus, she said, to discover any appreciation or en- 
joyment of the artistic or intellectual there. 

Now thia sprightly little woman has gone and will 
never have headaches again nor deliver delightful mili- 
tary expletives so bewitchingly as she did that evening. 
BequiesccU in pace. 

Etelka Gerster, the Hungarian singer, who made her 
Chicago debut January 13, 1879, had one of the short- 
est and most brilliant careers on record. One week she 
was a comparatively obscure vocalist, and the next week 
a dozen cities were competing for her. Her first per^ 
f ormance spread her fame all over Europe. She was a 
meteor in the musical firmament, shooting into sight out 
of the darkness, flaming a little way in dazzling flight, 
then disappearing again into the darkness, leaving no 
sign. 



ETELKA QER8TER 97 

Gterster was not a handsome woman^ like so many of 
her contemporaries, but her face lightened up pleasantly 
and displayed a very attractive earnestness in dramatic 
roles ; for while she was by no means a finished actress, 
she was a natural one. Her voice was a pure soprano 
without a flaw in it. Her high register was clear and 
birdlike, much resembling Jenny Lind's, and her middle 
and low tones were full and rich. She displayed no 
effort in singing, taking even the most florid passages 
with perfect ease, and this facility, joined with her clear, 
pure tones, the carrying power of her voice, her precision 
of pitch, and her wonderfully brilliant fioriture, made her 
one of the most attractive and popular singers of her 
day. It is a pity that such a splendid career was so 
short-lived. She was in this country several times, but 
the last time, in 1886, there could be no mistake. That 
exquisite voice was in ruins and beyond hope of resto- 
ration. Could it have been saved and could she have 
had a few more years on the stage, Patti, Nilsson, and all 
the other artists of the period would have had to look to 
their laurels, for she had every requisite of the perfect 
singer. She was not powerfully dramatic, like Lucca» 
for instance, but the public are not in the habit of looking 
to the operatic stage for actresses. When they do they 
are usually disappointed. 

Off the stage Gerster was a very enjoyable person to 
meet, as she had no affectations and did not care to talk 
shop. She was quite domestic, an accomplished house- 
keeper and excellent cook. At hotels she usually sent 
for the chef and arranged the details of her menus with 
him. If these arrangements failed in the slightest 



degree^ aha would get aaigry^ for ahe liad a quick tmiper. 
Onee aha told the proprietor he must diacharge hift chef ^ 
for he luwL put too much aalt in her aoup. On another 
ooeaaioii die wished for olive cul, and the bottle Miaa 
Kellogg had been using was brought to her. She would 
not even look at it^ and ordered it taken away with the 
remaark that it was horrid atuff and fit only for an* 
American. The situation was a little straine^ fos 
Gerster did not like Miss Kellogg and of course would 
not like what Miss Kellogg liked. But as Miss Kellogg 
was more difficult to suit than Gerster^ except when hw 
mother did the cooking, it is most likely that the oil 
was flood enouflh even for the Hunflarian. 

the 6er8ter-Patti war. It was not a very long one^ 
though it reached from Chicago to San Francisco, but 
it was hot and fl^)ectacu]ar while it lasted. The two 
singers were in the same troupe on one of Mapleson*s 
Western tours and were mortally jealous of each other. 
Mapleson unwisely inc^ised Gerster by showing favors^ 
to Patti When they appeared together on the stage, 
Patti would receive a profusion of flowers, some of them 
official, doubtless, but Gerster would get the most ap- 
plause, and this so embittered Patti that at last she 
refused to sing at the same time with her. One day 
Gerster saw a poster with Patti's name on it Isurger and 
blacker than hers, whereupon she disappeared^ and was 
not found for two or three days. Patti declared that 
Geniter had the evil eye, and that when they reached San 
Francisco she would probably cause an earthquake. Ger- 
ster, however, got back handsomely, for when she saw the 




Etblka Gerstxr 



THE FAMOCTB aEB8TEBrl»ATri EPISODE 99 

Governor of Miflsoori kiss Patti, ahe quiefiiy obsenred 
in Patti's hearing that th^re was no harm in a man's 
kisaing a woman old enough to be his mo&». That 
settled it. They spoke no more, but regarded each 
other haughtily from a distance. They travelled in 
separate cars. When Gerster learned that there was 
to be aooi extra concert in Denver, for which she and 
Pattd were billed, she engaged a special train to take 
her to New York, and it kept Mapleson occupied a 
whcAe day in pacifying her with sympathetic appeals 
and direful threats of the courts. Whenever Grerster's 
name was mentioned, Patti would make the finger sign 
to avert evil, and Gerster was not slow in devismg suni- 
lar methods of displaying h&r tender regard for Patti. 
At last they reached San Francisco, where the two had 
a picturesque variety of quarrels ; but Gerster mercifully 
spared the city from destruction by looking at it only 
with her good eye. The eruption was confined to the 
troupe. It finally died away with low mutterings and 
occasional sputteringa, but the Colonel told me on his 
return that even then he could feel some of the seismic 
vibrations, and that the episode was one of the worst 
he had experienced in a career which was as liable 
to cyclonic disturbances as a Kansas prairie. 



Lagrange is now hardly more tha 
name, and vet she was a far better 



than many whose names are recorded in the dictionaries 
of music. She came to New York in 1853 and was 
engaged both in opera and concerts for three or four 
years, appearing several times in Chicago. She was 



100 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

then past her prime, but she was still an accomplished 
singer. Her voice was not remarkable for power, nor 
was her dramatic talent extraordinary, but she was a 
true artist, and her work showed the results of consci- 
entious study and love of her art. She was extremely 
modest and dignified in her stage bearing and averse to 
passionate display in her roles. An interesting stoty is 
told in this connection which will serve also to intro- 
duce Brignoli, the tenor. They were singing together 
at Havana, one evening, in '^ Lucia.'' Brignoli took the 
part of Edgardo, in which vocally he was supreme ; but 
thatevenmg he fiuled to make an unpression, and in the 
last act the house was half empty. This was something 
new for Brignoli. The next day he asked a friend to 
explain the embarrassing situation. The friend said : 
'' Why, you sang false and had no heart in your music. 
Cubans will not excuse such faults." BrignoU some- 
what testily replied : ** It was not my fault ; Lagrange 
was so cold that she froze me.'' Brignoli's complaint 
reached Lagrange's ears. She resolved to be ardent 
enough at least to convince him that he could not again 
attribute his bad singing to her want of fervor. In the 
meantime Brignoli had been communing with himself 
and came to the conclusion that perhaps he was the 
freezer. The next evening both of them warmed up, 
and the result was curtain calls, bravas, and flowers from 
the warmed-up Cubans. I think both were right, for 
naturally the two were politely prim and courteously 
cold. A passionate climax could not be achieved by 
either of them without a tremendous tour de farce* 
But it would be hard to find a more faithful artist than 



Ji 





lAQRANGE, HAUt)]^;AND ROZE 101 



• » 



Lagrange. She never marred a*8«aipon with diBappoint- 
ments, never wrangled with W* iu^s, and never 
descended to the petty jealousies so t^bimon among 
singers. She was a beautiful dresser and fonft'of om&> 
mentS) which was somewhat curious for one* sorlguiet 
and retiring, but if she had any personal yanities^jjhe: 
sacrificed them in favor of her art. Like Lilli Lehmann,' /. * 
she was extremely fond of animals and travelled with ' '* 
quite a menagerie, including three dogs, a parrot, a 
mocking-bird, and a husband, all docile and well trained. 
It may well be imagined that the managers looked 
askance at the entire retinue, for managers do not rel- 
ish impedimenta of this sort ; but they overlooked it in 
consideration of having for once a prima donna who did 
not spend most of her time devising ways to evade the 
conditions of her contract. 

I must couple Minnie Hauck and Marie Roze together, 
though he would have been a bold man to attempt such 
a feat in 1878. The two artists never loved each other. 
Perhaps ^^ Carmen '' had something to do with it. The 
title role was originally written for Marie Boze, but 
she found so much fault with the vagaries of the 
cigar girl and the music, that Bizet at last fixed it up 
for (ralli-Mari^. Meanwhile Minnie Hauck looked the 
opera over and saw her opportunity. ^'Carmen'' just 
suited her. The cigar girl did not frighten her in the 
least. It was just the kind of reckless abandon and 
strenuous adventure she liked, and she made a tre- 
mendous success with the part. Marie Boze, after the 
opera had become popular, tried it and did not succeed. 



» 



102 MOaW^inOKMUBB 

She WBB too geiiMe*4aid proper for the Seville j/ijem. 
Mary's littJe.^Anb trj^ng to be a wild-cat is a tane 
oompari0oit\ ^Then, ftgun, the ladies had hwbaiids. 
Minnje jjaiick's hudband vas the Chevalier Hesse von 
llfjHctejggy a writer of oonoderable note, whose pen, 
: <&nng opera seasons, was mostly employed in writing 
./•requests to the manager and inditing defences of his 
wife. Marie Booe's first husband was Jules Perkins, 
the American basso^ who died in 1876. She subse- 
quently married Ccdonel Henry Mapleson^ scm of Colo- 
nel J. fi. Mapleson, late of Her Majest/s forces and 
fitill later of Her Majesty's Theatre, I give the senior 
colondL all his titles, for he was very particular about 
thrai. He always leaned heavily upon Her Majesty 
and was tibou^t to resemble the Duke of WelUo^gUm. 
The young colonel not only fou|^ his wife's battles, 
but was continually planning fresh engagements. He 
was also an indefatigable press agent for her. It used 
to be a ccMumon saying among members of the company 
when he came in sight : ** Attams done ! Vaila MapkMHy 
fid nous phmie mcore une HogrofkU de iafemme'' Many 
were the scrimmages which he conducted, but the most 
ludicrous one occurred in Chicago, and I had the pleas- 
ure of being a witness of the movements and counter 
movements as well as the confidential recii^ent of the 
statements both of the Chevalier and the junicnr colonel. 
For the openiiig night of the season of 1878 '^The 
Marriage of Figaro" was announced, with Boze as 
Susanna sod Bauck as Cherubino. At three o'clock 
that afternoon Hauck went to the theatre and pre- 
empted the prima donna's room by depositing her 



ANOfBER FAMOUS XSPIBODB 3.08 

thingB therem. An hour Inter Boie's mmd veadhed 
the theatre and proceeded to the same room ooij 
to find it filled with the hated rival'« traps. Boise 
notified the colonel. He was prompUj on the scene 
and began operations by removing Hauck's belong- 
ings to the opposite room and instructing his wife to 
be at the theatre precisely at six. At half-past fire^ 
however^ Hauck sent the Chevalier to the theatre to 
see that everything was right. The Chevalier found 
that everything was not right and ordered Roze's be* 
longings removed^ replaced his wife's, and had every- 
thing, including the door, stoutly locked. At six Boze 
arrived prepared ^^ to hold the fort/' but as she could n't 
get into the fort to hold it she sent for the colonel, who 
sent for a locksmith, who opened up. Hauck's things 
were unceremoniously bundled out. At half-past six 
Hauck came to the room to dress, And much to her 
surprise and to the Chevalier's chagrin Boze was in 
there calmly dressing. What passed between them 
probably no one will ever know, but Hauck went back 
to the Palmer House and notified Strakosch she would 
not sing that evening. The Chevalier was promptly 
on hand to explain why, and the colonel to wonder 
why not. The volatile Max went into spasms, as was 
his wont. It would not do to put off the opera, it 
was too late to change it; so the opera began without 
Cherubino, Strakosch meanwhile wrestling with Hauck 
and at last persuading her to change her mind. She 
finally went to the theatre, appeared when the opera 
was half through, suitable excuses having been in- 
Tilted, and glared at Susanna nntil the final cnrtaui^ 



104 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

and then — but a veil must be drawn. One can only 
say with Virgil: 

<* Can such deep hate find plaoe in breaats diyine? " 

Both the ladies were great favorites. Minnie Hauck 
was a pretty woman with fine eyes^ an excellent singer^ 
and an actress both vigorous and vivacious, though now 
and then she would lapse, as once in the chamber scene 
in ^^ Sonnambula/' when she actually fell asleep and 
was only roused by the shouts of the villagers. Her 
finest parts were Amina in this opera, Katharine in 
Goetz's ^'Taming of the Shrew/' and Carmen. Her 
belligerent disposition and pluckiness in action may 
perhaps be traced to the fact that most of her young 
life was spent in Kansas. 

Marie Boze, on the other hand, was amiable, good- 
natured, and kindly disposed, and an unusually beau- 
tiful woman. Her A'ida, Helen of Troy in Boito*s 
^^ Mefistofele,'' and Marguerite (though she was a 
somewhat stout Oretchen) were a joy to the eye. 
Her embonpoint was now and then embarrassing. In 
'^Mignon'' Tom Karl rushed into the burning house 
to save her, but was unable to carry her. Gottschalk, 
who was something of an athlete, came to the rescue 
and succeeded. She had a very agreeable mezzo- 
soprano voice, and she had been well trained ; and while 
not an artist in the grand style, it was always a pleasure 
to see and hear her. 

I must also couple Clara Louise Kellogg and Annie 
Louise Cary together, for they are two of the most suc- 
cessful American singers. It may interest the reader 



CLARA LOUISB KELLOQQ 105 

who remembers the elegant Kellogg m her palmy days 
to know what N. P. Willis thought of her when she was 
a girl of eighteen* He wrote in his ^^ Home Journal " : 
^^She has not only wondrous music in her voice but 
what music expresses in her soul. Mocking-bird like, 
many have the utterance, but few know the full burthen 
of what they utter." Kellogg made her debut in her 
nineteenth year as Gilda in ^^ Rigoletto/' enjoyed twenty 
years of success in concerts, Italian and English opera, 
both in Europe and the United States, and retired in 
1882. She was one of the elegant, aristocratic ladies 
of the stage, stately in manner and refined to a degree. 
Her costumes were the envy of the profession and the 
admiration of audiences, for she was always the best 
dressed person in the house. She was a fascinating 
figure as Y ioletta or Filina, but sometimes her ravishing 
trousseaus were a little too fine for the characters, for 
Kellogg was bent upon having them all ^^ walk in silk 
attire.'' She had a voice of great compass and beautiful 
quality, somewhat like Patti's, and her singing was al- 
ways refined, free from mannerisms, and marked by 
grace and ease. I do not remember to have heard a 
more perfect piece of vocal artistry than her singing of 
the ** Mignon '* polacca. Indeed, it almost seemed as if 
the composer must have had her in mind, so perfectly 
was it fitted to her style. 

Kello^ had other qualities besides the musical. She 
was a good financier, made a good deal, of money and 
invested it weU. She was also a smart impresario, and 
for a time had an opera troupe of her own, which she 
managed with great success, the operas bemg given in 



106 MUBICAL MEMOmflaB 

Englidi. The tronpe included Van Zandty Montague, 
Zdda S^guin, OaetLe, Maaa^ Carleton, Hamihon, Peakee, 
and dxlj. Maae, a good aetor wiih a beautifal tenor 
yoice^ had an amusing experienoe upon one occasion. He 
was of light weight, while Kellogg wae of genaroos eise. 
They were ainging together in ^^ Troratore," and in a 
eoene wh»e Leonora makes a passionate rudi to embrace 
Manrico, the little tenc^, unable to withstand her mo- 
Biwtum, was upset. Some of these sudden stage upsets 
are Tery funny. I remeniber seeing Gazsaniga start 
horn the back to the front of the stage in the most 
impressiye mannw, with eyes uplifted and arms up- 
raised, to sing her aria, and when halfway there, ait 
squarely down witii a ^^ thud " anything but ^ dulL" 
Whatev w it was that tripped her, it brou^t her 4own 
as well as the house. 

Kellogg preserred her fine singing quality to the fast 
and had the good sense to retire before vocal impair^ 
ment or 2kgb compelled her to do so. She was very for- 
tunate all through her career, but mudi of her good 
fortune was due to her mother, a shrewd, sensible 
woman, who fairly adned her. She took the best 
of care of her and her voice, went to the theatre with 
her, and at the dose of the perf ormaooe was ready witih 
her wraps, and guarded her against drau^^bts all the 
way back to the hotel She prepared her food for her 
and saw that it was nourishing, ^e waa equally care- 
ful of her at functions, for b» daughter was a gresi 
favorite in society. She new made herself obnoxious 
to managers and never disagreed with them. She 
simply stood between her daughter and all disagreeable 




Clara Louise Kellooo 
In " La Tmvialfl " 



ANimt LOUISE CABT I07 

tfaiDgB^ 80 tiiot the latter was absolutely care free and 
not ezpoeed to anything unpleasant. There was one 
eaK)eptioQ to this^ however. She and Cai^ were onee 
naughty girls^ though m reality they liked each other. 

No one could really dislike Caiy. No one ever sang 
herself deeper into the hearts of the people, Gary made 
her first appearance in Chicago at a concert in Farwell 
Hall in 1870^. and her opemtic debut took place three 
yean later, when she appeared in *^ Aida '* as Amneris, 
with Campanini as Rhadamest In 1874 she also sang 
the part of Ortrud in ^^ Lohengrin " with great success, 
in 1879 and 1880 was a member of Kellogg's Concert 
Company, and a year or two later sang with Gerster. 
Indeed, what did she not sing? Operatic roles from 
Amneris to Nancy in ^^ Martha " ; oratorios, ballads, in 
Handel and Haydn concerts ; and in all the big Cincin- 
nati festivals until she retired in 1882 and married^ 
She had a noble contralto voice of violoncello quality 
and a free and facile manner of singing which aj^iealed 
to every one. She appeared at home on the stage, 
though she once told me that she <rften suffered from 
stage fri^t, and she was at home with her audiences, 
lor die was fairly racUant with kindly good humor, 
though she never carried fEuniliarity too far. She was 
amply a Maine girl, fond of ndghbom wherever she 
ftrand them. She was democratic and unconventional, 
and her friendly, sonorous ^^ Hello ** was but 1^ expres- 
sion of her warm,, sunny nature. She was as unlike 
ihe popular conception of an operatic artist as it is pos- 
sible to imagine. Prima donnas are not usually hail' 
fdlows* well met They do not cany their sewing on 



108 MUSICAL MEMOBIES 

the traina They do not mingle with people. They 
do not give you a stout grip of the hand* They 
do not break out into sunbursts of smiles or resound* 
ing laughs, or send wireless despatches to friends 
in the audience. Once Gary went to an Illinois town 
to sing and had to put up at an inferior hotel. The 
room to which she was assigned was not clean. The 
windows were dingy. It was forlorn and uncomfort- 
able, but it was the best room in the house. She ordered 
the maid who showed her up to bring a broom, a pail of 
water, and a mop, and help her clean up. In a short 
time the room had undergone a change into '^ something 
rich and strange," and Gary, feeling relieved, for she 
could not abide dirt, sat down with her knitting and 
awaited the hour for the concert. Strakosch, when her 
manager, paid her a high compliment by declaring that, 
well or sick, she was always ready to go on and do her 
best. She could sing every night and never complained 
when suddenly called upon. ^' She is a jewel I " said 
Strakosch. 

The trouble between Gary and Kellogg, to which I 
have alluded, was not very serious. It occurred on a 
trip to San Francisco. The first spat was about a ca- 
denza in which Kellogg was a little tangled. Cary said 
that Kellogg broke down, and Kellogg declared that 
Cary broke down. She said she ought to know that 
cadenza, as she had sung it scores of times. Caiy in- 
sisted that she sang it right, and Kellogg insisted that 
she did n% and which of the two was right or wrong no 
one knows to this day. The audience supposed both 
were rights as it did n't know anything about it anyway. 




Annii Louise Carv 



I 



MATEBNA AND LEHMANN 109 

Then they had a radical difference of opinion about 
car ventilation. Eello^ wanted the car warm, Cary 
wanted it cold. If it were too warm, Cary would go 
to the back platform, sit on a campstool, and leave the 
door open. ^^Why/' said Kellogg to me, ^^I had to 
have a curtain put up so as to keep from freezing, and 
would you believe it ? she slept all that night with the 
ventilators open. She did, really ! ** 

I think the cadenza and car ventilation were the most 
serious troubles in Gary's long and happy career. Per- 
haps it is not too late for Mrs. Baymond and Mrs. 
Strakosch even now to get together and settle those two 
problems. They might regard them more dispassion? 
ately and from a broader point of view. 

I must dose this chapter of memories with some ref - 
erence to the two great Wagner singers, Matema and 
Lehmann. Matema, who made her Chicago debut in 
1882, presents a singular study in musical evolution, for 
she began singing in Offenbach and Suppe roles. Then 
she entered upon grand opera via ^^ Don Giovanni " and 
^^ UAfricaine," and at last became Wagner's chosen 
Brttnhilde and the creator of his Eundry, and was iden- 
tified with his music-dramas untU her retirement in 
1897. Her voice was admirably adapted to the delivery 
of the Wagner music by reason of its breadth and 
power, and her personations were effective because of her 
thorough study of the parts with the composer * and 

* In the above oonnection I cannot refrain from adding this chaiao- 
teiistic stoiy of Matema and Coaima Wagner, now going the rounds of the 
German papers. Madame Wagner insisted upon her ideas of interpreta- 
tion in certain paasages* Matema combated them, f'l learned these 



110 MUBIGAL asiiORiiai 

h&jt noUe^ jMusunonate style of decktmationy as weB 
as of her digmfied, stately, and impressive personal 
appesffaaoe. 

LiUi* Lehmaim has only recently retired from the 
stage, and is now teaching in Germany. Her voice was 
cme of great beaaty as well as power and flexibility, and 
her magnetic influence so strong that many who went 
to scoff at Wagner retomed converted. Her persona- 
tiens were so informed with emotional power that few 
oould resist their spell. She was a singer possessed not 
alone of a beautiful voice, fluent t^hnic, and most en- 
gaging presence,, but of the raie power of impressing 
the listoier with the beauty of the Wagnw conceptions 
and the dramatic quality of his music. I have often 
thought that there should be some subtle connection be- 
tween the song and the singer, and that music would be 
more noble if sung by a person of noble character ; but 
this is not always the case. It was true, however, in 
liilli Lehmann's case, for die was a woman of rare love- 
UnesB, kindliness^ and nobility. Surely I can offer no 
better illustration of this than the following letter, which 
she wrote to the ^ Chicago Tribune ** d'ming her last visit 
to America, making an appeal for kindly treatment of 
the animals in the Lincoln Park 2Sbo, and which is printed 
hei^B 'derbatim et literatim : 

Dkab Sib, — I cannot go out of the country without to 
leave you a kind of Testament. 10 years ago I wrote to the 
TbA and Fooddepartement to gave the foxes and wolves 

tidsgi fwm the iSflitar liiiiMelf/' riie aaid flnaUy, thinUog it woMr dkm 
the iaMBat, It hUM^ however, for quidr as a flaih Madaoie W^tier le- 
tortad: " Poor SiohMd did n't alwa^tt Imow himself iHioA he ^vvntod.^ 



LEHMANN'S PLEA FOR THE ANIMALS 



111 



boxes where to lay in the night, because every animal has his 
nightqnaiter made by himself, and I consider it as a cruelty 
of hiffhett unconscienoe to keep what animal ever 25-80 years 
in a small cage without place to take exercise, no place to 
stay or lay warm, without any protection against storm, rain, 
snow or heat. It is to terrible to think of it, that I could 
despair nearly. I haye told this man, Mr. De Vry, 10 years 
before I told him now. The park is large enough to make 
some large houses and to put boxes in of lumber for theyr 
night quarters. 

I was yesterday to see the Bronx park in New York. 
There all the animals have large Places to walk, and there 
is no one who takes his house with straw fillet up. They are 
unhappy enough to be unfree, and if we take them theyr lib- 
erty, we at least must give them all eyerybody needs. 

Please to make up this question in your paper, and dont 
stop tiU the RICH Chicago has given to some foxes, wolves 
and other animals who in theyr distress and unhappiness must 
give pUoiure to the vfifauman people. 

Very sincerely, 

Lnjj LiEHHAKN Ealibch, 
K. K. Kamersangerin. 

NanaujLiiD Hotbl. 



CHAPTER IX 

MORE FOOTLIGHT FAVORITES 

ANNS bishop's LONG CABEER — FABBBI AND '^THB 8TABH9PAN- 
GLED BANNER '' — FBEZZOUNl's VANITT — PICGOLOIflNI, 
THE FASCINATING IMPOSTOR — HER FAREWELL — DI MUBr 
SKA — HER CADENZAS AND MENAGERIE — EMMA ABBOTT's 
CAREER — ALBANI, THE ^^CHAMBLT GIRL '' — BURMSI8TER 
AND OTHERS 

AS memory reverts to the past, a long succession 
J^ of singers comes into review, — good, bad, and 
indifferent. I can only single out a few of the 
best, for their name is Legion. Anne Bishop wellnigh 
belongs to ancient history. She antedated Jenny Lmd 
in this country, for she sang in New York in 1847. She 
was the wife of Sir Henry Bishop, the English com- 
poser, but as he would not consent to her singing in 
public, she eloped with Bochsa, the famous harpist, so 
that she might have the opportunity she desired, and 
then she kept on singing almost forever and a day. 
The dates are somewhat startling, — birth, 1814 ; debut, 
1831 ; still singing in 1884, when she was seventy, and 
not ceasing until death retired her in the same year. 
She first appeared in Chicago in 1861, with Sanquirico, 
basso ; Lavinia Bandini, violinist ; and Bochsa, harpist. 
No one can doubt her versatility and industry when 
they read one of her programmes of that season, which 
testifies that she sang on the same evening ^^ Casta 



FABBRI AND "THE STAB-SPANQLED BANNER'' 113 

Diva," "Sweet Home," "John Anderson, my Joe," 
" Coming thro' the Rye," an entire Bcena from " Roberto 
Devereuz," the mad scene from " Lucia," a tableau of 
Mexican life, introducing Mexican and Castilian airs, 
and "Hail Columbia," which she sang attired as the 
Groddess of Liberty. She was not a great artist. Her 
voice was not of good quality, but she was quite a 
showy singer, and sing she would. So she kept on 
singing until "all her lovely companions were faded 
and gone," and I have little doubt she entered the golden 
gates singing. 

Inez Fabbri was another industrious and sensational 
singer, but unlike Bishop, she had a fine voice in her 
day, and audiences always went into wellnigh hysterical 
raptures whenever she appeared. She too was fond of 
singing in character. It was in 1861, when the war 
spirit was in the air, that she came to Chicago, and 
during that season she sang in Brazilian, Hungarian, 
and French costumes. Her most dazzling make-up was 
exhibited on Washington's birthday. A full orchestra 
was in attendance. The stage was decorated with flags, 
and Ellsworth's Zouaves went through their evolutions, 
their handsome captain little dreaming of the personal 
tragedy so rapidly approaching. At the dose of the 
concert the Zouaves drew up in line, and Fabbri ad- 
vanced as the Goddess of Liberty, carrying a huge 
flag which it was all she could do to lift. Bringing 
the staff down upon the stage wiih a bang, she rose 
to her full height, and with stentorian voice began the 

National Hymn, closing it in this fashion : 

s 



114 ICUSICAL MEMORIES 

^* O the shtar spankdt panner, long may she waT6 
On ter Unt of ter free and ter home of ter praye 1 " 

The aimiyersary itself, the near approach of the 
Civil War, the flamboyant blare of the orchestra, and 
the Goddess' straggle with the English, aroused the 
audience to a pitch of patriotic frenzy. 



lini, whose real name was the unromantic one 
of Poggi, was another extremely sensational singer. 
She didn't sing so long as Anne Bishop, but she 
sang until the last thread of voice was gone. She 
was a tall and rather elegant-lookmg woman when 
in repose, but the moment she began singing, the 
charm was gone. Her attitude became painfully an- 
gular, and her facial contortions and grimaces were 
diBtressing. She was an extremely vain woman, and 
though handicapped, as I have stated, she sought in 
every way to attract admiration. She had had a 
brilliant past, had been loaded with jewels and gifts 
of various kinds, but ruined herself by her extraordi- 
nary efforts to keep up her fascinations and play a 
part in the gay world, and at last died at Paris in 
obscurity and poverty. She was past middle age 
when Maurice Strakosch introduced her to Chicago. 
She had a voice of good compass, flexibility, and 
strength ; but a singer so conscious of herself and so 
consumed with vanity could hardly be esqpected to 
do really artistic work. 

The little Tuscan singer Piccolomini comes next 
in my memory. Oh, but she was a gay deceiver! 




Marietta Piccolohini 



PIOOOLOMmi, THE FASCINATING IMPOSTOR 116 

She had a weak yoioe of limited range and ordinary 
flexibility, sang out of tune carelessly or unconsciously, 
and with no style at all. As a matter of fact she 
had neither musical faculty nor facility in any marked 
degree. If the music was easy, she got along fairly 
weU. If it was difficult, she scrambled through it 
the best she could with a most bewitching smile on 
her pretty face. She was one of the handsomest, 
most coquettish, and fascinating of impostors, and 
fooled the public to the top of her bent, the public 
apparently not unwilling to be fooled in such a cap- 
tivating way. She was honest enough to acknowledge 
it once by declaring: '^They call me little impostor, 
and they give me bouquets and applauses and monies. 
Why not be an impostor?'' Artemus Ward rather 
cleverly took her measure, although he knew little 
about music, when he wrote: '^ Fassinatin' people is 
her best holt. She was bom to make other wimmin 
mad because they ain't Piccolomini." It was her 
youth, beauty, piquancy, and chic that carried her 
through and o&et her lack of talent. She even had 
the monumental audacity to advertise a long farewell 
to '^the American public" in 1859. A short extract 
will do: 

^ I came to this countiy so proud, so free and so oharming 
in its youth and freshness, with high hopes which have been 
more than roalized. An artist who is satisfied is a miracle; 
so I am a miracle. But perhaps the public, or a portion of 
it» has been dissatisfied. That is not my fault. I never pre- 
tended to divine genius. I would lather stay here than go 
to Europe. But one, even a spoiled girl and a prima donna 
as well, cannot always have her own way. So I salute you 



116 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

alL I would be charmed to do it penonally, but the country 
is 80 big and the population bo immenae I fear the time would 
not be sufficient.** 

And then the little impostor flitted away wUh her 
pockets bursting with gold and was never heard of 
more. 

Di Murska^ the Hungarian, was another fascinating 
though by no means handsome little woman, who 
made her Chicago debut in 1874 with Carreno, Sau- 
ret, Ferranti, Braga of the ^^ Angel's Serenade/' and 
Habehnan. She was a musio-box with endless possi- 
bilities, and few could excel her in spectacular vocali- 
zation. She would undertake any flight, and if it 
were not dazzling enough, would add cadenzas of her 
own, as she flew along, which were the very extrava- 
gance of vocalism. Her resources of flexibility and 
range were sufficient for any efl^ort, and as she herself 
was fearless, fantastic, and eccentric, nothing suited her 
better than to astonish audiences with these sponta- 
neous outbursts. She was a bundle of eccentricities. 
Her special superstition was a golden belt, which she 
always wore as a surety of good luck. She had an 
inclination for marrying, and outlived five husbands 
of di£Eerent nationalities, beginning with an Irishman 
and closing with an American. She carried a menag- 
erie bigger than Lagrange's. It included a huge New- 
foundland dog, an Angora cat, two or three parrots, 
a chameleon, and a trained crow. The words De Vivo, 
her manager, used to utter, when they were getting 
ready to leave a city, or when any reference was made 




lUIA Dt MURBKA 



1 



EMMA ABBOTT'S CAREER 117 

to Di Murska'B Zoo, would not look well in print. And 
De Vivo was not an impatient man either. 

Emma Abbott was a good little Chicago girl who 
piously resolved, when Clara Louise Kellogg and Dr. 
Chapin*s church started her on the road to the stage, 
not to sing in operas which were improper, never to 
appear in a page's costume, never to sing on Sundays, 
and above all not to appear in the wicked '^ Traviata.'' 
She made these resolutions when she was quite young, 
just after she had concertized with the Lumbards, but 
outgrew them, and ended by appearing in '^ Traviata,*' 
and many other heterodox operas, even in some for which 
the ^' Abbott kiss '* was specially invented. She was a 
frequent visitor to Chicago, her birthplace, appearing in 
concerts, and in Italian and English operas, as well as in 
some of the Sullivan operettas. She also must be cred- 
ited with bringing out Mass^'s '^ Paul and Virginia " 
(they were a handsome pair, she and Castle, '^ under 
the sheltering palm "), Guarany's '' Grem of Peru,'' and 
Gounod's '^Mireille/' She was a slight, pale-faced, 
sensitive little woman, and an indefatigable worker. 
She had a very pure, pleasant voice, but some of her 
mannerisms were unpleasant. At the outset her voice 
was as rigid as her determination to become a singer. 
She manufactured a very fluent technic out of this un- 
bending voice, by the hardest kind of work, and richly 
deserved the success which she secured both in fame 
and money. 

Albani (stage name of Mademoiselle Lajeunesse, after- 
wards Madame Gye) first appeared in Chicago in 1875, 



118 MUSICAL MEMORIEB 

as Eba in ^ Lohengrin." She was a very lovely lookmg 
ELsa^ but it did not seem to me a great artistic petf onn- 
ance, nor did she appear at that time thoroughly in- 
formed with the Wagner spirit^ though my recollections 
of her performance of the role may be influenced by 
subsequent performances of the great Wagner artists. I 
much preferred her in other roles (for her repertory was 
very large). She was very successful in oratorio and 
festival work. Her voice was rich^ pure, and appeal- 
ing, and there was no lack of power. She was bom 
and brought up in an atmosphere of music. Canada 
was her native country, and the Canadians are very 
proud of their " Chambly GirL'' ♦ 

I can only briefly mention among others in this 
flight of song-birds, Emma Thursby, who was one of 
the most successful and admired of American concert 
singers ; Ambr^, a dramatic singer of great intensity, 
who fascinated the King of Holland, and Eleanor Sanz, 
a handsome singer of no intensity, who fascinated Al- 
fonso Xn of Spain ; Alwina Yalleria, a Baltimore girl, 
who sang three Marguerite roles — Gounod's, Boito's, 
and Berlioz's, — but who was most charming in English 
opera ; Marie Litta, the Bloomington, Illinois, girl, whose 
brilliant promise was extinguished by her untimely 
death ; Emma Nevada, a showy singer, whose daughter 
is just about to come out in opera in Italy ; and pretty 

* i*An' w'en All-ba-nee wm get loneiome for 
travel all roun' de worl' 
I hx^ shell oome home, lak de bluebird, an' 
again be de Chaml^ girl I" 

Drummond^$ " HMkmt$/* 



BURMEISTEB 119 

little Rose Hersee, who sang so delightfully with Parepa 
in English opera, of both of whom I shall speak more 
particularly in another chapter. 

And last| but by no means least. Mademoiselle 
Burmeister, the most faithful, the most conscientious, the 
most reliable, the most willing, and the best equipped all- 
round artist of them all for every sort of work* I think 
her repertory must have included the entire list of modem 
operas, and she was equally at home in French, German, 
or Italian. She was usually cast for secondary parts, 
but she was an understudy for the whole prima donna 
establishment, and I am not certain she could not have 
taken the tenor and bass roles, or led the orchestra. A 
manager who had Burmeister on his salary list was sure 
of his announcements, for she could be relied upon to 
fill any vacancy. She has now retired from the stage 
with the respect and admiration, if not the love, of 
every one connected with it. Her name did not appear 
in very large letters upon posters, nor was it often ob- 
servable in newspaper criticisms, but impresarios will 
look a long time before they find another Burmeister. 



CHAPTER X 

TENORS AND BASSOS 

THXnt COUPARATfYE POPULABITT — BBIONOU, HU ffTTLB AND 
VOICE — BUPEBCnrnONS and ANSGDOTBB — CAlIPANINl'8 
TRIUlfPHB — JSALOUBT OF CAPOUL — A BOITT WITH MAPLB- 
80N — WACHTBL, THE CAB-DRIYEB — OLD-mfS ADYERTIS- 
INO CURIOSITIES — ADAUB, BEST AMERICAN TENOR — 
AMODIO AND BELLINI IN THE ''UBEBTT DUET*' — HER- 
MANN'S INTERPOLATION — VORMES IN CONCERT AND OPERA 

— MTRON D« Whitney's oratorio trittmphb 

rin recaUing memories of operatic tenors and bassos 
it shall seem that those of tenors have more vital 
interest than those of bassos, it can only be ex- 
plained by the fact that the tenors are the more popular 
of the two, and more is known about them. Edouard 
de Beszke once said that grand opera was ungrateful for 
bassos, that composers would not write for them and 
the public wouldn't pet them, and that ^'all the big 
fees go to the prima donnas and tenors, while a basso 
has to worry along on the pay of a chorus girl/* This 
is the truth. The operatic tenor lives in clover. All 
the Elviras and Leonoras love him. He has all the 
love songs and serenades to sing. Whatever stage 
business there may be in the line of kneeling at the 
feet of inamoratas, kissing of hands, and embracing 
of stage heroines, belongs exclusively to him. The 
ladies send him little billets and adore him in secret* 



BRIGNOLI, HIS STYLE AND VOICE 121 

He hapS the monopoly of all the pretty music and may 
fling it badly if he is handsome and interesting. All 
tunefol lays are his. His roles include the handsome 
brigands, the dashing cavaliers, the romantic lovers, and 
languishing swains. The basso, on the contrary, knows 
that he is not interesting and that the ladies do not 
care for him. He has no lover roles. If he is a brig- 
and, he is a cutthroat ; if a cavalier, he is some dilapi- 
dated old duke ; if a sailor, he is a pirate ; if a father, 
he is an old dotard. He has no bravura work cut out 
for him, and his arias are ponderous and often dreary. 
He has little to do but wander about the stage, an ab- 
ject picture of vocal misery and dramatic drudgery, 
like the operatic contralto, he is a lonely person for 
whom the public little cares. 

Among the tenors I have known, Brignoli always 
seemed to me the most interesting personality, as well 
as one of the most captivating singers. He made 
his American debut in 1856 and was a member of the 
first regular Italian opera troupe which appeared in Chi- 
cago (1869). The season was opened with ^' Martha," 
and Brignoli was Lionel. During the next ten or 
fifteen years he sang in Chicago almost every season, 
either in concerts or opera, and was a universal favorite. 
He is said to have been very delicate, as well as timid 
and nervous, in his early youth, but when I first saw 
him he was robust and broad-chested, and gradually 
grew quite stout, in spite of which he always carried 
himself with a kind of aristocratic elegance. He told 
me once that he never wholly overcame stage fright^ 



122 MUSICAL 1IEM0RIE8 

and I fancy that his lack of pronounced dramatic 
ability and his awkwardness of gait may have con- 
duced to it. If he found himself in the vicinity of the 
prima donna, he was always nervous, and in scenes re- 
quiring the platonic stage embrace he would implore 
her not to touch him. Brignoli was an indifferent 
actor, but he was a master of tone-production. His 
tones had a silvery quality and were exquisitely pure. 
He never forced his voice beyond the limit of a sweet 
musical tone, and rarely expended much effort except 
in reaching a climax, or in closing an aria with one 
of those marvellously beautiful sf orzandos which other 
tenors tried in vain to imitate. He never sang the 
high G, that stock in trade of sensational tenors, though 
he could reach it with ease, for he had great range and 
power of voice. He used to say that '^ screaming is not 
singing ; let those fellows wear their throats out if they 
will ; Brignoli keep his.*' And he did. His highest am- 
bition was tonal loveliness, and in this quality he had few 
equals. To hear him sing ^^ M'Appari '* and ^^ H mio 
tesoro," or the music of Manrico and Edgardo, was to 
listen to vocalization of absolute beauty, to an exposi- 
tion of het canto of the Italian romantic school as perfect 
for a tenor as was Adelina Patti's for a soprano. 

Brignoli was curiously superstitious. He never would 
undertake a journey on Friday, and always timed his 
trips so as not to arrive on that day. The thirteenth 
day of the month, thirteen persons at table, or any- 
thing else related to these numerals, always frightened 
him. He was a famous cook and salad maker, but if 
his macaroni stock boiled over or he spilled a drop of 



BRIONOLPS SUPERSTITIONS 123 

oil in making a salad, he was certain some misfortune 
would happen. He carried a deer's head with him for 
a mascot, and used to talk and sing to it. At night he 
would place it on the window-sill to insure good weather 
for the next day, in case he was to sing. If the day 
opened brightly, he would congratulate his mascot ; but 
if it opened cloudy and threatening storm, he would pick 
it up, box its ears, uttering Italian maledictions at the 
same time, and then not speak to it for a day or two. 
He also had a superstition about the color of horses, 
and always stipulated that his carriage should be drawn 
by a pair of black horses, and, as another sign of good 
luck, that his manager should wait upon him before he 
started for the theatre. He was of a generous disposi- 
tion, — too generous, indeed, for his own good, — and 
would divide his money with any one. He made a 
handsome fortune in this country, but lived at such an 
extravagant rate, and flung away money so lavishly, 
that he died penniless. He once, and only once, made 
a speech to an audience. As there was no other person 
available on that occasion, he was requested by Nilsson 
to go before the curtain and tell the audience that she 
was slightly indisposed. After a while he plucked up 
courage and made the following oration : 

^' Ladies and gentlemen I Mademoiselle Nilsson is a 
leetle 'orse, and begs you — a — indulge — ance — a.^' 

As the audience manifested some surprise, Brignoli 
began again: 

^^Vatl you do no understand it. Then, I begin 
again. Mademoiselle Nilsson is a little horse and begs 
your kind indulgence." 



124 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

This time he retired amid applause and laughter only 
to be again confused when Nilsson asked him why he 
had called her a pony. Brignoli could only throw up 
his hands in despair. He never ventured to make an 
address again. 

Before taking vocal lessons he had studied the piano 
and composed some pieces for that instrument. One 
of them, the march, to which I alluded in a previous 
chapter, was quite sensational. It was called ^^The 
Crossing of the Danube." The introduction, which 
imitated the booming of cannon, volleys of musketry, 
and cavalry bugle-calls, led up to the march, which 
contained vivid reminiscences of Verdi and Meyerbeer, 
and the piece closed with a climax, based upon the 
Russian National Hymn, after the manner of Tschai- 
kovsk/s '^ 1812 *' overture. I think he told me he 
wrote his march for Gilmore. In any event, it was in 
the style which Patrick Sarsfield greatly loved. 

Brignoli's last public appearance in Chicago was in a 
concert at Hershey Hall in May, 1884. He was in the 
city again in September of that year. He had retired 
from the stage, but at a social visit he surprised his 
friends as he entered by singing '^ Then you '11 remem- 
ber me " with much of his old-time beauty of voice. 
At that time he was hoping to establish a school in the 
near future for the perpetuation of his method of vocal- 
ization, but the hope was never realized* A day or two 
later I met him walking pensively on State Street, and 
we stopped and spoke together. Patti was then sing- 
ing at McVicker's Theatre, and was billed to appear in 
<< Lucia" that evening. I asked him if he was going 



GAMPANmi'8 TRIUMPHS 125 

to the opera. He mournfully shook his head and ex- 
claimed : ^' No ! I cannot afford it, and I will not ask 
them for a pass. I sang in ' Lucia ' with Adelina when 
she made her debut. To-night she must transpose her 
part. Old Brignoli can still sing his where it is written. 
Adelina gets $5000 a night; old Brignoli gets fifty 
cents.'' We shook hands and parted. Some friends 
helped him get to New York, where he died a few 
weeks later. In his death one of the purest and most 
perfect exponents of beautiful melody passed away. 

Italo Campanini, son of an Italian blacksmith, inher- 
ited his father's brawn. He was a fine specimen of the 
natural, elemental man, and there was much of this 
quaUty in hk singing, for his lungs were capable of 
almost any effort, and his throat was equal to any 
requisition made upon it ; but, great singer as he was, 
there were times when he sacrificed musical effect to 
mere noise. He had an astonishing vigor, virility, and 
energy. His best parts were Bhadames in '^ Aida " and 
Don Jose in ^' Carmen," though he ventured once into 
Wagner's musical domain and achieved great success in 
'^ Lohengrin." In ^* Carmen " he reached the maximum 
of his power. In the scene before the Plaza del Toros, 
in the last act, he threw himself into the passion of the 
part with ferocious energy, and made the tragic denoue- 
ment one of the most thrilling scenes I have ever wit- 
nessed on the operatic stage. I know of no personation 
like it except the elder Salvini's Othello in the scene 
where he vents his rage upon lago. The part was 
admirably adapted to him physically, musically, and 



126 MUSICAL ICEMORIES 

dramatically. In all parts requiring the display of brutal 
passion he had few equals. Gampanini also did some 
festival work, but when he sang in oratorio numbers or 
concerted pieces he was not always satisfactory, for he 
lacked self-control and subordination, and sometimes 
dominated the situation at the expense of the other 
singers by singing at the audience in the most stento- 
rian manner. Theodore Thomas, under whose baton 
he sung at times, vigorously remonstrated with him 
once about this habit. Gampanini asserted himself in 
his imperious way, but Thomas was not a man to be 
swerved from his purposes when in his own field. I 
was witness of one of these encounters, at the dose of 
which Gampanini had to yield, but he was honest 
enough to acknowledge to me afterwards that Thomas 
was right. 

Gampanini was a good-hearted man. His worst fail- 
ings were personal vanity, a furious temper, and impa- 
tience under correction. He was also of a jealous 
disposition, and this jealousy manifested itself once in 
a ludicrous manner. He had had some unpleasantness 
with Gapoul, who was as vain as a peacock, and espe- 
cially vain of his accomplishments as a tenor lover on 
the stage, particularly in ^' Faust." Upon one occasion, 
when Gapoul had secured the admiring attention of the 
audience by his realistic love-making in the garden 
scene of that opera, Gampanini, in the stage box, 
conducted himself in such a manner as to make him- 
self the centre of attraction and spoil the effect of 
the scene. Gapoul declared after that he would never 
sing if Gampanini were allowed to be present, and 



A BOUT WITH MAPLE80N 127 

Campanini declared he would not sing if he were not 
permitted to be in the house at any and all times. The 
jealousy between the two was all the sillier because no 
comparison between the two men as tenors was pos- 
sible. Upon another occasion Campanini had an en- 
counter with Mapleson, Senior, in which he worsted the 
doughty Colonel, — a feat not often performed. He 
appeared one morning at rehearsal with four trum- 
peters, who were to produce a certain effect which the 
conductor did not favor. When in good form, Cam- 
panini could hold his own even with four trumpets. 
Mapleson at once took his conductor's part and said 
to Campanini,— 

''Why are you interfering here? I am the man- 
ager/' 

Campanini replied, '^ Well, I am first tenor here." 

Mapleson then said, '' You were not called to rehearsal 
anyway. What business have you to be here ? " 

To this Campanini answered, '' I know my business 
better than you do yours"; and evidently he did, for the 
four trumpeters played that evening and Campanini had 
his shout. 

I heard Mario twice only. It was in 1872, not long 
after Chicago's great fire, and he sang in churches, which 
were the only concert-rooms available at the time, with 
Carlotta Patti, Annie Louise Cary, Carreno, Sauret, and 
Scolari, the basso. He had only the ghost of a voice 
left, but he retained his method in all its beauty and 
perfection. His voice was really in hopeless ruin, but 
his singing showed still the fine sdiool of the old days. 



128 MUSIGAL MEMORIBB 

It was mournfully raggestiYe of the great Mario of the 
past,— 

^'ICario can soothe with a tenor note 
The BooTli^ purgatory/' 

but perhaps it was an object-lesson to some tenors who 
thought they knew how to sing. 

Theodor Wachtel, a tenor who could tear passion into 
tatters, was the son of a German stable-keeper, and in 
his youth drove cabs for his father. The significance 
of his occupation will be apparent later on. He was 
the most robust of robust tenors, and his capacity for 
shouting was seemingly unlimited. He could even 
shout down a chorus, and that is no ordinary feat. He 
always carried his high C with him, and would exhibit 
it several times of an evening without displaying a sign 
of vocal fatigue. But at last he met his Waterloo in 
Chicago. He appeared at the Globe Theatre, supported 
by lichtmay, Canissa, DeGebele, Hermanns, Yierling, 
Franosch, and others, in February, 1872. That was the 
first musical event of any importance after the Great Fire. 
The operas announced were ^' Martha,'' ^' Huguenots," 
« Trovatore," and « The Postilion of Lonjumeau." The 
manager's annoimcement of the season is such a curi- 
osity of bombast that I give it entire. 

"Wachtel, Waohtel, WaohtelI 
**The Gbsat, thb Magketio TenobII 

** The famous G^erman tenor whose phenomenal and mag- 
nificent voice flows like the Rhine itself, turbulent, restless, 
through all the storied tracts of music. A magnificent foun- 
tain, meant, as the poet has intimated, to flow on forever. 
The princely haste of a lyric monarch commissioned to sound 



wachhsl, the gab-driyer 129 

Iu0 natond gifts to all the worldand with only one lifetiiiie 
to aooomplieh his poipose." * 

But I must return to Wachtel. His crowning tri- 
umph wae in *^ The Postilion of Lonjumeau/' and his 
crowning number was the rondo, or Postilion's Song. 
He shouted his high notes in the manner of one hailing 
a deaf cabby, and the whip-snapping accompaniment 
was delivered with the skill of an expert Jehu« The 
pace told upon him at last. After ten years of the 
operatic cab business his throat gave out. '^ Martha '' 
and ^' The Huguenots " were cancelled. The doctor gave 
him a laryngitis certificate and told him a change of 
climate would be necessary for his recovery. Thus 
ended the first '^ after the fire '* operatic season. With 
all his bluster and pomposity he had a fine vein of 
sentiment* Shortly after this time he resumed sing- 
ing, and one evening a telegram was brought to him 
between acts, announcing the death of his son. He 



* The above is certainly Itteraiy goigeommoM. It was a time, how- 
ever, of advertiaing effiorescenoe, and managen competed with each other 
in the verbal ^mfAsy of their attiaotione. Just before the fire the Swiaa 
Bell Bin0Bn were annmmeed as 

THE GAMPANALOGIAN& 
MABTMLLOim HanaoonncoifaoLiDATOiBa, BBcnvaD 

■VBBTWBHUI BT DITKUCmfr AUDIBMOBB, BAMCTUXMfMD 
BT TOB CLBBOT, ntDOBSBD BT THB PRBBB AND PBOPUL 

On the aame day the biUboarda bore the following emblaaonment: 
SPALDINQ, ROGERS, AND HANLON'S CmCUS. 



WflH JMO^AURIC lORACUBB, BAMPIUBBOBmATIOBr, 
L^BCHIUJi PBBILBUBB, AlfD TOB QUADBUPItB ANABATB- 
BON PBBrOBMBD BT A QUABTBTTB OF ACBOBATIC BBAVBB, 
WRH BNLlVBMlMa DfTBBLUDBS TO BBLIBVB B30HLT 
WBOUaRT BBNBIBILnnBa. 

9 



130 MUBIGAL MEMORIES 

finiflhed the opera, and at the end of the last act mter- 
polated the song, ^' Gute Nacht^ mem herzlichefl Kind '' 
(Good nighty my dearest child). 

Charles B. Adams, the American tenor, was in Chi- 
cago during the late fifties, both in opera and oratorio. 
He was the most accomplished native tenor of his time, 
and had not merely a very powerful voice, but a very 
sweet one and one of great range. He sang with dra- 
matic expression and a peculiarly refined and artistic 
finish. His Tannhttuser and Lohengrin had made him a 
famous reputation both in this country and in Europe, 
and the oratorio performances given by the Chicago 
Musical Union, with Christine Nilsson and himself as 
soloists, were events to be remembered. I believe he 
ended his career as a teacher in Boston. Like some of 
our American composers, Dudley Buck and Professor 
Paine, for instance, Adams was better known in Ger- 
many than in his own country. 

I have space to mention only a few more tenors, 
among them Irfre, who sang as if inspired in the Lucia 
sextet ^ ; Lotti, a German tenor di grazia, whose singing 
of ^^ Meinen Engel I nenn' Ich mein," was transporting ; 
Alvary, whose Siegfried was the ideal of immortal 
youth ; Candidus, the big German tenor, whom I first 
met at a New York Arion and Chicago Germania Mttn- 
nerchor Commerz, and whose voice was as big and fine 
as himself ; Capoul, whom Campanini did not love and 

* Theodore Thonutf held that the " Luda " sextet and the " Bigoletto" 
quartet were the inspirations of Italian opera. 



AMODIO AND BELLINI 131 

whom the women adored, a dapper little Fr^ich tenor, 
graduated from the Opera Comiqne ; Habelman, hand- 
some and flweet-Yoiced, a good, all-round musician and 
capital actor, whose Fra Diavolo was (me of the most 
dashing and picturesque figures on the stage ; and De 
Lucia. Can any one forget the ring of De Lucia's pierc- 
ing voice and the intensity of simulated passion with 
which he deUvered the last despairing outcry of Canio, 
in ^' Pagliacci " (^' La commedia h finita '') ? 

For reasons already stated I can only briefly aUude 
to the great bassos of memory. One of the earliest 
was CoUetti, whose relation to the stage was much like 
that of Mademoiselle Burmeister. No operatic perform- 
ance in those days was quite complete without him, 
for he was not only always ready for his own parts, but, 
when necessary, for the parts of the other bassos also. 
Amodio and Bellini must be coupled together. They 
were large men, with large voices and a large style, 
who made the rafters of the old wigwam in which 
Abraham Lincoln was first nominated ring with their 
sonority when they sang the '^ Liberty Duet " ('' Suoni la 
tromba ''), from ^^ Puritanl'' Susini and Junca, among 
the older bassos, were accomplished, faithful artists, 
making no complaints, like all the rest of those big bass 
fellows, when people did not appreciate them and prima 
donnas and tenors carried off all the applause. Castel- 
mary visited Chicago once only. He also was an accom- 
plished singer, and his Mephistopheles in '' Faust " a most 
artistic performance. It may be remembered that, like 
Bemenyi, he died upon the stage, at the close of a 



132 MUSICAL MEMORIB8 

perfarmanoey in 1897. Another famous MqihiitoiMeB 
waB the big, huge-voiced Hermanns. His action of the 
part was fine, but his make-up was hideous enough to 
have frozen Marguerite stiff at first sight But this 
Teutonic giant can never be disassociated in my memoiy 
from his Beppo, the bandit^ in '^ Fra Diavolo/' and the 
song, ^' I 'm afloat/' which he once interpolated in the 
third act, and which he delivered with stentorian voice 
in this style : 

«a*m a bloat, I'm a bloat 
On der dark rolling tide ; 
The ocean '0 mein home 
And mein park is my pride." 

Carl Formes brought the biggest and most impres- 
sive bass £rom (rermany that ever passed through the 
American Musical custom house. I first heard 
in concert in Chicago (1857), the year of his 
in the United States, but I remember only one num- 
ber in that programme, Schubert's '^ Wanderer." His 
singing of this impressive lied was so majestic in man- 
ner, and withal so tender, for a voice that resembled an 
organ tone in depth, strength, and sonority, that one 
could hardly remember anything else. He was then 
in his prime. He had a strong, leonine face, high 
forehead, long wavy black hair, and an Apollo Belvi- 
dere throat and chest. He was built on a massive 
scale and his voice corresponded, for he surpassed all 
his contemporaries as a basso profunda He visited 
Chicago often and lived here for a time. His great 
operatic roles were Malvolio in ^^ Stradella '' ; Plunket 
in "Martha"; FalstafE in **The Merry Wives of 



i 



FORMES— ICTBON D. WHITNET 133 

Windsor''; Saraatro in '<The Magic Mute"; Marcel 
in ''The Huguenots"; Bocco in ''Fidelio"; Bertram 
in '' Robert the Devil " ; and Leporello in ^' Don Gio- 
Yanni/' He was a versatile singer, equally at home 
in Plunket's rollicking drinking song, or the impres- 
sive '' Isis and Osiris " and '' In diesen heilgen Hallen " 
from '^The Magic Flute/' His Leporello and Bocco 
always seemed to me his most finished performances. 
His conception of the former was quite original, for, un- 
like most singers in that part, he did not make him a 
clown, but a fitting attendant for his reckless master. 
In 1889, when a very old man, he sang in opera in 
San Francisco and died in the same year. He used 
to say that preservation of his voice was due ''to 
Qod's grace and the Italian method." 

Myron SL Whitney, the best of American bassos, is 
still living, in the enjoyment of his otium cum dignitate 
and the memories of a long career of uninterrupted 
popular admiration and vocal success. He sang for 
a few seasons in opera most acceptably and was for 
a time with the America Opera Troupe, but his crown- 
ing achievements were in oratorio and festivals. He 
made his first oratorio success in Birmingham and 
Oxford, England, where the test was a severe one, for 
the English are an oratorio-loving people, and most 
of the traditions centre about Birmingham. He had 
a smooth, rich, resonant bass, admirably schooled, and 
delivered with refinement, dignity, and classical repose. 
As an oratorio singer, indeed, he had no equal in his 



134 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

time, and his superior has not yet been found. He is 
the soul of geniality and has a quiet humor that makes 
him a most delightful companioiu He has always been 
universally beloved on and off the stage, and respected 
and honored as few singers have been. 



CHAPTER XI 

ENGLISH OPERA 

THX PTNX-HABBnON TBOUPS — GABOUNS BIGBINaB — HXB 
INBUIBTBT AND VABIOinBI VXNTUBE8 — THX OLD QUABTETTX 

— ZELDA SEQUIN, CASTLE, AND CAMPBELL — HXNKI DRAY- 
TON — THX SCARED CAT — PAREPA — HXB ANCX8TRT — 
DIFFICULTIES OF AVOIRDUPOIS — BOUTS WITH THE CLEBOT 

— HEB ICABBIAOX — MADAME BUDXBSDOBF'S TBIBUTE — 
THE BOSTONIANS — JX88IX BABTLETT DAVIS — THX '' PINA« 
FOBX" FXVKB 

THE advance detachment of English opera in 
Chicago was the Pyne-Harrison troupe. It 
came to this country from England in 1866| 
and Louisa Pjme was its leading figure. She was 
somewhat short in stature, blond haired and blue eyed, 
with an unusually pleasing and expressive &ce, and 
a stage presence which was the ideal of courtesy and 
dignity. She had been very successful in England 
and was a great favorite of Queen Victoriai who 
pensioned her when she retired. She was a most 
accomplished musician and had a remarkably sweet 
and fluent voice as well as an engaging manner of 
singing. She came to Chicago in ISSG, but did not 
appear in opera. She brought with her her sister 
Susan, Harrison, tenor, Homcastle, basso, Borrani, 
barytone, and Beif, pianist, and they gave concerts. 
In this connection memory recalls Tom Whiffen, whose 



136 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

wife was niece of the Pynes, though neither was a 
member of the troupe. Whiffen came to the United 
States in 1868 and appeared as a singer in the Galton 
troupe, but subsequently rose to distinction as an actor. 
He was one of the few men whom it is a privilege to 
know — a genial, refined scholar and gentleman, an 
ardent lover of books, and a companion of the best 
actors, singers, and bookmen of his time. I met him in 
Chicago, when he came here in a ^' Pinafore '* company, 
and he strongly reminded me of Thackeray's George 
Warrington. 

In 1858 Chicago was introduced to English opera 
with a performance of the '^ Crown Diamonds,*' by 
the Durand troupe, which comprised Rosalie Durand, 
Misses King and Hodson, and Messrs. Arnold, Trevor, 
and Lyster. This troupe was followed by another 
headed by Lucy Estcott, a charming little singer; but 
financial difficulties overtook her, and the season was 
cut short. Next came a still stronger troupe in 1859 
(Cooper's), with Annie Milner, Budolphsen, Aynedey 
Cook, and Brookhouse Bowler, as principals. After 
giving Chicago '^ The Creation," the Metropolitan Hall * 
stage was arranged for operatic performances, and al- 
though the stage settings wero crude and its area cii> 
cumscribed, '' The Elixir of Love," " Trovatoro," " The 
Barber of Seville," '' Norma," « Sonnambula," and " The 
Daughter of the Begiment " were given very creditably. 
Chicago listened to opera in those days at fifty cents a 
seat and no charge for reserving. Why, it was worth 

* Metropoittan Hall wm oq the northwest oomer of Laaalle and Ran- 
do^h stieete. 



CAROLINE RICHINGS 1S7 

ihat just to hear Bowler sing the '^ Fair Land of Poland" 
in ^^ The Bohemian Girl " ! He had a ringing tenor voice, 
and plenty of force and fire behind it to make the mar- 
tial strains thrill you. He had a prodigious memory. 
His favorite way of learning his part was not by attend- 
ing tedious rehearsals and punishing a piano^ but by 
whistling it through in an evening. 

English opera, however, did not get a firm foothold 
until Caroline Richings appeared upon the scene. She 
was the smartest^ brightest^ hardest working artist of 
them all. It is usually believed that she was an Amer- 
ican and a daughter of Peter Richings, the actor. On 
the contrary, she waa bom in England, and her father's 
name was Beynoldson. After her father's death Bich- 
iRgs gave her a musical education, adopted her, and 
brought her to this country. She made her debut as a 
pianist in 1847 at a Philadelphia Philharmonic concert ; 
as a singer with the Seguin troupe in 1852 ; and as a 
comedienne in 1863 in ^^ The Prima Donna," in which 
she had a singing part. She first appeared in Chicago 
with her ''father" in 1864, at Bice's Theatre, as a 
pianist and singer, and made a great success in '' The 
Daughter of the Begiment." In 1865 she had a beur 
efit at the same theatre, at which she appeared in 
Bishop's '' Clara, Maid of Milan," also in an after piece, 
^' Court Favors," at the close of which an allegorical 
tableau, '' Valley Forge," was presented, with old Peter 
as Washington, and Caroline as the Genius of Liberty, 
singmg ''The Star-Spangled Banner." 

I think it was in 1866 that this brave little woman 
started out with a troupe of her own, determined to 



138 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

dervdop the possibilities of English opera, and suc- 
ceeded, with the help of the best troupe ever or- 
ganized, in carrying out her purpose. To mention 
the names of the best English quartette singers ever 
heard here — Caroline Richings, Zelda Harrison, Wil- 
liam Castle, and ^' Sher '' Campbell — recalls only pleas- 
ant nights of musical enjoyment. Zelda Harrison, who 
subsequently married Seguin, the artist, was one of the 
most delightful of singers and a charming actress, espe- 
cially as Nancy in *^ Martha," Cherubino in ^^ The Mar- 
riage of Figaro,'' as well as in the serious parts of 
Urbain in ^^ The Huguenots," Azucena in '^ Trovatore," 
and Adalgisa in ^^ Norma." William Castle, a hand- 
some, dashing tenor, was a universal favorite. He was 
an excellent actor, and had a smooth, rich, velvety 
voice, that lent itself admirably to melodious roles. 
^^ Sher " Campbell was the basso of the quartette. In 
1864, previous to the appearance of the Richings' 
troupe, I think Campbell and Castle organized a troupe 
with Bosa Cooke as prima donna, and that the tour was 
abandoned in the Spring of 1866. As the stoiy goes, 
on the morning of April 15, while in a Southern Illinois 
town. Castle was aroused by a knock at his bedroom 
door, and the hotel landlord shouting in a loud tone, 
'' Say, you git up and git out of here as quick as you 
can ; one of you damned actors killed the President last 
night, and it ain't safe for any of your kind of folks 
around here, so you had better git." And they got. 
Campben was originally a Connecticut carriage trim- 
mer, but went on the minstrel stage upon the advice of 
Jerry Bryant. A few years later he sang in opera and 







Carouni R1CHINO8 Zblda Sbouin 

William Castle S. C. Caiii>bill 



HENRI DRATTON 180 

became a favorite. He was not a remarkable actor, but 
he sang with much feeling and expression, and was at 
his best in such songs as ^'The Heart bowed down" 
in <^ The Bohemian Girl/' and ''The Di Ftovenza" in 
''Trayiata." When Count Amheim observes Axline's 
picture and gives expression to his grief in his well- 
known reverie, or Germont appeals to his son with 
memories of the Provence home, the audience were al- 
ways deeply impressed. And how we all thought that 
the '' Oood Night " in ** Biartha " would never be sung 
so well by any other four ! Certainly there were never 
four voices better adapted to each other. 

In 1870 a combination oi the Richings and Parepa 
troupes, with the exception of Parepa herself, was 
efiEected. The new organization included Caroline 
Bichings, Rose Hersee, Emma Howson, Zelda Seguin, 
Annie Kemp Bowler, Annie Starbird, William Castle, 
Brookhouse Bowler, John Chatterson, Alberto Lau- 
rence, S. C. Campbell, Henri Drayton, Arthur HoweD, 
Mrs. Drayton, Fannie Ooodwin, Amati Dubreul, and 
S. Behrens, conductor. It was one of the strongest 
ever made for English opera. This troupe gave 
twenty-one different operas in eighteen consecutive 
nights and three matinees, without a variation from 
the original announcements. That shows how opera 
was given in the old days. The name of Henri Dray- 
ton appears in the above list. He had a varied and 
picturesque career. He was bom in Philadelphia and 
educated as a topographical engineer. He abandoned 
that profession, however, because of his love of music, 
went to Paris, and was the first American student at 



A 



140 MUSICAL MEMORIEB 

the Conaervatoiiey and abo the favorite piqpil o£ La- 
blache. During the Bevolatioii he sang the ^^lianeil- 
laise** on the barricades. Then he went to England, 
where he became a great favorite. He returned to 
this country in 1859 with his wife, and they gave 
^'parlor operas'' which he wrote or adapted. He was 
a courtly gentleman, a scholar of ability, the author 
of many plays and operettas, and a singer of superb 
power and expression. He died in 1872. His Bip 
Van Winkle in Bristow's opera of that name and his 
Devilshoof in ^^The Bohemian Girl" were capital 
pieces of acting, but Marcel in '^The Huguenots" 
always seemed to me his best role. He was the 
physical ideal of the old Huguenot soldier. He told 
me a funny incident in his experience at one time 
in the denouement of this opera. He was forced to 
laugh in the death scene when the stage cat, fright- 
ened by something, ran across the stage and leaped into 
a box, frightening a lady so that she screamed and 
dropped her opera glass upon the bald pate of the trom- 
bone player, who jumped up with a howl and created 
a panic of consternation among the violinists. Order 
at last was restored, and Marcel went on dying in quiet 
convulsions of laughter. 

In 1873 Bichings, who at this time was Mrs. 
Bernard, having married one of her tenors, took a 
position in Miss Kellogg's opera troupe and sang one 
season. During 1874 she headed an Old Folks' concert 
troupe. This was disbanded in 1875, and she then 
organized a troupe to give concerts and light operas, 
which met with varying success for three or font 



PAREPA 141 

yean. She was still engaged in perfecting future 
operatic plans when she died in 1882. There never 
was a harder working woman on the stage than 
Caroline Bichings. She could sing every night in the 
week^ month in and month out, and appear upon the 
stage every night as fresh as if she were just back 
from a vacation. I was witness once to the following 
incident. I was talking with her about her repertory 
for the coming week^ when one of the chorus women 
came up, apologized for the interruption, and asked 
to be excused that evening, as she was not '^feeling 
very well.*' 

^^Not feeling very well/' said Bichings. ^^It is 
your business to feel well all the time. Why, Eliz- 
abeth, I had the measles once for two weeks and 
sang every night, though I did n't feel very well, and 
I didn't give them to anybody either. Brace up! 
You will feel a great deal better if you come to-night. 
I really can't excuse you." 

To this faithful, honest, hard worker belongs the 
credit of having placed English opera upon a sound 
footing. 

There are few artists I recall more pleasantly, few 
who have more completely identified themselves with 
their art, than Parepa. Her unvarying good nature 
and big-heartedness somehow blended most happily 
with her rich, flexible, and almost inexhaustible voice. 
She was big in every way, — mentally, morally, and 
physically, — and acquaintance with her o£E the stage 
compelled an admiration of her personally as well as 



142 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

▼ocally. It would be difficult to assign her real descent. 
Her maternal grandfather was a Welshman. Her pa- 
tenuJ grandmother was the daughter of a Turkish 
Grand Vizier. Her father was a Wallachian noble- 
man. Baron Georgiades de Boyesku of Bucharest ; her 
mother^ Elizabeth Seguin, sister of the famous English 
basso; and she herself was bom in Scotland. I may 
add that her first husband was an Englishman, and her 
second, a Gterman. She made her debut as a mere girl 
in 1866 at Malta, and her English debut in 1867. 
After remaining in London until 1865, she came to this 
country for a concert tour under the management of 
H. L. Batemim. She first appeared in Chicago, October 
23, 1865, in concert, supported by Levy, the whirlwind 
polka cometist, and Carl Bosa, the violinist, with Carl 
Anschutz leader. She introduced herself with the 
« Casta Diva,'^ *^ Nightingale's TriD," "II Bacio," and 
^^ Five o'clock in the morning.'' She made many visits 
here — in 1866, with Mills the pianist, Fortuna the 
barytone, Ferranti, and Brignoli ; in 1868, with Bowler, 
Ferranti, Bosa, and Levy ; in 1869, in '< The Creation," 
assisted by Nordblom, tenor, and Budolphsen, basso; 
and in 1869-1870, with her English opera troupe in a 
season memorable for the first hearing of "Oberon," 
" The Puritan's Daughter," " The Bhick Domino," and 
** The Marriage of Figaro " in English. The season was 
also memorable for Chicago's first acquaintance with the 
charming little Bose Hersee, a fascinating singer and 
refined and elegant actress. In connection with the first 
performance of ^^ The Marriage of Figaro," the audience 
was treated to a revised version of the libretto. It 



DIFFICULTIES OF AVOIRDUPOIS 143 

will be remembered that in the conspiracy to punish the 
Count, Susanna contrives a rendezvous with him in the 
garden, and arranges with the Countess that she shall 
disguise herself as the maid, the latter assuming the 
identity of the Countess. But at this point an awk- 
ward situation arose. As Parepa was very stout and 
Hersee was very slender, the scene would have been so 
ludicrous as to spoil the effect. Parepa and Carl Bosa 
called me into their council, and at last the problem 
was solved by the addition of a few lines, introduced as 
spoken parte, which htimoroudy explamed the situation 
and forestalled the inconsistency by preparing the audi- 
ence for it. The difficulty was satisfactorily bridged 
over, and few in the audience probably suspected the 
text had been tampered with. It was at first contem- 
plated to introduce the interpolation in recitative, but 
Carl Bosa firmly declined to attempt a Mozartean 
accompaniment. 

Parepa had a remarkably pure and melodious soprano 
voice, which had been so carefully trained that it was 
free from all exaggeration, or vices of any kind, and 
was enjoyable in every detail of execution as well as 
in aU styles of music, — opera, oratorio, or ballad. She 
was most unassuming in mamier and always refined 
in her work. A coarse note or a coarse bit of expres- 
sion never escaped from her. She was a well-educated 
woman, and had gifts of language as well as of voice, 
for she spoke English, Italian, French, Qerman, and 
Spanish fluently. She was also sincerely religious and 
a member of the Church of England, and yet more 
than once she was attacked by some of the over zealous 



144 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

clergymen. She had several tilts with them, for she 
always resented attacks upon members of her profes- 
sion. Once in a Western town, where she was to open 
an opera house, an opposition religious service was held, 
and the following rather crude poem was printed and 
circulated: 

Is that gannent e'er woven 

Of pleaearee of eartb, 
Of aceaes of the theatre^ 

Or in halls of mirth? 
No, no, that endless ooncert 

Of artists whose fame 
Time's tramps are even too base 

To utter their names, 
Whose sweet songs and whose singing 

Far richer shall be 
Than Parepas e'er sing 

With their best melody. 

On the second night of the engagement Philip Phil- 
lips, ^'the Sweet Snger," was pitted against her, but 
Parepa managed to hold her own, and she went away 
leaving the villagers none the worse from hearing her. 
She had an experience also with a minister in Chicago, 
who had assailed the opera as well as herself, and sent 
me a letter for publication, in which she vigorously 
defended the singers. I regret I cannot print it here. 
It was deftly abstracted from my autograph collection 
by a clergyman who was an autograph fiend, and who 
declined to return it to me. It goes to dbiow the de- 
moralizmg effect of the collecting habit^ even upcm 
clergymen. 

Though Parepa, as I have said, was very stout, die 



PABEPA'S XABRIAGE 145 

never allowed her avoirdupois to interfere with her per- 
f ormancee and always accepted the embarrassing situa- 
tion with the utmost good nature. She did not hesitate 
to personate Arline in the ^ Bohemian Girl/' for instance^ 
<^ delicate daughter of royal birth,'' though at times she 
had to smile at the incongruity. When Arditi, who had 
written a waltz song for her, complained that she did 
not care for him^ for she seldom sang his song, she 
laughingly replied : ^^ Dear maestro, think of the words, 
^ lo so volar ! ' and then look at me ! Do I look as if I 
could fly?" 

There have been many absurd stories about Parepa's 
marriage to Carl Rosa, her second husband.* A report 
was circulated and generally credited that she was so 
infatuated with Brignoli, and so jealous of his atten- 
tions to other ladies, that she deliberately proposed to 
Carl Bosa, who was a small man and her junior, and 
married him. I think I have a more authoritative ex- 
planation. She was once asked how she came to marry 
such a little man. She replied, ^ Would you really like 
to know ? Why ! because he asked me." Parepa told 
me of this conversation, and added, ^ How could I help 
it ? Carl is so little, and I pitied him so." Carl Rosa 
may have been small in stature, but he was big in spirit. 
After their marriage, which was a very happy one, she 
had to accept his interpretations of music whether she 
agreed with him or not. Once, when she came late to 
rehearsal, he stopped the singing and rebuked her be- 
fore the company, saying : ^^ Euphrosyne, this is a very 

* Paiepa's fint huaband was Gaptain De Wolf e, an Kn^ish gentleman, 
who died in 1S65. 

10 



146 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

bad example for you to set the ladies and gentlemen of 
the company. You must not do it again.'' And she 
did not. 

Parepa died in London in 1874. No finer tribute 
was paid to her than that by Madame Budersdorf , 
Richard Mansfield's mother, who wrote: 

^A woman of the highest calture, endowed with innu- 
merable talents ; a pure-minded woman ; a sparUing, cleyer 
companion ; a trae friend ; a most loving and devoted wife ; 
a yeiy woman longing for the joys and blessings of mother- 
hoodf and dying because &te snatched them away from her.** 

The Bostonians deserve a place in the memories of 
English opera. The germ of this old-time popular or^ 
ganization is to be found in the Bamabee concert troupe 
of 1870) and the development of it in a troupe organ- 
ized in Boston for the performance of ^^ Pinafore/' 
which induded Bamabee^ Myron Whitney, Tom Earl, 
MacDonald, Marie Stone, and Adelaide Phillips. Their 
success was so great that they ventured to give '^ The 
Marriage of Figaro," *^ Chimes of Normandy," "Tro- 
vatore," ^* The Bohemian Girl," and other operas. As 
time went on new singers replaced old ones, among 
them Zelie de Lussan, Jessie Bartlett Davis, Geraldine 
Ulmar, W. H. Fessenden, and Cowles, the ex-bank clerk, 
with his ponderous bass. American operas were also 
added to the repertory, particularly those composed by 
Beginald DeKoven. The troupe was unique because it 
was made up exclusively of American singers and was 
managed by an American woman. The most prominent 
lady singer in the troupe was Jessie Bartlett Davis, an 



JESSIB BARTLETT DAVIS 147 

Illinois farmer's daughter. In her sixteenth year she 
joined the Richings company, then in its last season. 
The next year she came to Chicago and studied here, 
and also secured a church choir position. In the Winter 
of 1878 Creswold, the organist, placed her in a com- 
pany of recruits from several churches in the city to 
present ^^ Pinafore/' in which she made a hit as Little 
Buttercup. The local concerts of the Chicago Church 
Choir Pinafore Company proved so successful that it 
was taken through the country on tour. After her mar^ 
riage, in 1880, she retired from the stage for two years. 
In 1882 she joined the Carleton Opera Company, and 
her success led to her engagement by Mapleson, for grand 
opera, in which she sang with Adelina Patti in ^^ Faust,'' 
''The Huguenots," and ''Dinorah." In 1883 she re- 
sumed singing in the Sullivan operettas throughout the 
West Her next engagement was with the Bostonians, 
with which organization she was identified for twelve 
yeara After leaving it, she appeared one season in the 
principal vaudeville theatres of the country, and the 
next season sang in the '' all star " cast of '' Erminie," 
which was her last appearance in a regular singing 
organization. She died May 14, 1905. Mrs. Davis had 
a pure contralto voice of good, even range, and her 
lower notes were unusually rich and full. She dis- 
played great intelligence, both in singing and acting, 
and in ballad singing she excelled by reason of her 
vivacious, expressive manner. 

The evolution of popular entertainment during the 
past fifty years can easily be traced from the legitimate 



148 ICUSIGAL MEMORIES 

drama^ concert^ oratorio, and opera, to spectacolajr ex- 
hibitions, opera bouffe, operettas of the ^'Pinafore" 
class, light operas, and from these to muaioal oomedies 
introduced by ^^ Florodora " and rag-time by '^ Bedelia," 
and to the problem. Wild West, and creepy dramas of 
despair. In all this evolution nothing ever equalled 
the success of the Gilbert-Sullivan operettas, particu- 
larly '^Pinafore/' It was not only a success, but a 
frenzy. Captain CSorcoran and his jolly crew, not 
forgetting ^^ lus sisters and his cousins whom he reck- 
ons by the dozens," drove everything else out of the 
field and enthralled and engrossed the pubUc mind. 
The fever broke out about 1879 and raged fiercely 
during that year. It lasted four or five years, gradu- 
ally abated in violence, and disappeared about 1885. 
But for once this popular frenzy had some justification, 
for this series of operettas was clean, bright, wholesome, 
witty, and masterly for light music 

A brief statement will serve to show how the fever 
raged in Chica^. ''Pinafore'' was first given here 
January 27, 1879. Digby Bell was Sir Joseph ; P. J. J. 
CJooper, Captain Corcoran; A. H. Thompson, Ralph 
Backstraw; John Benitz, Dick Deadeye; Mattie Lan- 
caster, Josephine ; and Flora E. Barry, Little Buttercup. 
Two amateur troupes likewise, the Duff and Pauline 
Markham companies, performed it in February. The 
Standard Theatre Company of New York gave it in 
May, with a strong cast, including Tom Whiffen (every- 
body liked him so that he was universally called 
^' Tom *'), Hart Conway, Alonzo Hatch, William Dav- 
idge, Marie Stone, and Blanche Gkdton, and in the 



^md'- \ 


.^HB^ 


i 


i 



UuiAR — Farstbr — St. Maur 
" 2»« Thr«» Littl* Maid$ from Sekma ' in "Tlu Mikado " 



THE "PINAFORE'' FEVER 149 

same month it was perfonned by the MendeLsBohn 
Chib of Hyde Park and the Madrigal Opera Company. 
In June the Chicago Church Choir Company began 
its remarkable series of representations. The original 
cast was as follows : Sir Joseph, Frank Bowen ; Cap- 
tain Corcoran, John S. McWade; Balph, Charles A. 
» _-___ __ 

Knorr; Dick Deadeye, L. W. Baymond; Boatswain, 
Charles F. Noble ; Josephine, Mrs. Louis Falk ; Butter- 
cup, Jessie Barilett ; Hebe, Mrs. E. S. Tilton. In the 
same month the Gilmore Juvenile Company, composed 
of children, performed it. In July it was given in 
German. In October the company which afterwards 
developed into the Bostonians came. The cast in- 
cluded such well-known artists as Bamabee, Myron SlTV. 
Whitney, Tom Earl, Miss McCulloch, Mrs. May Beebe, 
and Georgie Cayvan. Two juvenile troupes, the Hav- 
erly and the Burton Stanley, also gave it. In 1880 the 
performances of ^^ Pinafore ** fell off some, for others of 
the Sullivan operettas were brought forward ; but the 
D'Oyley Carte troupe gave it several times. In 1881 it 
declined still more rapidly. ^^ Patience,'' ^^ The Pirates 
of Penzance," and '^ The Mikado '' were taking its place, 
but it was given a few times that year by the Boston 
Ideals and by one or two minor troupes. In 1882 and 
1883 it was performed in Chicago only by the Church 
Choir Company, which had returned from its wander- 
ings, much to the delight of their respective congre- 
gations. It was given once or twice in 1884 by a 
company organized by John Stetson, and I think the 
fever disappeared in 1885, though even now a sporadic 
case appears at times. 



160 MUSICAL MEM0RIE8 

How it raged in 1879 ! Not les8 than thirty troupes 
were in the field at one time, all making money* It 
was given by all the large city church choirs, German 
and French troupes, negro troupes, children's troupes, 
opera bouffe companies, and scratch troupes of the most 
heterogeneous kinds. It was travestied on the minstrel 
stage and thinned the ranks of the regular theatre 
players. Think of the jolly company that '^ sailed the 
ocean blue " in H. M. S. Pinafore ! There were Gerald- 
ine TTlmar, Lilly Post, Emma Abbott, Julia Marlowe, 
Annie Russell, Maude Adams, Mrs. Ezra Kendall, Jessie 
Bartlett, Adelaide Phillips, Marie Stone, Blanche Galton, 
the fascinating Jarbeau (some of these ladies were only 
children then), Digby Bell, Raymond Hitchcock, Frank 
Deshon, Henry Woodruff, Arthur Dunn, Frank Dan- 
iels, Myron V. Whitney, Tom Whiffen, Hart Conway, 
Alonzo Hatch, William Davidge, and Richard Mansfield, 
— even Richard Mansfield, who sang the admiral's role 
in London for fifteen dollars a week, when he was nigh 
starvation, only to be told by his manager, ^^ Great 
heavens, man ! Tou will never act as long as you live ! " 
But somehow he did, and how well he did it, and how 
hard he fought for it, and how stubbornly he held 
on until he reached the top, and how he was vilified ! 
The '^ Pinafore " fever was a healthy one. It is a pity 
we cannot have another like it. The charming little 
nautical sketch holds an honorable place in the records 
of English opera. Its wit is always delicate if its 
satire is always keen. That its words and music 
should fit each other so perfectly is all the more re- 
markable when its dual authorship is considered. It 



THE "PlNAfX)RE" FEVER 



151 



is a sad and misanthropic soul that does not now and 
then long to hear Dick Deadeye sing of '^The Merry 
Maiden and the Tar'' or Sir Joseph hoast the sover- 
eignty of the sea with the cheery refrain of his long 
and assorted retinue of kindred. 



CHAPTER Xn 

OPERA BOUFFE 
rramr pebformances in chigaqo — laiibel£, tostes, and 

AXUtE — ElfILT BOLDKNX AND THE QALTONB — BOLDENE's 
UTERART ABIUTT — LTDIA THOMPSON AND THE '^BRIT- 
IBH blondes" — HER WAR WITH THE NEWSPAPERS — 
HER ASSAULT UPON AN EDITOR — THE TABLES TURNED 
— OFFENBACH'S MUSIC 

OPERA bouffe was imported from France in the 
' late sixties, and though but little known to the 
present generation, met with extraordinary sue* 
cess for nearly twenty years, particularly in the case of 
the really brilliant contributions which Offenbach made 
to its catalogue. It was in the palmy days of the 
Crosby Opera House, April 13, 1868, that Chicago 
heard its first opera bouffe. The troupe was headed by 
Aline Lambel^, a dainty little soubrette, with all the 
pretty little ways, graceful movements, and fetching 
costumes of the Frenchwoman, and presented the 
three most attractive Offenbach operas, ^^La Grande 
Duchesse,'" '^La Belle Hfi^ne,^' and ^'Orpheus aux 
Enfers/' They were something entirely novel. For 
the droUness of its story, the originality of its charac- 
ters as well as of its music, its obstreperous gayety, 
dash, and geniality, mixed with occasional seriousness 
and romantic sentiment, ^'La Grande Duchesse" was 
unique. In *' La Belle H^^ne,'* the heroes of the time 



lambel£, tost£:e, aimee 153 

of Paris and Helen of Troy were presented in modem 
borlesque. In ^^ Orpheus '' the Olympian gods and god- 
desses were introduced^ with human attributes, and as 
symbols of worldly departments of action and official 
life. In a word, they were twentieth-century carica- 
tures of the whole Olympian coterie. It is rare that 
anything more humorous is presented on the stage than 
the procession of the pagan diyioities headed by a brass 
band, each walking in regular military fashion, car- 
riages conveying the old, infirm, and worn-out gods 
bringing up the rear. The success of these operas was 
sufficiently pronounced to tempt other troupes to cross 
the water. Tost^, the riskiest and most reckless of 
the Paris opera bouffe actresses, came in September of 
that year. She dressed alluringly, glittered with jewels, 
contorted vulgarly, sang as raucously as a raven, and 
skated over very thin ice. The next season brought 
Bose Bell and Desclauzas, who introduced '^ Barbe 
Bleue '' and '^ Genevieve de Brabant,'* with its fine duet 
of the gendarmes, and the suggestive ^^La Vie Pari- 
sienne," *'Fleur de Th^,'' and "UCEU Crfeve," which 
were coarse of story but alluring of music. The Susan 
Galton troupe came in the same year. It was a little 
company of admirable singers and actors, all the prin- 
cipals being related to Louisa Pyne. They were trained 
in the best school of English opera, and produced the 
Offenbach operettas, which are as bright as newly 
minted dimes, among them ^^ Sixty-six,'' *^ Litzchen 
and Fritzschen," ^' Marriage by Lanterns," ^^ Ching 
Chow Hi," and ^' Bobinson Crusoe." Alice Oates 
frisked about like a kitten from 1871 to 1875. She 



164 MUSICAL MEM0EIB8 

was little, but very alert and very much alive, a 
fiinger and good aU-round actress, who usually monop- 
olized about nine-tenths, of the stage business. In 1876 
came a troupe headed by Emily Soldene, one of the few 
opera boufEe and comic opera people who could sing. 
She had sung in grand opera, but for some reason left 
it for the lighter work. She was also an excellent 
actress, and if any one doubts she was at home with the 
pen, they should read her charming *^ Recollections.'' * 
Aim^e, the best of them all, a fairly good singer, and 
more refined in her action than many of the others, 
came in 1872, and was such a favorite that she ap- 
peared every season during the next ten years. Paolo- 
Mari^ in 1880, Marie Geistinger in 1882, Th6o in 1884, 
and Judic in 1885, were her successors. It cannot be 
said that any of these frisky revellers, who were mosUy 
French, contributed anything of consequence to high 
art. Soldene and Geistmger were the only real singers 
among them, and Aim^e the only one with much re- 
finement ; there were times when even Aim^e's eyes 
were very wicked and her dancing feverish, but she 
was never so coarse as the most of them, 

* I eannot help copying the foQowing pttnage from Soldene's "Ree- 
ollections/' particulariy as the book is now difficult to find: "Bock to the 
days, the joyoug days of firat-heard mudc, when the winds to each sepa- 
fate tree sang a different tune; back to the veritable distractions that fell 
upon the ardent but stumbling student of five lines and four spaces, the 
impatient inquirer into the mysteries of 'do-re-mi-fa'; back to tiie memo- 
ries of mighty artists, to the memories of the grand opera, memories that, 
impalpable and gause-like, elude one and get mixed up with the gay and 
festiTe muric hall; back, way back, back to the days when Plancus was 
c<msul, when we were all young; back to the birth of that gilded, glit- 
tering, tinselled gloiy, the opera bouffe stage. Ahl the days when we 
went gipqring, a long time ago!" 




Mu-K. AlH^K 



LYDU THOMPSON AND THE "BRITISH BLONDES" 165 

Not one of theae, however^ created bo great a sensa- 
tion in Chicago M the handsome; graceful Lydia Thomp- 
son^ who came here in 1869 with her ^^ British Blondes^** 
among them Eliza Wethersby and Pauline Markham^ 
who so bewitched Bichard Grant White with her ^^ vocal 
velvet/' . They opened a three weeks* season at the 
Crosby Opera House, with ^' Sinbad the Sailor/' Lydia^ 
of course, being the saflor, as boy parts were her ape- 
cialty. The display of personal charms exceeded that 
in " The Black Crook/' " White Pawn/' and other spec- 
tacles; but it was modest as compared with the displays 
in somQ of the musical comedies of the present day. 
The papers criticised it as indecent, and the ministers 
denounced the '^ Blondes " ; but at last they departed 
and the storm died away« Lydia, however, returned 
in 1870 with the same people, and was even more risky 
in stage costumes and saucy m her personal interpolations 
than before. The storm broke out anew. The ^^ Blondes" 
became the talk of the town. The papers scolded and 
the pulpit thundered, and with each fresh assault the 
^* Blondes " grew more audacious, and Lydia, who was 
the storm centre, more furious and satirical in her allu- 
sions. The ^^ Chicago Times " was the most bitter in 
its attacks, and Lydia not only stopped advertising m 
its columns, but publicly posted its editor, Wilbur P. 
Story, who had a national reputation for personal critir 
cism, as ^' a liar and coward/' This kind of advertising 
exactly suited Story, who had become accustomed to 
even worse epithets than thesa The ^' Times " kept up 
the merry war, which culminated February 24, 1870. 
On that morning it published a furious attack upon 



156 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

the ^^ Blondes '' in general^ and made suggestiye com- 
ments upon Lydia in particular, which she construed 
as aspersions upon her character. She called a council 
of war at once, and proposed personal chastisement of 
the critic of the ^* Times.'' Her attorney said he could 
not defend her in such case, as Mr. Story, editor of 
the ^'Timesy'* was responsible for what appeared in 
its columns, not its critic. The council broke up 
with the decision to punish Mr. Story on the street. 
A carriage was ordered, and Lydia and Pauline Mark- 
ham, with the manager and press-agent, were driven 
south on Wabash Avenue, where they were sure to 
meet Mr. Story on his way to the office. They en- 
countered him near Peck Court, walking slowly along 
with Mrs. Story. Notwithstanding the latter's pres- 
ence, the four alighted. Lydia rushed at him and 
struck him two or three times with a rawhide. When 
Mr. Story tried to defend himself, he was prevented 
by the manager and press agent, but a policeman 
near by quelled the disturbance and arrested the two 
women. They were taken before Justice Banyon, 
who imposed a nominal fine for disorderly conduct. 
Banyon was not a great jurist, and he may have been 
lenient because he was an Englishman, or he may have 
been dazed by the pretty blondea It must be placed 
to Banyon*s credit, however, that he was an accom- 
plished restaurateur. He was a connoisseur of English 
mutton-chops and had no equal at that time as a con- 
structor of Welsh rarebits. What he didn't know 
about such things was n't worth knowing. And what 
he knew about law was hardly worth knowing, either. 



THE ''BRITISH BLONDES'' 157 

But Banyon's after-ihe-theatre rarebits have never been 
excelled in Chicago. 

The '^Blondes *' returned m 1871 somewhat chastened^ 
and produced ^^ Lurline/' The ^^ Times ^ ignored her^ 
and she accordingly was not so aggressive as before. 
She caused but one sensation that season^ which turned 
the tables, for a crazy woman, one Ella Ori£Sn, who had 
been following her about, trying to make her acquamt- 
anoe, assaulted her on the street. The unhappy lunatic 
was arrested and sent to an asylunu In 1872 Lydia 
appeared agam in '^ Lurline/* ^^ Ixion," ^^ Smbad/' and 
« The Forty Thieves," with Edouin^s " moral ballet ** 
from Paris. I ventured to interview her as to the eth- 
ical qualities claimed for this ballet. The little woman 
furiously disclaimed any personal moral awakening and 
denounced her critics as ^^ Puritan prudes."' As they 
didn't like a moral English ballet, she thought she 
would bring a moral French one and see how they liked 
that I don't think they did, for it had neither morals 
nor grace. Becalling those days, the protests of press, 
pulpit, and public seem curious now, for the most daring 
audacities of these '^ British Blondes," and of the moral 
Paris ballet as well, were tame as compared with those 
displayed in the musical comedies of to-day. '^ Other 
times, other customs." 

Opera bouffe in its short life was merry and gay, 
and sometimes reckless in its methods, sometimes bold 
and bad. It had its little day and fizzed out, and 
the smoke it left was not very pleasant. And so 
it will probably be with the musical comedies. The 
material out of which they are made is exhausted. It 



168 ICUSIGAL MEMORIES 

should be practicable, however, to restore the best of 
the Offenbach operas, like the ^^ Grand Duchess/' ^^ La 
Belle H^^ne/' and ^^ Orpheus/* and prune them of 
indelicacies, which would be an easy task. The music 
certainly is brilliant, characteristic, and even unique, 
and the text might be made unobjectionable, except 
to the very prudish, by careful revision and by elimi- 
nating the suggestions with which some performers 
embellish the lines. Offenbach's music is the music of 
good spirits, bright wit, and wholesome hilarity, in- 
fused with grace, elegance, and legitimate musical 
color and beauty. It is so unique that it seems a pity 
to lose it. Our playwrights are continually adapting 
French farces and comedies for the American stage. 
Why cannot some one do the same for the opera bouffe 
librettos? The operas were presented here originally 
just as they were written for French audiences and 
with that license of speech and coarse suggestiveness 
of action which do not offend them. They are very 
showy and attractive, and the music is always enjoy- 
able, but the spirit and motive are Frendi. Might it 
not be possible to adapt these exotics to American soil 
and to prepare a book to fit this delightful music without 
cramming it with indelicacy ? 



CHAPTER Xin 

SOME BfPKESARIOS 

HABTTB OF THE CLASS — BERNABB ULLIIAN AND HIS BAD QUAL- 
ITIES — MAUBICE 8TRAKOSCH AND HIS GOOD QUALmES — 
MAX liARETZEK's LONG CAREER — JACOB ORAU AND MAUB- 
ICE GRAU — COMMERCIALISM VS. ABT — THE ONLY DE 
YXYO — PHILOSOPHICAL MAX STRAKOSCH — COL. JAMES 
HENRT MAPLESON ''OF HER MAJESTY'S'' 

THE operatic impresario is quite as interesting 
and as distinctive in type as the operatic 
artist. He is rarely if ever gregarious. He 
dwells apart^ and is as unapproachable as the Grand 
Llama. The general public is familiar with the per- 
sonalities and performances of prima donnas and 
makes expensive acquaintance with the haughty 
minions of the box-office^ but it never comes in 
contact with the impresario. He is usually a very 
exalted person with a handsome brilliant in his 
cravat and a wrinkled brow above it. The contract, 
that little fragile paper which holds him and his 
troupe together, is often the occasion of the wrinkles, 
for he spends a large part of his time forestalling 
the efforts of cunning artists to make holes in it. 
Maurice Grau once told me that no contract was 
safe from a prima donna unless it was made of cast 
iron and put together with copper rivets. He is also 
the court of last resort, to settle the quarrels of prima 



160 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

donnas^ stage scandals^ and complaints of every de- 
scription. The box-office, which is the barometer of 
operatic success, is always a source of anxiety to 
him. He is never certain that his best laid plans 
will not be spoiled at the last moment by sudden ca- 
price, momentary jealousy, or a sore throat, endorsed 
by a convenient doctor's certificate, written for the 
usual consideration minus the expense of a diagnosis. 
These are some of the reasons why the impresario's 
brow is usually wrinkled, and why he elects to dwell 
apart, hard by the Gate of a Hundred Sorrows. He 
is not often a musician. It would be better if he 
were, for in that case his people could not take ad- 
vantage of his ignorance. I once knew a manager 
who by virtue of a mortgage came into possession 
of a Chicago theatre and decided to run it himself. 
He went to the theatre the next morning during 
rehearsal, and while watching the orchestra, noticed 
to his great surprise that the trombonist, who had 
a few bars of rest in his music, was not playing. He 
instantly ordered the conductor to stop, and asked 
him why that man was not playing. The conductor 
replied that he had a rest. The new manager im- 
patiently exclaimed : ^^ Best I This is no time to rest. 
Let him rest when he gets through. After this you 
see that he plays all the time and earns his money. 
I don't want any sojering m my band." Of course 
the manager lost prestige at once and was soon willing 
to have some one else who knew more about the 
theatre manage for him. The most successful im- 
presarios I have known were more or less acquainted 



BERNARD ULLMAN'S BAD QUALITIES 161 

with music^ with one prominent exception, but as a 
claas they are very interesting — some of them, indeed^ 
more interesting than the stage people. 

The impresario with whom I first made acquaint- 
ance was Bernard Ullman, who brought some of the 
early concert troupes to Chicago. Of all the impresarios 
I have known, he was the most pretentious, unreliable, 
and headstrong. He had no hesitation about invent- 
ing the most preposterous romances concerning his 
artists, and would get furiously indignant when news- 
papers declined to print them. He was in frequent 
quarrels with other managers, with his own people, and 
with the critics. He went with Herz, the pianist, to 
Mexico, as his agent; and Herz, unable to endure his 
methods, discharged him. Maurice Strakosch boxed 
his ears once in Havana. Benedetti cowhided him in 
Baltimore. The treasurer of the Astor Place Opera 
House kicked him out of his office because of his insult- 
ing manner. Theodore Thomas has told me of his diffi- 
culties with him when he conducted opera for him in 
1857. In 1862 he wrote a pamphlet, called ''Ten 
Tears of Music in the United States," in which he 
coarsely abused the American people for their admira- 
tion of the dollar. One would have supposed from this 
pamphlet that Ullman had devoted himself to art purely 
for art's sake, when in reality he had devoted himself 
to art for the dollar's sake, and was incensed against 
the people because they had not given him more of their 
dollars. I met him only once or twice, as he was not 
a frequent visitor to Chicago, but upon these 



• ^^^;» III 



11 



162 HUBIGAL MEHORIEB 

he was the most unpreposseflsbig of all the impresariofl 
in hiB peraoQal mannen and unendurable pretensionB. 

It 10 pleasant to turn from him to Maurice Strakosch, 
who was a good musician^ an honorable impresario, and 
a courteous man of the world. I first met him when 
he was very agreeably engaged in looking after the 
interests of the young girl, Adelina Fatti, afterwards 
his sister-in-law. He was very proud of her success, as 
he had been one of her early instructors for a short 
time. He first came to Chicago in I860. The troupe, 
a concert one, was somewhat magnificently advertised 
as comprising Adelina Patti, '' the most famous singer 
in the world,*' Amalia Patti, ^^ the most accomplished 
contralto in the United States,*' Brignoli, ^^ the great- 
est tenor in the United States,'' Ferri, ''the most &- 
mous barytone in the United States," and Junca, '' the 
finest basso in the United States." As Maurice was not 
much given to bombastic announcements, the superla- 
tives may have been furnished by his good-natured and 
optimistic brother. Max, who in his subsequent career 
as impresario was always confident that every artist he 
had under contract was the best in the world. 

Maurice Strakosch, as I have said, was a well-trained 
musician. At the beginning of his career he studied 
vocaJ music with the intention of fitting himself for the 
operatic stage, but shortly relinquished that purpose, 
and devoted himself to the piano with such assiduity 
that he made a successful debut at Naples in 1846. 
He came to the United States in 1848 and played in 
concerts under Maretzek's management* He also gave 



MAUBIGE STRAKOflCH 163 

many conoerts of his own, and made toun with Parodi, 
Frezzolini, La Grange, Amalia Patti, and others, and 
sabsequently embarked upon the hazardous career of 
the impresario. He was not a piano virtuoso, but a 
very refined and scholarly player, with much fadUty 
and a fine touch. He also wrote some li^t and grace- 
ful compositions. 

As a man Maurice Strakosch was always a gentle- 
man. At least, I have never seen him when he was not 
courteous, refined, and dignified. He was quiet and 
reticent in manner, and a manager whose statements 
were rarely exaggerated. Perhaps if he had been 
longer connected with operatic management he might 
have taken on more of the arrogance, subtlety, and love 
of embellishment which characterize so many of the 
guild. Still, he was identified with it long enough to 
have formed some sensible opinions about opera, par- 
ticularly the Italian. He was not a believer in the star 
system, and thought it was hurtful to the opera. In 
his own charming *^ Recollections " he says : '^ Let cer- 
tain ^ stars ' disappear whose exigency has brought 
about a deplorable state of things, and soon the artistic 
sky will brighten. As long as people continue to be- 
lieve that Italian representations are impossible without 
a diva, directors in London, as in Fkuris, Vienna, and 
St. Petersburg, can only make useless efforts to raise 
opera, ruining themselves without benefit to art.'' He 
was also opposed to the payment of extravagant sala- 
ries to artists, because they are not proportionate to the 
service rendered. His views about salaries, however, 
may have been colored by the fact that he did not 



164 MUSICAL MEKORIES 

manage high-prioed divas. Thej might have changed^ 
perhaps, had he had the management of Adelina Patti 
in opera, though some of the salaries she received were 
beyond his wildest imaginings. Haurioe Strakosch was 
a good story-teller and a most entertaining talker, onoe 
the ioe was broken. He was very fond of quoting a 
saying of Berlioz to him, that there are three classes of 
singers : ** Those who have voices and can't sing ; those 
who can sing and have no voices ; and those who have no 
voices and cannot sing, yet do sing all the same." Turn- 
ing to me with a twinkle in his eye, he added : ^^ That 
third dass is the most numerous in my experience." 

Maurice Strakosch died at Paris in 1887, the city 
which he loved as passionately as did his sister-in-law, 
Carlotta Patti B[is ^^ Recollections " was published in 
the same year. Its closing paragraph has a mournful 
interest in this connection: 

** Maurice Strakosch hopes to meet all his artists in a better 
world; there he will have no engagementei to give them, 
which will double his pleasure in listening again to the beau- 
tiful voices which have been his delight here below. As 
much for them as for himself » however, he hopes that re- 
union in the skies will not come promptly, and he has no 
desire to hasten the happy moment For the present he is 
satisfied to thank all those whose talent has so much contrib- 
uted to make less painful the labors of his long career.'' 

Max Maretzek was an interesting figure as an im- 
presario, though he had more experience as a con- 
ductor. He started out in life with the intention of 
being a physician, but later discovered that his bent 



MAX MARETZEK'8 LONG CAREER 166 

was toward music. He studied composition and wrote 
some light operas^ which were produced in London with 
a fair degree of success. They were ephemeral, how- 
ever, as was his " Sleepy Hollow," a pretty trifle, which 
he brought out in Chicago. He was a man of irre- 
pressible energy, of numerous faUures, and deep-seated 
pessimism. He began his active musical life as a con- 
ductor in Germany, and in 1844 had the same position 
at Her Majesty's in London. He came to this country 
in 1848, and for a quarter of a century was engaged 
either with the baton or in the management of operatic 
troupes. He began his American career in New York 
at the Astor Place Opera House, the morning after the 
Forrest-Macready riots, and managed there for three 
seasons — which might have been successful had it not 
been for the advent of Jenny Lind, against whom it 
was impossible for him to contend, although he brought 
Parodi from London expressly for that purpose. From 
that time until 1860 he was manager at the Astor Place 
Opera House, the Academy of Music, and Niblo's, and 
during the same period went to Havana and Mexico, 
where he made a good deal of money, which he subse- 
,««.Uy y^ in th^untry. It w Jduring th, .ace 
period, I think, that he introduced the following works : 
"Trovatore," « Rigoletto,'' "The Prophet," "L'Afri- 
caine,'' ** Crispino," " Romeo and Juliet," " Traviata," 
« PoUuto," Linda," « Favorita," and « Don Pasquale." 
It may interest the reader to know that the artists in 
the first performance of "Trovatore," which he pro- 
duced in 1865, were Steffanone, Yestvali, Brignoli, Amo- 
dio, and Bocco. After 1860 he gave up management 



166 MUBIGAL MEMORIES 

and wielded the baton. His career as impresario was 
checkered with successes and failures, quarrels and 
litigations. Either his chorus or his orchestra was on 
strike most of the time. He had wars with newspapers 
and controversies with the critics, for he was apt with 
his pen. He had little idea of the practical uses of 
money, and squandered it right and left. While an 
impresario in New York, a complimentary ball was 
tendered him to help him out of pecuniary difficulties. 
Wishing to do something himself, he insisted upon pro- 
viding the flooring, the flowers, and the supper, as the 
result of which he found himself several hundred dol- 
lars deeper in debt than he was before the ball. He 
was a thorough man of the world, a fastidious hon 
vivanty recklessly generous, and an incorrigible fatalist. 
He draws a little picture of himself in his gossipy 
*^ CSrotchets and Quavers,'' wherein he writes, in a letter 
to Berlioz, that he belongs to all parties and creeds in 
general and none in particular ; that in cookery he rel- 
ishes the delicacies of the season, such as halibut, prairie 
chicken, and bear steak, and that all ladies between 
fifteen and thirty are noticeable. In the same connec- 
tion he sets forth a political epigram of curious signifi- 
cance, namely, that all governments are respectable, 
but he prefers that one which gives the least sign of 
its existence. But despite all his peculiarities, his pes- 
simism and fatalism, he was a cheery soul after the 
clouds had rolled by, a delightful companion, an excel- 
lent, vivacious writer, a man of quick wit and ready 
information, and as honest a manager as ever served 
the public. He died in 1897, leaving, like nearly all 



JAOOB QRAU 167 

other impresarios^ nothing to show for his long career 
bnt his reputation; but his reputation was that of an 
honest; sincere servant of the public^ but, unlike some 
of his dasS; poorly remunerated. 

Jacob GraU; whose name is very familiar in oper- 
atic annals, was probably better known to opera-goers 
than the other managers, as he allowed himself to 
be seen occasionally and his name was always writ 
large on posters and in advertisements. He presented 
himself quite as conspicuously as his artists, so that 
'^J. Grau,'' in association with operatic afEairs, came 
to be as familiar as a household word. He made 
many artistic pretensions ; indeed, from the fervor with 
which he did so, one might infer that he was sacri- 
ficing himself on the altar of art for the sake of the 
people, and that he was spending his money without 
a pang in order that the public should have Italian 
opera performed as the composers desired. He may 
have been honest in this. He may have deluded 
himself into thinking that he cared but little for the 
dollars, and that '^ J. Grau'' was satisfied with con- 
tributing to the progress of art. But if such was 
the case, ^^J. Grau" had a singular way of showing 
it, for his methods indicated a very conmiercial soul. 
I have no doubt that he honestly tried to give people 
the worth of their money ; but if the figures on the 
box sheet showed a balance against him, he mani- 
fested unmistakable signs of distress. When business 
was good, he never appeared in newspaper offices, but 
sent his nephew ; but when business was bad, he was 



168 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

a frequent visitor^ and long and piteous were his tales 
of woe, and most sorrowful were his complaints of 
the ingratitude of the public after all that he had 
done for it. Then dark hints would follow that it 
might be his last season, for he was convinced that 
Chicago did not appreciate his efforts. When busi- 
ness was bad, ^'J. Grau" would appear near the 
theatre entrance indifferently attired, wandering about 
with dejected mien, one eye furtively watching the 
box-office, and his whole bearing seemingly expressing 
personal hopelessness and pecuniary distress. On the 
other hand, when business was good and crowds were 
flocking to the opera like doves to the windows, and 
the box-office was besieged, behold '^ J. Grau '' flitting 
about in his crush hat, immaculate tie, and super- 
lative evening habit, his face wreathed with a con- 
tinuous performance of smiles and an expression of 
serenest satisfaction. ^' J. Grau's '' hat was at any time 
an infallible index of business. 

Most impresarios have trouble with their prima 
donnas or tenors, but ^^J. Grau'' escaped. I do not 
know how he managed it, but possibly he recognized 
that they were the essential factors of his enterprise 
and that he could not afford to alienate them. I 
suspect he used to make the chorus people suffer 
vicariously for the offences of the principals, after 
the manner of the old English sovereigns, who kept 
an urchin from the streets in readiness to suffer chas- 
tisements for the misbehavior of the princes. As a 
matter of fact, ^^J. Grau" had much trouble with 
his chorus people, and they were of the kind to make 



MAtJRIOE QRAU. 169 

it. No manager ever brought together a more ven- 
erable aggr^ation of signoras and signors than he. 
Some of them must have sung with Persiani and 
Malibran^ and others may have been on the boards 
with Cuzzoni and Bordoni. He used to say that 
some of the chorus were harmless, good-natured 
growlers as long as he kept them well supplied with 
macaroni, but that the others were a mob of chronic 
fault-finders, ready to revolt upon the slightest pre- 
text, and most ready to rise just before the curtain 
rose, and that the only way to be sure of a perform- 
ance was to kill one of them whenever two or three 
were seen with their heads together, otherwise you 
would have to pay them whatever they demanded 
and kill yourseli But ^'J. Grau'' after all brought 
many fine artists to Chicago and produced opera in 
good style. It was trying, however, to endure his 
homilies on art and his assurances of willingness for 
self-sacrifice. 

^'J. Grau'' was not so sincere as Maurice Grau, 
whom I mention a little out of chronological order 
because he was Jacob's nephew. His methods were rad- 
ically different from those of his uncle. When I first 
met Maurice Grau, he was his uncle's advance agent. 
He served him also as ticket taker, ticket seller, and 
in nearly every other subordinate capacity, and during 
his apprenticeship learned more about managing opera 
than ^^J. Grau" ever knew. His experiences led 
him to the conclusion that opera was purely a busi- 
ness proposition, and that so far as the manager was 
concerned it should be produced not from the musical 



170 MUBIGAL MSaiOBIES 

but from the commercuJ standpoint. He was frank 
enough to admit that he presented opera not as a 
luxury for others at his expense^ or as an agency for 
elevating the musical condition of the public, but as 
an investment for the profit of himself and the stock- 
holders. Once, when asked his opinion of high art, he 
replied : ^* I think it 's the art to make money, and the 
higher the bank account, the higher the art/' 

Maurice 6rau was the most successful of all the 
impresarios, though he knew little about music and 
was more or less at the mercy of his singers. He 
was associated with Abbey and Schoeffler for a long 
time and was sole manager for about ten years. 
During these periods he introduced to the American 
public the De Beszkes, Calve, Schumann-Heink, Sem- 
brich, Eames, Melba, Temina, Gktdski, Nordica, Rubin- 
stein, Wieniawski, Aim^, Capoul, Sarasate, Joseph 
Hofmann, besides some of the great dramatic artists, 
among them Salvini, Bernhardt, Ooquelin, Rejane, 
and Henry Irving. Personally he was the least pre- 
tentious of men. He was courteous and urbane in 
his relations to others, but very quiet and reserved. 
As far as the expression of feelings is concerned, he 
was literally a sealed book, for, if he was elated or 
depressed, if he was making money or losing money, 
he gave no sign. He was always studiously polite 
in his greeting, but made no more talk than was 
necessary. He was lenient in management, especially 
with his prima donnas, even when they violated their 
contracts by declining to sing, nor did he interfere 
with them more than was absolutely necessary. 



THE ONLY DE VIVO 171 

Thoa^ not a muBidan^ he rarely made mistakes in 
the selection of artists or in the arrangement of a 
rqmrtory. He avoided misunderstandings with news- 
papers, and seldom if ever disappointed the publio. 
The best evidence of his success is the fact that when 
his health broke down from too much work and too 
little exercise he retired with a snug fortune, while 
his uncle retired without anything, and his old part- 
ner, Abbey, died in poverty. Shrewd management 
of opera and shrewd investments in Wall Street paid 
him well. He deserved his success as one of the best 
and most judicious of managers. 

I must now go back a few years and present Di^;o 
De Vivo to my readers. He had been everything by 
turn and nothing long. He was a child of sunny 
Italy, but sunny Italy did not appreciate his rare 
qualities, or it would not have allowed him to leave, 
much less expatriate him as a dangerous agitator. 
This nervous, restless Jack-in-the-box at first decided 
he would be a priest, but the religious life was too 
quiet for him; then he studied architecture. Blue 
prints did not amuse him long, for we next find him 
in the army, teaching gymnastics to his fellow sol- 
diers. He should have been well fitted for this kind 
of work, for he was as lithe as the Human Frog and 
active as a whirling dervish* Then, with a v^natility 
wellnigh unintelligible, he appeared as a book agent. 
During his canvassing, however, he sold books which 
objected to the government, whereupon the government 
objected to him and invited him to leave the country. 



172 IfUSIGAL MEMORIES 

He stayed not upon the order of his going and came 
to New York in 1854. Finding that city, even in 
those early days, flooded with book agents, he picked 
up a living for a time by teaching Italian, and also 
had the good luck to meet with Brignoli, who em- 
ployed him as his secretary. This gave him an oppor- 
tunity to meet artists, and among them was GasEzaniga, 
who was so attracted by him that she employed him as 
her agent. This was in 1860. 

I was seated at my desk one fine morning in that 
year when De Vivo appeared before me — a swarthy, 
black-eyed, very erect man, voluble of tongue, and with 
a smile which reached from ear to ear. His nervous 
contortions, abundant grimaces, expressive gestures of 
hands and shrugs of shoulders as he introduced himself, 
reminded me of Figaro, in the ^^ Factotum " scene, while 
his personal appearance suggested Captain Kydd — 
the suggestion being heightened by his fierce bloodr 
red cravat, in which was inserted a skull and cross- 
bones stickpin. He visited me many times afterwards 
in the interests of Kellogg, Parepa-Rosa, Wachtel, 
Aim^e, Di Murska, and others, but he was always 
the same De Vivo, the same fascinating factotum 
and gentlemanly pirate, whether on the heights of 
success or in the depths of failure. I never saw his 
flow of spirits checked but once. This was in 1872. 
He had selected Wachtel as the winning number of 
the operatic lottery, and was sure of success because 
it was the first season of opera after the Big Fire. 
But Wachtel had been hard gripped by tonsilitis as the 
penalty of much shouting, and the season was abruptly 



THE ONLY DE VIVO 173 

ended. Poor De Yivo^ whose ticket drew a blanks 
came to aee me, and for once he was the picture of 
despair. The fierceness of the pirate and the acro- 
batic mirthfuhiess of Figaro had disappeared. His 
only exclamation was : ^^ My dear friend 1 no Wachtel, 
no Postilion, no opera 1 all gone ! De Vivo has lost and 
must go back to New York 1 Is it not hard ? Good- 
bye, my dear friend! But De Vivo will come back 
some time and be happy again.*^ I bade him good-bye 
and wished him good luck, and as he turned with a loud 
sigh he looked the image of despair. His grief prob- 
ably did not last long, not farther than Michigan City, 
for nothing could keep De Vivo down any length of 
time. He had the saving grace of humor, a harmless 
vanity, and a sunny nature, for his piratical aspect 
belied him, that enabled him to rise superior to any 
bufEetings of fortune. It was a rare treat to talk 
with him when he was in his gayest moods, for he 
had an endless stock of good stories and his com- 
ments upon artists were always interesting. He had 
a ready wit, and sometimes it was caustic, as when 
he was asked if anything could be stronger than Carl 
Formes' voice. He instantly replied : ^' Tes 1 his good 
opinion of himself." But De Vivo had a good opinion 
of himself also. At the dose of one of his seasons, 
when Parepa-Bosa was about to return to New York, 
he was asked if she would sing with him the next 
season. He promptly replied: ^^ Without a De Vivo 
there can be no Parepa.'' Such faith in oneself ought 
to move mountains, but in the end it availed De Vivo 
little, for he died in 1898 so poor that he had to be 



174 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

buried by the Artists' Fund. I think De Vivo made 
a mistake in trying to be a manageri for he was a 
bom actor^ and had he been on the stage with his 
imitative powers, his kaem sense of humor, his over- 
flowmg vitality, and mercurial disposition, he might 
have been one of the comedians of the ages. 

Max Strakosch, brother of Maurice, was associated 
with De Vivo, as well as *^ J. Grau," in some of his un- 
dertakings. He was the Mercutio of the impresarios. 
His imagination was limitless and picturesque. His 
disposition was sunny, and he was as full of giggles as 
a girl. Never was there a more cheeiy optimist I 
never met him that his face was not irradiated with 
smiles, that he did not have the finest of all his companies 
with him, and that everything was not rosy. He was 
veiy democratic, and did not isolate himself after the 
manner of other impresarios. He liked to have people 
know he was Max Strakosch, brother of Maurice, and 
brother-in-law of Adelina Patti. His letters and his 
interviews abounded with the most affable insincerity 
and extraordinary embellishment, which he fancied 
would not be questioned because he believed his state- 
ments were correct. He did not mean to mislead or 
deceive. His imagination was simply too strong for his 
sense of the verities. He was also a cheerful philoso- 
pher, unspoiled by success and undismayed by failure. 
It is told of him that one day, looking over his books, 
he foimd himself at the season's close $40,000 out of 
pocket His assets were seven dollars in currency, and 
a box of matches which he carried about with him 
as a cigarette convenience. He calmly reviewed the 



PHILOSOPHICAL MAX STRAKOSCH 176 

financial situation, but could reach no decision as to his 
next move. Finally he concluded to let his matches de- 
cide for him. He would throw them upon the table, and 
if there was an even number of them, he would go on; 
if an odd number, he would suspend. The number 
was even. He at once resumed, looked fate squarely in 
the face, made new engagements, and the next season 
had a handsome balance in his favor. His advertise- 
ments, in which his imagination had full play, were ex- 
traordinary, as I have already shown in one instance. 
Indeed the ethical significance of an '^ ad ^' never oc- 
curred to him. Once^ when asked why he had an- 
nounced several unimportant persons, to create the 
impression he had a very large troupe, he replied that 
they were not engaged. ^^ But,'* said his questioner, " if 
you want to advertise people whom you have not en- 
gaged, why not select names that will help you, — Patti, 
Nilsson, or Kellogg ? '' His naive reply was that the 
people would want to see them, but these people nobody 
would care for. It would not be fair to infer from this 
that his companies were full of dummies. He brought 
out many excellent troupes, and his seasons were very 
enjoyable. His 1873 company, which included Nilsson, 
Maresi, Torriani, Campanini, Capoul, Maurel, Del Puente, 
Nannetto, and Scolari, was one of the most brilliant that 
ever sang in this country. Among other artists who 
were members of his companies were KeUogg, Carlotta 
Patti, Annie Louise Gary, Albani, Tietjens, Lucca, Di 
Murska, Lagrange, Adelaide Phillips, Gazzaniga, Gassier, 
Brignoli, Susini, Jamet, and Formes. Poor Max's last 
days were clouded with great physical suffering and a 



176 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

breach-of -promise suit^ but, for the latter, I fancy the 
promise of marriage must have been but one more 
flight of his vivid imagination. Its insincerity must 
have been so a£Eably apparent, it is surprising that 
the maiden, however lacerated and vindictive she may 
have been, did not at once release him without thought 
of pecuniary compensation. And I also fancy that he 
bore his last su£Eerings with the same kind of cheerful 
philosophy that had characterized him throughout his 
career. 

I must draw my memories of the impresarios to its 
close with some reference to Colonel Mapleson, — 
Colonel James Henry Mapleson of Her Majesty's The- 
atre, as his letter-heads announced him. The Colonel 
received his military title from H. B. H. the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, who graciously permitted him to do 
duty in the volunteer service, participate in battalion 
drills, and occasionally command one of the volunteer 
regiments. The Colonel also participated in the active 
duty of assisting at officers' mess, and performed it 
with alacrity and skill, as he was a valiant trencher- 

authority for stating that he had been student, critic, 
violinist, composer, concert director, and musical agent 
before he became impresario, though his achievements 
in these various departments could not have been very 
surprising. It is only as impresario that Colonel James 
Henry Mapleson of Her Majesty's appears interesting. 
He was the typical Englishman, tall, broad-shouldered, 
well made, rosy faced, military whiskered, and military 



OOLONEL JAMES HENRY MAPLESON 177 

in his bearing. His career had been thickly strewn 
with quarrels, debts, litigations, and bankruptcies when 
I first met him, and yet they seemed to have left no 
scars. He was very pompous and haughty, as became 
one who had served Her Majesty both with sword and 
fiddle bow. As he stood before me for the first time in 
my little office he seemed to fill it. He laid his card 
upon my desk, and as I read the name with its prefix 
and suffixes I felt that I was ia the atmosphere of roy- 
alty. He was quite gracious, however, on this occasion, 
as he wished favors. The Colonel had three forms of 
address. If he were seeking favors, it was ^^ My dear 
fellow," with a conventional smile ; if he were on good 
terms with you and the occasion was social, it was ^^ My 
boy," with measured dignity ; if he were not on good 
terms, it was *^ Sir," very haughtily. Upon this occa- 
sion I was addressed as ^^My dear fellow." Two or 
three days afterward, a criticism having displeased him, 
he stalked into my room and threw his card upon my 
desk, with the words, ^^ Take my card to the editor- 
in-chief, sir." The worm thus addressed turned and 
replied, ^^Take it yourself, sir." But waiving the 
ColoneFs pomposity and imperiousness, he was enter- 
taining after all, and much could be forgiven him, for 
never before was impresario so harried by prima domias, 
pestered by their husbands, persecuted by creditors and 
musicians, and chased by duns as Colonel James Henry 
Mapleson of Her Majesty's; and yet troubles did not 
disturb him, or, if they did, he showed no sign of it 
He assumed debts as if they were eveiy-day trifles, and 
jocundly skipped through bankruptcies. He was in the 

12 



178 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

operatic business twenty years or more at Her ICajesty's 
and Drory Lane in London^ and in the intervals used to 
bring his troupes over here, and ezoellent ones they 
were. CShicago should always hold him in grateful 
memory by reason of his operatic festival in 18d5. V l 
For this gala occasion a temporary opera house was 
erected in the north end of the Exposition Building on 
the Lake Front, which is so delightfully connected with 
musical memories* The Colonel's chorus was increased 
to three hundred and the orchestra to one hundred, 
with the veteran Arditi at its head. The company was 
an imposing one, including Adelina Patti, Fursch-Madi, 
Dotti, Scalchi, Steinbach, and Nevada ; the tenors, 
Gianinni, Rinaldini, Cardiuali, Vicini, Bialetto, and 
Nioolini; the barytones, De Anna and De Pasqualis; 
and the bassos, Cherubini, Caracciolo, Manni, De Vas- 
chetti, and SerbolinL During the two weeks' season, 
*^ Semiramide,'' <TAfricaine,'' ** Mirella," " Aida,' 
"^ Lucia di Lamermoor," '' Martha," '' Der Freischutz,' 
«La Sonnambula," ** H Trovatoie," *' Puritani," 
<< Faust,*' and ^^ Lohengrin " were produced in the 
order named. Such crowds, such enthusiasm, CShicago 
had never known before, and Colonel James Henry 
ICapleson of Her Majesty's had never seen their like. 
Every one effervesced with hilarity. The Colonel was 
called before the curtain on the last night, and ex* 
pressed his feelings with difficulty and dignity. The 
Opera Festival Association engrossed for him a special 
eicpression of thanks, and musical committees and civic 
bodies passed resolutions of admiration and gratitude. 
The mayor. Carter H. Harrison the elder, whose love 



99 
f 
99 



COLONEL JAMES HENRT MAPLESON 179 

of music is spread abroad in the otherwise dry pages 
of the ^' Congressional Record,'' gave the Colonel the 
freedom of the city, which the Colonel declared was a 
compliment which had never been tendered to an Eng- 
lishman before and never would be again. And then 
in an outburst of enthusiasm the Colonel made his 
finest bow, and assured the mayor that ^^ Chicago will 
within a very few years become the first city in the 
United States and probably in the world/' It was a 
festive time for the Colonel, and he must have looked 
back many times with longing as the train swiftly bore 
him away into regions where he must encounter fresh 
troubles. But six years later Colonel James Heniy 
Mapleson of Her Majesty's died and went to that better 
land where ^* the wicked cease from troubling." 



CHAPTER XIV 

THEODORE THOMAS 

BARLT WSm TO CmCAGO — OXTR FIB8T MEETINO — HIB HON- 
X8TT OF CHARACTER — A LOTAL FRIEND — HIS BROAD 
CULTURE — LOVE OF CONVIVIALriT — AVERSION TO 8BNTI- 
lOENTALISM — THREE DISAPPOINTIfENTB — COLUMBIAN EX- 
POSITION — CINCINNATI COLLEGE OF UUSIC — AMERICAN 
OPERA COMPANY — NOTABLE SATINOS 

THE career of Theodore Thomas as an orchestra 
conductor is so well known that my memories of 
him will be mainly confined to the man rather 
than the musician. The whole country will remember 
him with baton in hand, and what he accomplished as 
the pioneer and promoter of higher music, but few knew 
him on the human side — his personal traits, his strong 
characteristics^ his wide culture, his loyal friendships, 
and the warm^ kindly heart that beat beneath an ap- 
parently austere exterior; a heart that felt sympathy 
with suffering humanity, and with the smallest creature 
in the Felsengarten summer home which he loved so 
dearly. I must preface this, however, with a brief 
statement of his earliest visits to Chicago, for very few 
persons have any knowledge of them. 

Theodore Thomas came to Chicago in 1854 as first 
violinist in a smaU orchestra accompanying a concert 
troupe composed of Ole Bull, Amalia Patti, contralto, 
Maurice Strakosch, pianist, Bertucca Maretzek, harpist. 



EARLY VISITS TO CHICAGO 181 

In October, 1868, he made his second visit, in the same 
capacity, in a concert troupe directed by Carl An* 
schutz, under the management of Ullman. It included 
Madame Schuman, soprano ; Carl Formes, basso ; and 
Ernest Perring, tenor. The orchestra, though it num- 
bered only twenty-one players, was such a remarkable 
one that its members should be placed on record* It in- 
cluded : First violins, Thomas, Mosenthal, and Romani ; 
second violins, Besig, Bernstein, and Launn; viola, 
Matzka; 'cello, Bergmann; double basses, Herzog and 
Amoldi; flute, Siedler; oboe, Meyer; clarinets, Kiefer 
and Amici; bassoons, Euhlman and Bartoli; French 
horns, Schmitz and Kullinger ; trumpet, Lacroix ; trom- 
bone, Letsch ; kettledrums, Haberkom. Two concerts 
were given, and in the second one (October 7) Mr. 
Thomas played Yieuxtemps's ^^ Reverie/' In March, 
1859, he was in Chicago again as solo violinist and 
conductor, the troupe including Carl Formes, Madame 
Laborde, soprano, Bladamoiselle Poinsot, alto, and 
Gustav Satter, pianist. In the first concert Mr. 
Thomas played the ^^ Elegy of Tears,'^ and in the 
third concert led the Mendelssohn Society, of which 
Adolph W. Dohn was director, in a performance of 
Titl's "Consecration of Solomon's Temple." 

Mr. Thomas did not visit Chicago again until 1869, 
when he came with his own orchestra. It was an ideal 
concert orchestra of forty pieces, perfectly trained, and 
eveiy man of them an artist in his way. His great sym- 
phony orchestra of a later period never did finer work 
than that little band of Central Park (harden players, 
so far as precision, beautiful shading, and quality 



182 MUBIGAL MEMORIES 

are concerned. I recall my first meeting with him on 
that occasion as vividly as if it were but yesterday. 
He was then in his thirty-fourth year, full of courage, 
hope, and ambition, and with a capacity for work which 
was extraordinary. I was presented to him by Mr. 
Dohn, a mutual friend. His greeting was cordial but 
characteristic of the man. He was very glad to see 
me, but I must not expect him to call upon me, as he 
was a very busy man. Besides, he never went into 
newspaper offices. He never read what they wrote, as 
he knew his work thoroughly. This brusque greeting 
shows the supreme confidence he had in himself, and yet 
never was a musician more free from personal vanity. 
He was master of his art and master of himsell A 
musician once said to him in a discussion, ^ Perhaps you 
are right." His terse reply was : '^ I know I am right, 
or I should not bave expressed the opinion.'' The 
friendship begun on that far-away day in November, 
1869, remained unbroken until the day of his death, in 
January, 1905. Our relations were so intimate, and I 
know his wishes and preferences so well, that I am sure 
I shall not go contrary to them in anything I may say 
concerning him as a man. Upon one occasion he said 
to me : '^ Some things might be left unsaid until I am 
gone." Now that he has gone they may be said. 

One of the most striking traits of Mr. Thomas's char- 
acter was his rugged honesty, and this not merely in re- 
gard to his musical work, but as affecting every action in 
his life. In the attainment of his musical ideals, indeed, 
he was never diverted from his lofty purpose by disap- 
pointments, disasters, opposition, or misunderstanding. 




Theodohr Thomas 



^. 



MR. THOMAS'S HONESTY OF CHARACTER 183 

He kept his ideals to the last, and unquestionably he 
sacrificed his life to them. He was so firmly grounded 
upon moral and spiritual honesty that he could not 
endure even the appearance of dishonesty in others. 
He said to me once, speaking of a very prominent man 
who had acted toward him in an underhanded way: 
'' I do not allow that man to speak to me/' He dis- 
missed such persons from his axsquaintance just as he 
dismissed players from his orchestra who were guilty 
of trickery^ no matter how well they might play. Only 
once do I remember his giving way to discouragement^ 
and then only for a moment. It was during the 
memorable Summer Night concerts in Chicago. The 
city was in a disturbed condition, owing to the great 
railroad strike. The concerts were thinly attended. 
At one end of the huge Exposition Building was the 
concert halL The other end was occupied by mil- 
itary companies waiting for an emergency call. I 
reached the building one evening some time before 
the hour of opening, and saw Mr. Thomas sitting at 
a table, with his head upon his hands. He beckoned 
me to come to him. I inquired if he was ilL ^^ I 'm 
a little blue to-night, old friend^'* he replied. '' I have 
been thinking, as I sit here, that I have been swinging 
the baton fifteen years, and I do not see that the people 
are any farther ahead from where I began, and as &r 
as my pockets are concerned I am not as well off.'* He 
paused a minute, then added : *^ But I am going to keep 
on if it takes another fifteen years.'' I have mentioned 
this incident in connection with his honesty because he 
kept on until he had paid every dollar of arrears to 



184 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

his old OTchestra long after he was legally obliged to do 
so. There was no power which could make him lower 
his standards to gain popularity. No commercial in- 
ducements were strong enough to make him prostitute 
his arty as was conspicuously demonstrated by his action 
while musical director at the Columbian Exposition, of 
which I shall speak in this chapter. 

Another characteristic trait of Mr. Thomas was his 
loyalty as a friend. He was cautious about admitting 
any one to his confidence. ^He was so self-reliant that 
it almost seemed as if he never craved sympathy or 
affection, nor was he demonstrative in his professions 
toward friends; but when once he made a friend, he 
never lost him through any fault of his own. He car- 
ried out to the letter Polonius's injunction to Laertes: 

** Those friends tboa hast, and their adoption tried, 
Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steeL'' 

An instance of his loyalty to an old friend was shown 
in the last days of Carl Bergmann. He and Bergmann 
had been intimately associated in the Mason-Thomas 
chamber concerts. Each recognized the musical ability 
of the other. They were in fact the pioneers who pre- 
pared the way for others. They did the hard, unprofit- 
able work of breaking the ground from which others 
have reaped rich harvests. In time, however, Berg- 
mann grew jealous of Thomas. He was a splendid 
musician, but personally a weak man. He put many 
obstacles in Thomas's way, and greatly annoyed him ; 
but when Thomas had an orchestra of his own their 
roads diverged. Bergmann, meanwhile, was the victim 



MR. THOMAS'S BROAD CULTURE 185 

of his own weaknesses. He alienated his friends and 
sank lower and lower. One evening Thomas went to 
a restaurant much frequented by musicians, and upon 
entering found Bergmann in a wretched plight, with 
the crowd making sport of him. His temper blazed up 
at once as he thought of what Bergmann had been in 
his better days. He advanced and rebuked the crowd 
in an outburst of wrath, of which he was capable at 
times, and threatened to thrash the lot of them if they 
did not let their victim alone. ^^ Respect the Bergmann 
that was, if you have no respect for the Bergmann that 
is,'' he thundered at them. The crowd slunk away, 
and Thomas then took Bergmann home, though he had 
long before forfeited all claim upon his friendship. The 
incident shows the man. 

Most people think that Mr. Thomas devoted himself 
entirely to the study and practice of music and was 
unfamiliar with other subjects. This is a mistake. He 
necessarily gave much time to his work, for its demands 
were exacting, and he had to keep up with all the new 
developments in the world of art ; but, notwithstanding 
that, he was a man of broad culture, an earnest student 
of philosophy, history, and poetry, and well posted in the 
great movements of the time. His favorite authors were 
Shakespeare, Goethe, and Schiller. He was well read in 
the German phflosophical systems and deeply versed in 
the ancient and modem literature of music. His table 
talk would make an entertaining volume of itself, for 
he was a fluent converser on almost every subject, and 
his ideas were original and illuminating. In this con- 
nection, also, it may be said that he had a rare fund of 



186 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

hmnor and was an excellent story-teller. Those who 
only saw him with baton in hand would hardly believe 
him ^'a fellow of infinite jest and excellent fancy'' 
among his congenial friends. To meet them at little 
dinners was his delight He was a connoisseur and 
expert in everything pertaining to a menu, and the 
most delightful of hosts. How well I remember his 
quaint and hearty invitation on one occasion : '' Come 
and have a good time^ and drink to the gods as the 
Greeks did, who loved only the good and the true." 
And as memory brings back so many of these spark- 
hngy convivial occasions, I recall an '^ over the Rhine " 
Commerz at the dose of one of the Cincinnati festivals, 
in which ^' The Messiah '* and Beethoven's Ninth Sym- 
phony had been given so much to his liking that he 
invited the artists and several musicians to celebrate it. 
Those who were there will never forget the occasion, 
for Mr. Thomas was never more delightfully genial. 
The discussions and good stories at the ** Tenth Sym- 
phony," as the event was christened, were memorable. 
Apropos of these discussions, in one related to the 
tempos of '^ The Messiah," he explained his ideas sub- 
stantially as follows: ^'A man of Handel's immense 
vital energy never intended effects to be made dull and 
lethargic. . I take these tempos just as I feel them. As 
Wagner said, the metronome is worthless. The leader 
who depends upon a metronome had better take to cob- 
bling shoes. As to ' The Messiah,' I don't care anything 
about the traditions. I am going to have the style and 
tempos as I feel them myself." The last convivial oc- 
casion at which I met him was the last one in his life. 



AVEB8I0N TO SENTniENTALISM 187 

and one of the most enjoyable. Two other gentlemen, 
concerned with the publication of his biography , who had 
not met him bef ore, were present, and spent a delightful 
afternoon. Music was not alluded to, but a great yariety 
of topics was discussed, upon which he had so much to 
say that was vitally significant, far-seeing, and compre- 
hensive, that these gentlemen, who imagined him to be 
a man wholly absorbed in music, were surprised to find 
what a strong grasp he had upon all the topics of the 
time. A few weeks later Ifr. Thomas died, but the 
little social meeting that afternoon will long linger in 
the memories of the three guests. 

A peculiar characteristic of Mr. Thomas was his free- 
dom from sensationalism and ^sweet sentimentalism" in 
his work as well as in his life. He was strong and sane, 
and had high ideals, but was not given to the emotional. 
One evening, at the house of a noted pianist, two of his 
string players performed a very emotional duet^ much to 
the delight of the ladies. When they had finished, he 
turned to me with a smile and shrug of the shoulder, 
and remarked, ** A nice pair of moon-struck sentimental- 
ists, are n't they ? " Only a short time before his death, 
speaking of the future of his orchestra, he said to me 
that he hoped it would not have a Slav leader after 
he was gone, for they were either sensational or played 
for the sentimentalists. It was rare, however, that he 
criticised either conductors or composers. If he did 
not approve of the latter, he would give them a hearing 
as a matter of musical news, and then consign them to 
his librarian's shelves. Now and then, however, he ex- 
pressed himself without reserve, as when he said he had 



188 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

no patience with musicians whose education begins and 
ends with Wagner. I met him one day alone in his 
library, when he was looking through the score of the 
*' Domestic Symphony/' which he had just received from 
Richard Strauss. I asked him what he thought of it. 
He replied : '^ I do not care to express an opinion about 
the music itself, but how can a composer thrust his per- 
sonality and family affairs upon people ? What do they 
care for him or his wife and babies and relatives, or for 
what is going on in his home ? Strauss is lowering the 
standards. He did better in ^ Zarathustra ' and ^ Hel- 
denleben/ but is he not sacrificing quality in all his 
works ? " 

Mr. Thomas had three failures in his life which were 
bitter disappointments and for which he was in no way 
responsible. One of these failures was his Columbian 
Exposition scheme in 1893. He had planned upon a 
most noble scale a representation of the progress of 
music from a very early period to the present, which 
should be in consonance with the ideas underlying the 
Exposition. His scheme was carried out for three 
months, under many difficulties. He gradually discov- 
ered, however, that his work was hampered by some of 
those who should have actively cooperated with him. 
The musical committee itself was not in sympathy with 
him, and did not realize the greatness of his scheme. 
At last a combined onslaught was made upon binn be- 
cause he would not consent to have his scheme domi- 
nated by commercial influences. He drew the line 
sharply in defence of himself and a distinguished artist. 
Certain piano dealers raised a clamor, and rather than 



MR. THOMAS'S THREE DISAPPOINTMENTS 189 

lower himself by engaging in a vulgar quarrel with 
men who could not, or would not, understand his mo- 
tires, he promptly resigned. He made no complaints 
in his letter of resignation, but simply advised the Com- 
mittee to treat music as an amusement, not as an art, 
during the remainder of the Exposition period, and gen- 
erously offered his services without compensation if they 
desired his advice. In a letter to me afterwards he 
simply wrote: ^^I cannot tell you what pain these 
attacks have given me. My age and my record should 
have protected me from them. But let it pass. Art is 
long." Theodore Thomas would never recognize com- 
mercialism in music. 

Mr. Thomas's second failure was his administration of 
the Cincinnati College of Music in 1880. In this case, 
also, he had planned a great scheme which contemplated 
a musical university upon a broad and noble foundation, 
and only accepted the directorship upon the explicit 
understanding that he would not interfere with the 
business management, and the trustees must not inter- 
fere with the musical management. His words were : 
'^I must insist upon being intrusted with the exclu- 
sive management of the school, not submitting my 
judgment to the trustees in musical matters.'' But 
for one man he probably would have succeeded in car- 
rying out his scheme ; but that one man, who stood high 
socially in Cincinnati and had great influence in the 
College, continually intermeddled with Mr. Thomas's 
management. I was a witness of this intermeddling on 
two occasions, and listened to the stinging rebukes ad- 
ministered to him by the director, whose patience was 



190 MUSICAL MEM0RIE8 

worn oat, bnt the man was so wrapped np in his own 
importance that they made no impression upon hiuL 
Finding that he could be of no use under such circum- 
stances, Mr. Thomas resigned. His labors for a great 
seat of musical learning in that city ceased, but he con- 
tinued his labors for the success of its famous festivals. 
In the last one which he directed, however, the tax 
upon his strength was tremendous, and undoubtedly 
was one of the causes which hastened his death. 

Mr. Thomas's third failure was the American Opera 
Company, organized in 1886 for the representation of 
opera in English by American artists. It is sufficient 
to know that it collapsed after two years of hard labor, 
frequent litigations, annoying strikes, unpaid bills, sher- 
ifEs' attachments, and the sacrifice of his own salary for 
several months, — all owing to the wretched business 
management of one person ! And yet, in the midst of 
all these drawbacks, opera has never been given better 
in this country, nor have opera goers ever seen a better 
ensemble. He told me that the failure was due ''to 
inexperience and misdirected enthusiasm in business 
management and to misappropriation of money,'' — a 
charitable statement when we consider that he wrote 
upon the back of the programme of the last perform- 
ance: ''The most dreadful experience I have ever 
had." 

Before closing my recollections of the great leader 
who has done more for the musical education of the 
American people than any other, I must quote the fol- 
lowing sayings of his, gathered from my letters and 
interviews with him, which throw a clear light upon 



NOTABLE SAYINQS 191 

him as a musician, f or, after all that may be said of him 
as a man, most people know him only as the musician 
and conductor : 

*^A symphonic orchestra shows the culture of a com- 
munity, not opera. The man who does not know Shakespeare 
is to be pitied, and the man who does not understand Bee- 
thoven, and has not been under his spell, has not half lived 
his life. The master works of instrumental music are the 
langoage of the soul, and express more than any other art. 
Light music, * popular,' so-called, is the sensual side of the 
art, and has more or less devil in it.'' 

^^ Mosic shoald be to the vocalist what painting is to the 
artist. The score should be his brush and pigments. It 
shoald be only the rough materials, and his intelligence 
should so dispose them that the picture should be the master- 
piece of his own work and imagination, not the single result 
of direction or accidental combination of colois." 

** Throughout my life my aim has been to make good music 
popular, and it now appears that I have only done the public 
justice in believing, and acting constantly on the belief, that 
the people would enjoy and support the best in art when con- 
tinually set before them in a clear, intelligent manner." 

** People cannot read the new music, but they should keep 
abreast of it, and the only way to know it is to hear it. It 
does not follow that I approve or indorse it because I play it. 
It is due to the pubUc to hear once. This has been a life-long 
idea with me." 

^^ I will say that I have neither sympathy nor patience with 
those so-called musicians whose education begins and ends 
with Wagner. It is also a great drawback in this countiy 
that the musical public is either too busy or too phlegmatic 
to treat music as an art, but look upon it only as an amuse- 
ment and a pastime. Conditions change, but progress is 
slow." 



192 MUSICAL MEMORIEB 

^ I care not from what station in life come the thonaands 
who flit before me. Beethoven will teach each according to 
his needs, and the veiy same cadence that may waft the 
thoughts of one to dxowsy delight or oblivion may stir the 
heart of another to higher insfttiation, may give another hope 
in his despair, may faring to yet another a message of love." 

^ I have always worked hard and always worked ahead, and 
know little of the past" 

*^ In art the first rule is system and form; in art you cannot 
count your time." 

** I agree with the present time, and prefer truth to Euro- 
pean culture (hypocrisy) ; but I also admire to some extent 
good manners, and confess that I am in my inner self enough 
of a German that it makes me feel better if I can treat some 
one or some thing with respect" 

**' I have never wished to pose as an educator or a philan- 
thropist, except in so far as I might help the public to get 
beyond certain so-called popular music which represents noth- 
ing more than sweet sentimentalism and rhythm on the level 
of the dime novel" 

^ E verjrthing revenges itself on this earth. Wagner fights 
just as much to-day as when alive, perhaps when he wants 
peace ; and Berlios, with whom we thought to be free, had his 
centenary &11 at a time to force the world to make up for lost 
time at tiie other end." 

*^The power of good music I Who among us can tell or 
measure it ? Who shall say how many hearts it has soothed, 
how many tired brains it has rested, how many sorrows it has 
taken away? It is like the power of conscionce, — mighty, 
immeasurable.'' 

If the list of those who have appeared as soloists in 
Mr. Thomases concerts during the laat fifty years were 



NOTABLB flAYINQB 198 

printed, it would include the name of eyery prominen^t 
vocal and instrumental performer in this country and 
most of those in Europe. If the list of those who have 
been aided by his counsels and encouraged by his ap- 
probation could be published, it would include a great 
number who have become famous and krgely owe their 
fame to him. 

To him Chicago also owes a debt of gratitude for 
fourteen years of constant and faithful devotion to the 
highest musical interests, and for his work during the 
twenty-two years preceding, in which he was preparing 
the way for the crownmg achievement of his career, — 
the record of 1891-1904. 



IS 



CHAPTER XV 

MUSICAL FESTIVALS 

PATRICK. SABflinBLD OILMOBB — HIg QUAUnSS AS A mAMB 
LBADKB — CmCAOO REBUILDING JUBILEE — NATIONAL 
PEACE JUBILEE — ANVIIiS, ASTILLEBT, AND CHURCH BELLS 

PAREPA AND ADELAIDE PHILUFS — INTERNATIONAL 

PEACE JUBILEE — a MONSTER AGGREGATION — MUSICAL 
SrVBCT — INTERNATIONAL BANDS — JOHANN STRAUSS AND 
HIS PERSON ALmr — PRANZ ABT — BENDEL AND THE AUTO- 
GRAPH HUNTERS — MADAME RUDER8DORF — HER PECU- 
UARITIES AND WILL — CINCINNATI PESTIVALS — CHICAGO 
MAT PESTIVALS 

THE very name of Oilmore suggests musical f esti- 
valsy by which I do not mean festivals devoted 
to the exposition of the higher music, like those 
at Cincinnati and Worcester, but festivals in which 
popular music is the feature and its exploitation on a 
colossal scale the object. Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore 
was not a musician of profound ability, but he was 
completely at home in music of a bright, showy, sen- 
sational character. He was an admirable bandmaster, 
and to him more than to any other, perhaps, is due the 
present concert band. He was a good leader, though 
somewhat eccentric in his use of the baton, picked good 
players for his bands, and made effective combinations 
of instruments. Whatever defects his bands may have 
had, they never lacked in brilliancy. His musical 



GILMOBE AS A BAND LEADER 196 

schemes were nearly always planned npon a ookflsal 
scale, and required unusual and picturesque, sometimes 
startling, combinations. He once told me that he would 
be delighted if he could only have church bells, cannons, 
and anvils with every piece he played, not merely for 
their effect npon audiences, but because he enjoyed them 
himseUL This passion for tumultuous noise and bizarre 
sensations was a curious feature in his musical make- 
up, for off the stage he was very quiet, refined, and un- 
obtrusive, — in fact, an Irish gentleman, with all the 
engaging qualities of that class. On the stage, how- 
ever, with cannon thundering, bells ringing, and anvils 
clanging, he was a totally different personality. 

Oilmore's passion for band music was first awakened 
by hearing the English bands stationed from time to 
time in his native Athlone. His own instrument was 
the comet, and his proficiency in playing it secured him 
the leadership of a band at Salem, Massachusetts, when 
he was nineteen years of age. His mania for monster 
display manifested itself at once in the big Fourth of 
July concerts which he gave on Boston Common. The 
Civil War furnished him a still wider area for his 
ambition. He was appointed musical director of the 
departnient at New Orleans by General Banks, and it 
was in that city he gave his first real festival, by cele- 
brating the inauguration of Governor Hahn with a 
chorus of five thousand adults and children, a band of 
five hundred players, drum and trumpet corps, and the 
inevitable pieces of artillery. It was from that city 
also that he brought back ^' When Johnny comes 
marching home again/* He claimed the authorship 



196 MUSICAL KBMOBIBB 

of it. In th6 absence of any other daimant it may be 
ondited to hiw»- 

Chicago had but one Gihnore festival, but Gihnore 
came here often. In 1860 his band esoorted the New 
England delegations to'the Bepablioan National Conven- 
tion which nominated Abraham Lincoln for the preei* 
dency, and gave several concerts at Metropolitan Hall. 
In 1864 he was at Bryan HalL In 1868 he inaugurated 
the Charity Balls, and gave a week of promenade con- 
certs at the Crosby Opera House, with Camilla Urso, 
violinist; Mrs. H. M. Smith, aoprano; Dr. Guilmette, 
basso; and Arbuckle, cometiat. In February, 1876, 
Enmia Thursby made her Chicago debut in his con- 
certs. In 1876 he came again, and concert goers en- 
joyed the rare treat of hearing Levy and Arbuckle, the 
two greatest cometbts of the day, play duets. In 1878 
he brought two ezceUent singers, Juliet Fenderson and 
Marie Salvotti. Indeed, Gilmore was here so often that 
Chicago became well acquainted with him, and greatly 
enjoyed the acquaintance. 

His Chicago Jubilee came off in June, 1873, and was 
a threie days' affair, intended to celebrate the rebuilding 
of the city during the eighteen months following the 
great fire. The concerts were given in the new pas- 
senger station of the Lake Shore Bailroad. It was a 
structure which satisfied Gilmore's ideas of bigness, for 
it was nearly two blocks in length and accommodated 
forty thousand people. His band was enlarged to three 
hundred pieces, and a chorus of one thousand singers 
was organized by Mr. J. M. Butterfield. It was the 
kind of festival Gilmore liked — no soloists, simply a 



CHICAGO REBUILDINQ JUBILEE 197 

multitude of voices and instruments uniting in the 
<< Hallelujah Chorus/' ''The Heavens are telling/' 
^ The Star-Spangled Banner," " The American Hymn," 
the '' Gloria " from Mozart's '' Twelfth Mass," and other 
pieces, not forgetting the '' Anvil Chorus " and all the 
anvils Gilmore could beg or borrow on the South side. 
It was a gala week for all concerned, and the festival 
closed with ''the most magnificent and select social 
affair ever given in the country," as the official bul- 
letin described it — "an elegant and rechercM ball" 
in the rebuilt Chamber of Commerce, in which all " the 
distinguished citizens" cooperated with Gilmore, who 
furnished three orchestras, one for the dance, one for the 
promenade, and one for " the collation." All citizens 
were " distinguished " in Chicago's early days, all balls 
were " rechenMy^ all suppers were " collations," and all 
the ladies were " the fairest daughters of our city." It 
was worth while living here then. They were joyous 
days just at that time, for Chicago had recovered from 
the disaster of 1871, the clouds of doubt and despair 
had all rolled away, and she was once more basking in 
the sunshine of hope. Does not the official bulletin 
say : " Everything seemed to favor and assist our people 
in the arduous task of rebuilding a destroyed city, and 
the results show a city the most remarkable in its archi- 
tectural beauty and the most magnificent in its public 
and private buildings that has ever been erected in the 
history of the world ! " No wonder Chicago was proud 
of her new and beautiful clothes. 

This littie jubilee, however, was an insignificant 
affair when compared with the two great Boston 



198 MUSICAL MEMORIEB 

jahUeeSy in which Patrick Sanfield Gilmore^ panoplied 
with mtudcal glory, rose to the summit of his ambition. 
I attended both of them as a bewildered spectator and 
alternately enraptured and dased auditor. In 1869 the 
country was at peace. Johnny had come ^^ marching 
home again " and settled down^ and Oilmore thought it 
was high tune for the "hurrah/* and for aU to "feel 
gay.** So he organized the National Peace Jubilee. Its 
main components were a building on the Boston Back 
Bay acconmiodating thirty thousand people ; an orches- 
tra of one thousand pieces ; a chorus of ten thousand 
voices gathered from New England choirs and singing 
societies; a battery of artillery ; a hundred anvils ; half 
a dozen church bells; and Patrick Sarsfield OUmore. 
The detailed features were Parepa-Boea and Adelaide 
Phillips as soloists^ and an orchestra composed as fol- 
lows : First violins, 115 ; second violins, 100 ; violas, 65; 
'cellos, 65 ; double basses, 85 ; piccolos and flutes, 25 ; 
clarinets, 78 ; oboes, 8 ; bassoons, 8 ; horns, 12 ; trum- 
pets, 8 ; trombones, 84 ; tubas, 83 ; comets, 83 ; bary- 
tones, 25 ; snare drums, 50 ; bass drums, 25 ; cymbals, 
10 ; triangles, 10. I can hear those eighty-four trom- 
bones, eighty-three tubas, eighty-three comets, and fifty 
snare drums even now, blending with the roar of the 
big organ and the mark time eruptions of anvils and 
artillery. There were some famous players, however, 
in that orchestra. Ole Bull headed the violins, and 
Carl Rosa and Wilhelm Schultze sat at the second 
and third desks. There were also the second violin- 
ists, Meisel, Eichler, and Beichardt ; the viola players, 
Ryan and Heindl; the 'cellists, Wulf Fries, Suck, and 



NATIONAL PEACE JUBILEE 199 

Mollenhauer ; the flutists, Koppitz, Zohler, and Carlo; 
the oboists, De Bibas, Mente, and Taulwasser ; and the 
cometisty Arbuckle. Of course there were times when 
there were apotheoses of racket One of these was 
the occasion when General Grant entered the hall to 
the strains of '^ See the Conquering Hero comes/' fol- 
lowed by the Anvil Chorus, accompanied by the artillery 
and the shouts of the assembled thousands, which al- 
most drowned Gilmore's efforts to reach an fff that 
should express his wild longings for a climax to break 
the record. There was occasionally a humorous turn to 
affairs, as when in the opening concert the chorus and 
orchestra got almost inextricably tangled up in the 
heights of '^ The StaivSpangled Banner,'' and Gilmoie 
lost control. He made desperate efforts to get them 
together, but when he found that they were getting 
snarled worse and worse, he signalled the big organ and 
the batteries, and somewhere and somehow in their 
united dins the orchestra and chorus untangled them- 
selves and order came out of chaos. But it was not 
all noise in this festival, for the mass effect in the 
chorales, Parepa's singing of Grounod's ^^Ave Ifaria," 
with an obligato of two hundred violins, as well as 
her performance of the ^^ Inflammatus " from Bossini's 
'' Stabat Mater," and ^^ Let the bright Seraphim," with 
Arbuckle's trumpet obligato, the voice and instrument 
uniting perfectly, both absolutely pure tones, as well as 
the performance of the ^^Quis Est Homo," from the 
^^ Stabat Mater " by F^repa and Adelaide Phillips, were 
expressions of tonal beauty long to be remembered. 
The ^' Old Hundred " also, which closed the festival, was 



200 MUBIGAL MEMORIES 

profoundly impreflsiye when more than tiiirty thousand 
voioes joined the maas choroa in ainging the ^Amili^r 
old Doxology« 

Now Oilmore, not content with one jubilee, sighed, 
like Alexander, for other worlds to conquer, and the 
opportunity presented itself in 1872. This country was 
not only at peace, but the rest of the world also, for the 
Franoo-Gferman War was over. Encouraged by the suc- 
cess of the National Peace Jubilee, he organized an 
International Peace Jubilee upon a still more extensive 
scale. Instead of an orchestra of one thousand, he as- 
sembled an orchestra of two thousand. Instead of a 
chorus of ten thousand, he collected a chorus of twenty 
thousand from all parts of the country. Instead of a 
hall seatmg thirty thousand, he had one seating fifty 
thousand. The ^^ Bouquet of Artists,'' composed of one 
hundred and fifty professional singers, was a special 
feature; likewise a chorus of the ancient signors and 
signoras, gathered from various opera companies, which 
might better have been omitted. These formed the 
foundations of the great undertaking. The detailed 
features included the soloists Madame PeschkarLeutner 
and Madame Erminia Budersdorf , sopranos ; Arabella 
Ooddard, Franz Bendel, and J. M. Wehli, pianists; 
Johann Strauss and Franz Abt, specially engaged to lead 
some of their own compositions ; the Grenadier Guards 
Band of London, Dan Qodivej, leader ; the Kaiser Franz 
Grenadier-Begiment Band of Berlin, Heinrich Saro, 
leader ; the Band of the Gourde Bepublicaine from Paris, 
M. Paulus, leader; the National Band from Dublin, 
Edwin Clements, leader; the Emperor William's 



INTERNATIONAL PEACE JUBILEE 201 

Household Comet Quartette ; the United States Marine 
Band, Heniy Fries, leader; the Ninth Regiment Band 
from New York, D. L. Downing, leader ; Oilmore's Band, 
P. & Oilmore, leader; and the Jubilee Singers from 
Nashville. The triumph of the latter was achieved in 
the singing of ^^ The Battle Hymn of the Republic," set 
to the air, ^^John Brown's Body." Certainly John 
Brown's body never marched more grandly and noisily 
than it did then to the accompaniment of the Nashville 
singers, the mass chorus^ the artillery and organ, the 
drum and trumpet chorus, the bells of Boston, and 
the hundred anvils robustly pounded by a hundred of 
the Boston firemen. It was an ensemble of f eaiful and 
wonderful sonority. 

As a human spectacle it would be hard to imagine 
anything more impressive than this vast assemblage of 
thousands swept by waves of enthusiasm when the 
national anthems were sung, or subdued by a devo^ 
tional spirit when the old familiar hymn tunes^ like 
^^ Hebron" and ^^ Coronation," were sung^ for each 
concert closed with one of them, in which the audience 
was requested to join. The sight of the immense stage 
crowded with its thousands of singers and players, 
swayed by the baton of one man, was an impressive 
sight in itself. 

This jubilee also had its humorous aspects, like the 
other. Nothing more ludicrous could be imagined than 
the frantic efforts of Gilmore to get his singers together 
when one section after another lost the beat and wan- 
dered off in all sorts of directions, instruments taking 
one road, the organ another, and singers another, for 



202 HUSICAL MEMORIEB 

all the world as if they were smging a Richftrd Strauss 
symphonic poem. To add to the humor of the situation, 
they were sbging the aria^ ^ All we like Sheep have 
gone astray/' from ^^ The Messiah.'' Unlike sheep, 
however, they did not follow their leader, but went 
^< every one in his own way," until at last a panic ensued 
and a halt was ordered. It is confusing enough when 
an ordinary chorus goes to pieces, but when a chorus 
of twenty thousand and an orchestra of two thousand 
collapse, it is a cataclysm. 

From the musical point of view, of course, there were 
many features of great interest ; but what did this tre- 
mendous output of energy and enterprise accomplish 
after all? It proved, perhaps, that twenty thousand 
voices could be handled, and when the singers were 
familiar with the music, and the music was that of 
chorales, hymns, and anthems, and there were no fugued 
passages, or broken time, or close harmony, that satis- 
factory effects could be produced. And yet these effects 
in themselves were no finer than those produced by a 
smaller number of voices in a proportionately smaller 
hall. Indeed, Oilmore himself acknowledged to me 
afterwards that he was through with '^tornado cho- 
ruses." They remind one of volcanic eruptions, cyclones, 
and earthquakes — very grand and impressive, but not 
of any benefit to the surrounding country. 

Some of the individual features of the Jubilee were 
of unusual interest. Johann Strauss was engs^ged for 
the festival, and conducted his ^^ Blue Danube," ^^ Wine, 
Woman, and Song," ^^ Thousand and One Nights," and 
''Artists' Life" waltzes, the ''Pizadcato Polka" and 



STRAUSS AND HIS PERSONALITY 203 

''Circassian llarch*'; also the ''Jubilee Waltz/' with 
the "Star-Spangled Banner'' for the codai which he 
wrote for the occasion. It was vapid and weak, as most 
" occasional pieces " are. Strauss was fascinating as a 
leader. At the time I saw him he was about forty years 
old. He was of medium stature, with a rather low and 
narrow forehead from which he brushed his hair straight 
back. He had the swarthy Austrian complexion, bright, 
restless, black eyes, and wore his side-whiskers English 
fashion. With his left leg a little advanced, and his 
violin resting upon his knee, he gave the time for a 
bar or two with his bow very gracefully, also marking 
time with his right foot. He would then play with the 
orchestra, his whole body swaying to the rhythm of the 
waltz — only for a minute, however, for as a new phrase 
developed itself, his bow would be in the air, the violin 
resting again on his knee. He would turn to each part 
when he gave the signal to come in, sometimes develop- 
ing whole bars, note by note, then abruptly pausing for a 
beat or two, anon electrically springing into the music — 
feet, arms, legs, even the features of his face, moving to 
the tempo. He impressed his individuality upon every 
player, and they moved as one in the intoxicating de- 
lirium of the waltz. The effect upon the audience was 
almost as marvellous. All over the great building 
thousands of heads — black, bbnde, and gray — were 
swaying in time. Children were fairly dancing. The 
heads of the singers were bobbing in time. The players 
yielded to the fascination and marked time with their 
bodies. And high above them all stood the presiding 
genius — the embodiment of the waltz rhythm. 



204 MUSICAL MEIfOBIBS 

Straufls's wife, Jetty TreflEz^ was with hinL Off the 
stage StraiUB spent most of his tune smokingy card- 
playing, and receiving visitors. Madame Strauss spent 
much of her time reading the letters from his female 
admirers, and shearing her black poodle for small locks 
of ^* her husband's hair/' which they craved, or writing 
his autograph. I suspect she greatly enjoyed these oc- 
cupations, for she had a keen sense of humor. 

Franz Abt, who was brought over by Giimore to con- 
duct his popular song, ^^ When the Swallows homeward 
fly,'* was another interesting character. He was an 
elderly, rubicund man at that time, with a fatherly, 
benignant air and a smiling, prepossessing face. He 
would have made a typical Santa Glaus. As every 
singer knew the song by heart, his task was an easy 
one, and the swallows flew homeward without the 
least difficulty. He conducted in an easy, graceful 
manner, and was hugely delighted with the effect of 
his song, for he had probably never dreamed that he 
should lead such a tremendous flight of swallows as 
that before him. He, too, had a fund of quiet humor, 
and laughed heartily at Tom Hoppins's caricature, in 
which the swallows' homeward flights were represented 
by a German with a huge rtein of beer at his Kpe and a 
seraphic expression on his face. 

Franz Bendel was a pianist of jubilee proportions in 
stature and strength. In his playing he reminded one 
of DeMeyer, so far as power is concerned. The demand 
for autographs from members of the chorus was so great 
that the artists were unable to satisfy it single-handed. 
One morning, at rehearsal of chorus by Carl Zenahn, 



MADAME RUDERSDORF 206 

I was sitting with Gilmore and was much surprised 
when a messenger came to him with an autograph 
book and the request that Mr. Bendel would write his 
name in it. Gilmore turned to me and said, ^' She evi- 
dently thinks you are Bendel, and you must oblige her." 
I forged the name satisfactorily, and soon a flood of 
books reached me to be similarly inscribed, and the 
owners were delighted. I had no compunctions, for I 
was a collector myself, and well knew how the victims 
were persecuted. Herr Bendel subsequently thanked 
me for saving him to that extent The assiduity and 
insistence of these autograph hunters were extraor- 
dinary. They lay in wait for the victims, besieged 
dressing-rooms, stood on guard at carriage doors, pur- 
sued them to their hotels, and some even invaded the 
sanctity of private apartments. Gilmore had his auto- 
graphs written by his clerks, to whom the hunters were 
referred. 

Madame Rudersdorf , whom I met two or three times, 
was another interesting character in the group of artists. 
She had had a successful European career in opera and 
oratorio, but at this time her powers were beginning to 
wane. She was still a fine singer, however, displayed 
extraordinary dramatic ability, and had a strong, reso- 
nant voice which she used with consummate skill, for 
she was a thoroughly trained musician, as her subse- 
quent teaching career demonstrated. She was of me- 
dium height^ stately of mien, and had dark, piercing 
eyes and a strong, expressive face. Her temper corre- 
sponded to her personal appearance, and her colors cor- 
responded to her temper, for she was fond of dressing 



206 IfUSIGAL MEMORIES 

in scarlet and black. In cosbunes of these colors she 
was a most imposing figure* She was also a woman of 
undaunted resolution and courage, brusque of speech, 
and sometimes brutally truthful, as when she sent a 
pupil home who belonged to one of the first families in 
Boston with this message: ^^Tell your mother I can 
make a voice, but I can't make ears and brains/' Her 
son, Richard Mansfield, is said to have inherited some 
of her qualities. 

Madame Budersdorf died in 1882. For some years 
before her death she occupied a summer home at Lake- 
side. She spent her time reading, collecting rugs and 
bric-a-brac, of which she was very fond, and running a 
littie fruit farm, where she could be found at work in 
top boots and a broad felt hat as early as five in the 
morning. The following directions for her last resting- 
place are interesting as showing her peculiar simplicity 
of character: 

**I want to be buried in an oak coffin of the cheapest kind. 
The inside must be lined with zinc or lead, whichever is 
cheapest. I wish to be dressed in a chemise, skirt, and wrap- 
per, my hair done up as now, with the black lace scarf now 
on my hat to be dressed with my hair. There is a heap of 
stones by the lake at Lakeside. A hut must be constructed 
of these stones and my coffin placed in it, and a cheap rusdo 
fence built about iV* 

Her wishes were not carried out for sanitary reasons, 
but he would have been a bold man who had dared to 
refuse her request while she was living, judging from 
the lurid ultimatum I heard her deliver to Gilmore on 
one of the jubilee days when things were not going to 
suit Madame. 



CINCINNATI FESTIVALS 207 

It is a far cry from the Peace jubilees to the biennial 
Cincinnati May festivals^ inaugurated in 1873 by Theo- 
dore Thomas, the eighteenth of which was given this 
year (1908). They have been a continuous success, and 
have steadily grown in importance as expositions of the 
higher music and indices of its growth* I have attended 
all of these but two, and have seen the steady advance 
from theb modest begmning to the highest standard 
of musical perfection in this country. Mr. Thomas 
was the conductor of sixteen of these festivals, and no 
higher testimonial to his service is needed than the 
closing words in the eloquent memorial adopted by the 
Directors of the Association ; 

^ In the shadow of his death we pledge ourselves to con- 
tmue the work which he began, and to maintain the Cincin- 
nati festivals on the plane of excellence where he placed them, 
and in the spirit of conscientious endeavor and high purpose 
with which he endowed them.^ 

How these festivals grew in importance under Theo- 
dore Thomas's direction is most clearly shown by a com- 
parison of the first programme (1873) and that of the 
last festival he conducted (1904). The principal num- 
bers of the first were HandeFs ^^ Dettingen Te Deum,'' 
selections from Gluck's ^^ Orpheus,'' Beethoven's Ninth 
Symphony, Schumann's ''Gipsy Life," Mendelssohn's 
"Walpurgis Night," and Schubert's Symphony in C. 
The principal numbers of the sixteenth were Bach's 
Suite in B Minor, Bach's Mass in B Minor, Elgar's 
'' Dream of Grerontius," Beethoven's Mass in D Major, 
Beethoven's Eighth and Ninth symphonies, Mozart's 



208 MUSICAL MEMORIBS 

Symphony in E flat, Berlioz's Hymn, op. 26, Brttckner's 
Unfinished Symphony, Brahm's Rhapsodie, and Richard 
Strauss's " Till Eulenspiegel " and '' Tod und Verkltt- 
rung." Never were more exacting programmes laid 
out for players and singers than these. It is doubtful 
whether they could have found elsewhere in this country 
the appreciation which was given them in Cincinnati. 

These festivals have always seemed to me the crown- 
ing achievement in Mr. Thomas's career. In the sev- 
enteenth of the series the combined Cincinnati and 
Pittsburg orchestras played under the direction of Mr. 
Van der Stucken, but the result was not satisfactory. 
The quality which Mr. Thomas secured with his own 
orchestra was lacking, and there was an evident want 
of homogeneity. This year (1908) the Theodore 
Thomas orchestra resumed its old position under its 
capable young leader, Mr. Stock, and the old standard 
set by Mr. Thomas was maintained* Cincinnati has 
every reason to be proud of its May festivals and the 
great influence they have had upon musical progress 
in the Middle West. 

The Chicago May festivals of 1882 and 1884 were 
the outgrowth of these Cincinnati festivals. They had 
the same leader, the same solo artists, and the same 
orchestral material. The choruses were trained in each 
case by Mr. W. L. Tomlins, who at that time had a re- 
markable aptitude for that kind of work. The soloists 
for the 1882 festival were Madame Matema, Annie 
Louise Cary, Emily Winant, Aline Osgood, Sig. Campa- 
nini, and Messrs. Toedt, Bemmertz, Henschel, Whitney, 
and Candidus. The principal works produced were 



GHIGAQO MAY FESTIVALS 209 

Beethoven's Ilfth and Ninth Bymphonies, Mosart's Ju^ 
piter Symphony, selections from ^* Lohengrin/' ^ Mar- 
riage of Figaro/' <^ Euryanthe " and the ** Niebelungen 
Trilogy/' the '< Messiah/' Bach's cantata '' Festo Ascen- 
sionis/' Schumann's Mass in C Minor, and Berlioz's ^^Fall 
of Troy/' The soloists for the second festival were 
Madame Matema, Christine Nilsson, Emma Juch, Emily 
Winant, Theodore J. Toedt, Franz Remmertz, Emil 
Scaria, Hermann Winkelmann, and Max Heinrich« The 
principal works performed were Mozart's Symphony in 
Gt Minor, Beethoven's Symphony No. S, Schubert's 
Symphony in C, Haydn's ^^ Creation/' selections from 
'^Tannhauser,'"* Lohengrin/' "Parsifal/' and ^^Walkiire," 
Berlioz's " Messe des Morts/' Handel's <' Dettingen Te 
Deum/' and Glounod's ^^ Redemption/' It was a noble 
array of artists and of programmes for each festival, but 
the hopes of Mr. Thomas were not realized. 

A May festival under the same direction was also 
given in New York in 1882. It was Mr. Thomas's ambi- 
tion to give biennial festivals in New York and Chicago 
as well as in Cincinnati, utilizing the same material for 
each. The scheme was dropped in New York after 
the first festival, and in Chicago after the second. Cin- 
cinnati alone was able to continue them, even after their 
founder and master spirit had parsed away. New York 
and Chicago are too large, too busy, too material for 
regular festivals devoted to the higher music. The at- 
mosphere of Cincinnati is musical. It has always had 
musical pride and ambition, and now it has musical tra- 
ditions and prestige which it evidently is determined 
not to sacrifice. The source of the festivab reaches 

14 



210 MUSICAL MEMOaiEB 

back to the old SKng^ests of the forties. It was the 
thought of Mrs. George Ward Nichols, whose love of art 
has also been shown in enduring ceramic forms, that in- 
spired them, and it was Theodore Thomas's skill as 
organiier, programme maker, and conductor that infused 
the breath of life into them. The people of Cincinnati 
do not even yet know how greatly he prized these f esti- 
vab or how great was the pang when he laid down the 
baton at the close of the festival of 1904^ knowing 
that it was his last one. 



CHAPTER XVI 

EARLY DAYS — A PRELUDE 

MABK BEAITHIEN'b FIDDLB — JBAN BAPTIBTS'S PIANO — ''THX 
MAN OF color's'' ANNOUNCEMENT — MR. BOWERS'S ENTER- 
TAINMENT — THE OLD settlers' HARMONIC SOOETT — 
FIRST ORGAN AND FIRST CHURCH CHOIR ROW — THE 
FIRST THEATRE — JOSEPH JEFFERSON'S FIRST APPEAR- 
ANCE — THE OLD BALLADS — DEBUT OF RICHARD HOFF- 
MAN — J. EL McVICKER IN SONG ANB DANCE — DAVID 
KBNNISON's donation PARTT — MISCELLANEOUS CON- 
CERTS IN 186Q-1852 



BEFORE recalling memories of purely local events 
in Chicago I must reoord the results of long and 
careful research among musty archives for the 
purpose not only of showing how the first settlers of the 
city amused themselves while engaged in the responsible 
task of laying its foundations, but also that sucoeeding 
events may follow in the proper chronologioal order. 
This should be of some interest, particularly because 
this early history of music has not been fully written 
hitherto, but only touched upon incidentally. 

A year or two before the retirement of the Pottawat- 
tomies and Ottawas west of the Mississippi, the little 
village of six hundred residents, squatted among the 
sloughs near the mouth of the river, heard its first music 
in the strains of Mark Beaubien's fiddle in 1833. John 
Kinzie, senior, the first permanent white resident^ who 
came here in 1804, was the proud possessor of a violin, 
but he never played it except in the privacy of his own 



212 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

home.* Beaabieni howeyer, may be called a pablic per- 
former. He was the Lake Street fenymany and alao 
mine hoet of the Saguenaeh Tavern^ which stood at the 
northeast comer of Lake and Market streets, upon the 
site of the ^ Wigwam *' in which Abraham Lincohi was 
nominated for the presidency twenty-seren years later.t 
Beanbien, a French Canadian, was fond of fiddling, 
dancing, card-playing, story-telling, and was averse to 
race suicide, as is shown by his gift of sixteen children 
to the young city. He was also the entire orchestra for 
the dances which took place regularly in the Saguenash 
dining*room. His fiddle, now treasured by the Calumet 
old settlers' dub, was reinforced by a piano, belonging 
to his brother, Jean Baptiste, tiie arrival of which by 
schooner was an exciting event in the village. In 
1886 other pianos arrived, among them one brought by 
William Brooks from London, which was utilized for 
concerts a little later as an acc(Mnpaniment for his songs 
by (Jeorge Davis, the most prominent of the pioneer 
singers, and for solos by Mrs. Brooks, who executed the 
^ Battle of Prague '* with stunning effect at the first of 
these entertainments. The following unique advertise- 
ment, which appeared January 7, 1834, also shows that 
a member of the colored race was one of Chicago*s early 
musicians. 



** Nonca — The subscriber begs leave to inform the h 
tantB of Chicago and its vicinity that he will be ready at all 



* The Kiiiiie houae, whioh stood on the north bank of the ilver, near 
its mouth, wae originaUy a log oaUn, built in 1706 by Jean Baptiita 
Point au Sable. Mr. lOnm reoonitfueted it. 

f The flaguenaih tavern wae burned in 1861. 



I 



MR. BOWERS'S ENTERTAINMENT 213 

times to fumiah music at assemblies, balls, and parties on as 
reasonable terms as oan be famished in this place. 

Wilson P. Pxbbt (Man of color)." 

The general manner in which the ^^ man of color " 
refers to the citizens as ^^ inhabitants " and to Chicago 
as ^^ a place " shows its embryonic condition in 1834. 
The first sacred music was also heard in this year in a 
wooden tenement used as a church by all denominations^ 
Sergeant Burtis of Fort Dearborn leading the singing. 
The first public entertainment at which admission was 
charged was given February 24, 1834, by one Mr. 
Bowers at the Mansion House^ 84-86 Lake Street, the 
residence of Mr. Dexter Graves. Mr. Bowers, the pio- 
neer showman, evidently had a sentimental strain in 
his character, for he prefaced his announcement as 
follows : " Joy hath its limits. We but borrow one hour 
of mirth from months of sorrow." He also had the 
conventional bombastic dignity of the showman, as 
shown by his advertising himself as ^^Professeur de tours 
amusants!* The French language always figured largely 
on the show biUs of the early entertainers. I quote from 
his advertisement, which sets forth the alluring features 
of his performance : 

^ Mr. Bowers will fully personate Monsieur Chaubert, the 
celebrated fire king, who so much astonished the people of 
Europe, and go through his wonderful chemical performance. 
He will draw a red-hot iron across his tongue, hands, etc., and 
will partake of a comfortable warm supper l^ eating fire-balls, 
burning sealing-wax, live coals of fire, and melted lead. He 
will dip his fingers in melted lead and make use of a red-hot 
iron to convey the same to his moutL 



214 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

**Mr. Bowets will introduoe numj yeiy amamng feate of 
ventriloquiBm and legerdemain, many of which are original and 
too nnmeions to mention. Admittance, 60 cents ; children 
half price. Perf onnanoe to commence at early candle-light 
Seats will be reeerved for ladies and eveiy attention paid to 
the comfort and convenience of the qiectators. Tickets to be 
had at the bar." 

On the eleventh of June another ventriloquist and 
magician^ Mr. Kenworthy, arrived and gave an exhi- 
bition at the Travellers' Home, but I can find no further 
allusion to it; and on the nineteenth one Mr. 0. Blisse 
gave a concert. It must have been the first concert in 
Chicago, but unfortunately history is silent concerning 
it. The thousands of music teachers in Chicago to-day 
may be glad to know that the earliest pioneer was Miss 
Wythe, who opened a music school July 9, 1834. 

Thus music secured something of a foothold in 1834. 
During the next year another music teacher, Samuel 
Lewis, opened a school, and as he also tuned pianos, it 
shows that these instruments were increasmg in number. 
The great event of this year, however, was the organi- 
zation of the Old Settlers' Harmonic Society, which gave 
its first concert, December 11, in the Presbyterian 
Church, southwest comer of Lake and Clark streets, 
which was the first church erected in Chicago. It was 
dedicated January 4, 1834. '^ The Chicago Magazine '* 
of 1859 says of the new church : 

" The approachea to this church when first built were of 
such a character as to test the zeal of church-goers at that 
time. On turning ' Doles' comer ' from the east, or coming 
from the north, ferrying the river in a canoe, it was necessaiy 



THE OLD SETTLERS' HARMONIC SOCIETY 215 

to tiaTBrse a miiy pond or slough, after which came the daring 
&at 6t -walking a round log to avoid the mire before reaching 
Dr. GkMxlhue's yellow house. By clinging affectionately to 
this fence the bridge of church benches was reached, which 
when passed landed the people on the steps of the sanctuary. 
Some of the upper ten in those days owned a horse and cart, 
and in this democratic conveyance, seated on bnfEEilo robes, 
they were duly backed up and dumped on the doorstep dry- 
shod." 

The officers of this society were B. W. Baymond, 
president; Benjamin Smith, secretary; T. B. Carter, 
treasurer ; Seth P. Warren and C. A. Collier, directors ; 
W. H. Brown and E. Smith, executive committee. No 
notice of this concert appears in the village paper, pos- 
sibly because the attention of the editor, on the day of 
the concert, was engrossed with a race of Indian ponies 
on ^^ the lake shore from Lake Street south to Twelfth 
Street," meaning probably Michigan Avenue, as the lake 
in those days came well up to the sidewalk. 

I cannot find how long the Old Settlers' Harmonic 
Society lasted, but it gave a second concert in January, 
1836. Nathan Dye, '' Father Dye," as he used to be 
called, also came to Chicago in that year and looked 
the ground over with the intention of starting a music 
school The prospect did not please him, however, and 
he went to Milwaukee, but he returned in 1848 and for , 
twenty years was the most popular teacher in the city. 
His children's concerts were the rsige, and many of the 
older citizens of Chicago to-day were among his pupils. 
The first regular quartette choir was organized at St. 
James's Church in 1836, and the first organ was also 
installed there. When the church itself was finished, 



216 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

all the money that was left (|4000) was invested in a 
fine mahogany pulpit, and the oi^an fund had to be 
raised by subscription and the first '^ Ladies' Fair " held 
in Chicago. The volunteer choir was in dissension at 
once. Those who did not attend rehearsals r^ularly 
were dismissed. The whole congregation was in instant 
commotion. The director was urged to reinstate them, 
but being obstinate he refused. The rector took a hand 
in the fight and expostulated with the director, but to 
no purpose, and at last he left the singers to fight it out. 
The director was victorious, and thus ended Chicago's 
first church-choir row. 

No event that year, however, created so much excite- 
ment as the arrival of the first circus, ^^ The Boston 
Grand Equestrian Arena," Oscar Sloan, proprietor. The 
tent was spread on a lot near Uie foot of Madison Street, 
and the show was so well patronized that Sloan came 
again in a few months with the additional attraction of 
'^ two anacondas expressly purchased for this occasion." 

The year 1837 should always be memorable in the 
dramatic annals of Chicago, for it was then that the 
first theatre was opened. Dean and McEenzie were 
the first applicants for a license, but the fee was fixed so 
high that they declined to pay it. There was consider- 
able prejudice against theatres at that time. Subse- 
quently Isherwood and McKenzie procured a license and 
gave performances in the dining-room of the Saguenash 
Tavern, '' The Stranger " being the first play Chicago 
witnessed. Their success was so encouraging that 
they opened a regular theatre on the upper floor of a 
wooden tenement on the west side of Dearborn Street^ 



JEFFERSON'S FIRST APPEARANCE 217 

between Lake and South Water streets. It was chris- 
tened ^^The Bialto/' but the name was soon changed to 
^' The Chicago Theatre/' Joseph Jefferson's father was 
concerned in the management. It is a far ciy back to 
those daysy bat the city's theatre of that time should be 
ever memorable, for Joseph Jefferson, a handsome lad 
of nine, was the singing actor of the troupe, which also 
included his father, mother, and sister. He often de- 
lighted audiences with comic songs, sea songs, and 
ballads, among them ^^ Lord Lovell and Lady Nancy." 
One evening when William Warren, who had come on 
from Boston, appeared in ^^ The Rivals," Jefferson sang 
a comic song between the comedy and the farce which 
convulsed his auditors almost as much as Warren's 
inimitable drollery had done. Jefferson little dreamed 
at that time that his own '^ Bob Acres " would be one 
of the most finished productions upon the American 
stage and that his name alone of all that stock company 
of 1837 would be known to fame. 

The theatre was closed during the season of 1838 for 
some reason, but reopened in 1839 with young Jefferson 
still in the company, winning silver opinions from all ; 
for in those days it was the custom of audiences to 
throw silver on the stage to singers and dancers, and 
Master Joseph, being a thrifty lad, accumulated quite a 
store of spending money by padding out the verses of 
his songs. This season is also memorable for the first 
spectacle Chicago had witnessed, ^'Cherry and Fair 
Star ; or. The Children of Cyprus." The blossoming of 
the aloe, the moving waters, and '^ the splendid Grecian 
galley " called forth most enthusiastic encomiums from 



218 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

the paper, after its first performance. It is curious in 
these days of malinie madness to note that the audi- 
eases were almost exdusiyelymaaculine. The prejudice 
against the theatre was very strong. Policemen were 
always in attendance to restrain rows betwe^i pit and 
gallery. Extempore criticism was often rude. The 
newspaper advised the ladies to stay away, but the 
manager reviled the editor, and used every inducement 
to secure their attendance. It was a hard struggle, but 
when Bfr. Jefferson, senior, sent a card to the ladies 
with the intelligence that the ladies of Springfield 
attended the performances in that city and that theatre- 
going was all the rage among the New York ladies, our 
grandmothers turned out in full force, and were such a 
restraint that the police no longer had to keep order or 
to silence too vociferous criticism. It is also curious to 
note the demands which were made both upon actors 
and audiences as compared with the present day, when 
a single play may run a whole season. The season of 
1839, for instance, b^;an August 31 and closed Novem- 
ber 2. During that time there were fifty-five perform- 
ances and ninety'-two different plays. What would 
actors think nowadays were they obliged to have a 
repertory ranging from tragedy to farce and from pan- 
tomime to spectacle ? And what would the audiences 
of to-day think if they were expected to sit through 
performances of ^^ Fazio*' and the <^ Taming of the 
Shrew" one evening, '^ Romeo and Julief and the 
^' Taming of the Shrew '' the next evening, and a few 
ni^ts later ^^ Macbeth'' and a three-act comedy t 
Surely the times are changed. 



TH£ OLD BALLADS 219 

In 1840 entertainments began to multiply. Leetaiera, 
magieianSy and singers came, art exhibitions were inang- 
uratedy and Bamum. brought the first minstrel troupe 
with Master Diamond, a thirteen-yearold delineator of 
negro, characters, and one Jenkins, who personated 
Yankee eccentrics. The famous William 'EL Bussell 
also made his first appearance and sang his descriptive 
songs and ballads. In 1841 Chicago heard its first 
street band, organized by Nicholas Burdell, expressly to 
help celebrate a Harrison demonstration in the presi- 
dential campaign. The town was also illuminated, and 
there was a barbecue on the prairie. The new band 
boasted five clarinets, three trombones, two key bugles, 
one piccolo, three concert horns, one valve trumpet^ and 
one bass drum. The programme of a concert given at 
the City Saloon,* August 18, 1841, by John A. Still, 
contains some of the ballads which were favorites at that 
time, among them, ^' Here 's a Health to thee, Mary,'' 
<< The Charm has departed,'' << My Bark is on the Bil- 
low," ^^Poor Bessie," ^^Near the Lake where drooped 
the Willow," "Gentle Zitella," "The Fairy Tempter," 
and others. But where are the songs of yester year t 
In 1842 the Chicago Sacred Musical Society, C. A. 
Collier conductor, was organised, but its life was brief. 
A new theatre was also opened in the Chapin Building, 
southeast comer of Wells and Randolph streets, under 
the management of J. S. Hastings. In 1844 Chicago's 
first museum was opened in the Commercial Building, 
73 Lake Street. Musical doings at the First Unitarian 

• The CHy Saloon wm not a drinking resort, but ahaUforpublio gath- 
atingi, at the aouthwest eomer of Lake and CSark ■treeCa. 



220 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

Church in the same year are of special interest^ as several 
young persons participated in them who afterwards 
became leading merchants. Bey. Joseph Harrington, 
the pastor, raised a fund for the purchase of an organ 
and trained the choir himself. At the dedication of the 
church a concert was given. Mrs. Harrington was the 
soprano ; Miss Griswold, contralto ; George Davis, bary- 
tone; Henry Tucker, tenor; William Larrabee and 
Lyman Beecher, bassos; Botsford and A. H. Burley, 
flutists; Charles Collier, violinist; and A. G. Burley, 
'cellist. The Choral Union was organized in 1846, 
and though it lasted but two years, had three leaders, 
J. Johnson, S. P. Warner, and J. A. Hoisington. 

The principal events of 1847 were the organization 
of the Mozart Society and the opening of Bice's Theatre. 
The Mozart Society was directed by Frank Lumbard, 
who in the same year was appointed vocal teacher in 
the public schools, a position which he held until 1863. 
He and his brother Jules were the best known local 
singers of the time and prominent figures in all musical 
events. John B. Bice, subsequently Mayor of the city, 
opened Bice's Theatre at 84-86 Bandolph Street, June 28 
of that year, with Dan Marble in '^ Black-Eyed Susan," 
the season closing November 28 with the comedy of 
"Bent Day," the farce "Used Up," and "The Star- 
Spangled Banner " sung by the whole company. The 
early settlers were very patriotic, and knew all the 
patriotic songs and ballads which some of their descend- 
ants have heard of. The five men who did much for 
music in those days were Frank Lumbard, George Davis, 
and Samuel Johnston, all good singers, B. August Bode, 



DEBUT OF RICHARD HOFFMAN 221 

pianist and teacher, and Sig. Martinez, a teaoher of the 
violin and guitar, who delighted and surprised his audi- 
ence at one of his concerts by playing two guitars and a 
violin at the same time. His advertisement reads : 

** Signer Martinez* concert at the Court House — Songs 
by a young lady — Signor Martinez will hold a guitar in each 
hand and perform a duet on the violin, Ole Bull's ^ Gataiact 
of Niagara ' and three fandangos —Court House to be bril- 
liantly illuminated/' 

An interesting event in 1848 was the debut of Richard 
Ho£Eman, the first great pianist to visit Chicago. He 
gave a concert at the Court House, assisted by Joseph 
Burke, at that time advertised as ^^ Master Burke, the 
infant phenomenon of the Shakesperean drama." Mr. 
HofEman subsequently played with Jenny Lind in her 
concerts, also with Gk>ttschalk and Yon Billow. The 
singing families also begin to appear in the same year, 
among them the Berger, Peake, Seguin, and Hutchin- 
son ^* Tribe of Jesse from the old Granite State," whose 
songs rendered such great service to the anti-slavery 
movement. Some notable actors also appeared at the 
theatres for the first time, among them Julia Dean, 
Forrest, Booth, and McVicker. Those who recall the 
dignified and serious manager of McYicker's Theatre in 
his later days will hardly believe that in 1848 he was 
the singing and dancing comedian at Bice's Theatre. 
Joseph Jefferson was Chicago's first song and dance 
man, J. H. McVicker the second, par nobUe frairum. 
There is a touch of pathos in one of the closing events 
of the year. David Kennison, the last survivor of the 



222 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

Boston Tea Pkurty, in his one hundred and twelfth year 
opened a xnuseuxn, but it proved an unfortunate enter- 
prise. The old veteran^ being in great want, announced 
a donation party for his birthday, November 17. In 
his card to the public he says: '^I have fought in 
several battles for my country and have suffered more 
than any other man will have to suffer, I hope. I would 
not go through the wars again and suffer what I have 
for ten worlds like this." The poor old man did not 
make much out of his donation party, died the same 
year, and was buried in the city cemetery, now Lincoln 
Pkrk. A boulder stands in the park indicating that the 
centenarian was buried somewhere in its vicinity, but 
no one knows just where he rests. But ''after life's 
fitful fever he sleeps well " and suffers no more. 

There was not much doing in 1849. The old 
McEenzie and Jefferson Theatre burned and a Museum 
of curios and '' art wonders *' was opened by Mr. Buckley 
on Lake between State and Dearborn streets. Conrad 
Charles Beisinger, however, livened matters up with a 
unique concert at the City Hsll, when he played '' the 
Grand Carnival of Milan, acknowledged by Ole Bull to 
be the most difficult piece ever written for the violin " ; 
a fantasie, '' Norma," upon one string ; the '' Grand Car- 
nival of America " ; selections from his opera of '' Susan 
and Yankee Doodle"; concluding with a violin solo, 
played lying on his back, imitating flutes and birds. 

In 1850 music takes a dignified place in Chicago 
history, the most important events being the organiza- 
tion of the first Philharmonic Society and the perform- 
ance of the first opera, both of which I shall discuss in 



MISGBLLANEOUS OQNGERTS 228 

subsequent chapters. The minor events were visits by 
various minstrel troupes, among them the AUegfaanians, 
Baker Family, the Columbians, CampanologianSi and 
the Ethiopian Serenaders. In the latter troupe one Mr. 
Price introduced the concertina, ^* a new instrument, the 
first in any band, said by musical critics to be the ne 
plus ultra of Ethiopian instruments." Signor BUtz 
delighted the ladies and children with his ventrilo* 
quism and trained canaries. The first vocal quartette, 
Messrs. Davis, Dunham, Frank Lumbard, and Miss Maiy 
Nowlin, was organized and gave concerts. The Germans 
entered the field with the German Song Union, the fore- 
runner of many Mannerchors. One Mrs. Stewart gran- 
diosely advertised a concert, announcing herself as a 
member of the Boston Handel and Haydn Society, also 
affirming that she would imitate a comet-h-pistons as 
performed in Boston by Count de la Porte of Paris. The 
old settlers, however, were not interested in the Handel 
and Haydn Society, or the female gramaphone, or the 
French count, and the lady left town next day. 

In 1851 many families and minstrel troupes gave 
concerts, among them the Blakely family, Kelmiste 
family, Hutchinson family, the Albions, Gray's Ethiopian 
Warblers, Kunkel's Nightingales, and the Druid Players, 
who performed upon seventy ox-horns. Dempster, one 
of the finest of ballad-singers, Anne Bishop, of whom 
mention is made in a preceding chapter, and Ignatz 
Krauz also gave concerts. The latter was a Hungarian 
singer who announced eighteen national melodies in 
fourteen languages. As this concert, however, was thinly 
attended, he tried to recoup himself by offering six 



224 MUSICAL MEaiORIES 



hundred and fifty tickets with a chanoe in forty prizes 
of jewelry and shawls, and thus inaugurated the gift 
concert scheme, which became very popular a few years 
later. In 1858 and 1854 musical interest in Chicago 
centred in the Philharmonic concerts and operatic be- 
ginnings, which brings me to my own early days in 
Chicago and doses this prelude. 



CHAPTER XVn 

EARLY OPERA IN CHICAGO 

THS FIB&rr OPERA — 80NNA1CBX7LA AT BICS'S THEATRS — 
BURNING OF THE THEATRE — THE ARTISTS' ASSOCIATION 
-^ OPERA AT MflVICKER'S THEATRE — THE VIRST ITAUAN 
TROUPE — GREAT ENTHUSIASM — A lOSHAP AT NORTH'S 
AMPHITHEATRE — OPERATIC RIVALRT IN 1860 — THE 
WAR PERIOD — THE GRAU TROUPES — SOME HOME COW- 
CERTS — THE FIRST GERMAN TROUPE — GRAU'S TROUPE 
OF MEDIOCRITIES 

ON Monday, July 29, 1850, there was great exoite- 
ment among the thirty thousand people ol 
Chicago, for the first opera troupe was in town, 
and a performance of '^ Sonnambula '' was announced 
for that CYening in Rice's Theatre. It was a veiy small 
troupe and travelled very light. The artists, three or 
four in number, had come from Milwaukee some days 
previously by vessel. Having no orchestra of their 
own, the theatre band was engaged, and some of the 
theatre people and a few local singers undertook to 
perform one or two choruses. The cast included Slise 
Brienti as Amina; Mr, Manvers as Elvino; and Mr. 
Giubetti as Count Bodolfo. The theatre was crowded. 
The ladies were out in full force, dressed in the pre- 
vailing circumference of style at that time, and those 
belonging to the swell set were distinguished by their 
lorgnettes. Most of the gentlemen were dressed in fault- 
less evening suits, for the swallow-tail was an everyday 

n 



226 MUBIGAL MEaiOEIES 

ooat in those days. The front rows were filled with 
<< leading citizens/' who were very enthusiastia Frank 
Lumbardy an honest daqueur, led the applause with his 
sonorous ^^ Well I Well ! " when his critical taste was 
satisfied. The ^* opry ** was all the talk on the next 
day, and the theatre was crowded again on the second 
evening. The first act passed off finely^ and the duet^ 
^ mio dolor/' in which Amina protests her iniuxsence, 
was heartily applauded. The ovation, however, was re- 
served for the charming villagers, Chicago villagers, as 
they tiptoed into the Count's apartment. The curtain 
rose for the second act and Elvino was just bemoaning 
his sad lot in his tenor aria when street cries of fire 
w«e audiUe and a sudden glare reddened the vrindows. 
A small building adjacent had taken fire, and the flames 
almost instantly spread to the theatre, which was a 
wooden tenement There was no panic, however. Mr, 
Bice, the manager, came to the footlights, assured the 
audi^Me that they had ample time to leave the theatre, 
and smilingly remarked, '^ Of course you know that I 
would not permit any one to be injured in my theatie." 
The people took himat his word, passed quietly out, and 
watched its destruction. In half an hour it was a heap 
of ashes and rubbish. Thus ended Chicago's first opeia 
season. What became of the little troupe history does 
not relate. It is usually stated that the fire occurred 
on the opening night, but Mr. J. H. McVicker once iM 
me that it was on the second night, and as he was an 
enthusiastic member of the home chorus, '^ singing as if 
he were the whole show so that the audience might be 
sure to hear him," he should be good authority. 



THE ARTISra' A8B0GIATI0N 227 

Mr. Rice soon built another theatre, and pending its 
construction the large dancing-hall of the Tremont 
House was fitted up for entertainments and christened 
Tremont HalL It was there that Adelina Patti made 
her first appearance, as has already been stated, tiiough 
before that she sang priyately in the dining-room of the 
same hotel and was remunerated by the guests with 
dolls, candy, or canary birds, her three grand juvenile 
passions. In 1853 a troupe with the pretentious name 
of ^^ The Artists' Association " came from New York, 
heralded as follows by its manager: 

^*The undersigned, acting ia the name and in behalf of 
Madame De Vries and Signer Aiditi, known by the name and 
style of the Artists' Association, has the honor of calling tiie 
attention of the musical oommumty and of the citizens of 
Chicago in general to the fact that he has made anangements 
with Mr. Rice, the manager, to have the Italian Opera Troupe 
on Thursday evening, October 27, at the Chicago Theatre to 
perform the opera, in three acts, of ** Lucia di Lanunermoor.'* 
The undersigned begs leave to introduce the following artists : 
The grand prima donna, Signorina R. De Vries ; the favorite 
tenor, S^nor Pozzolini ; the tenor, Signor Arnold! ; the com* 
primaria, Madame Sidenbourg, late of Madame Albani's 
troupe; the unrivalled barjrtone, Signor TafFaneUi, and the 
eminent basso, Signor CoUetti. Also a grand and efficient 
chorus and grand orchestra. This great company numbers 
over forty members, the whole under the most able direction 
of the distinguished maestro, Signor Arditi* 

<<The distinguished maestro Arditi" was palmed off 
upon a guileless community which knew not one Arditi 
from another. The season lasted from October 27 to 
November 7, and the three operas performed were 



228 MUSICAL MEMORIBS 

^ Soxmambdlay" ^^ Nonna»" and ^^ Lacia/' I have only 
the cast of ^' Lucia,'* which was as follows: Lada, 
Bosa de Vries; Edgardo^ PozEolini; Sir Henry Ashton, 
TafEanelli; Lord Arthur, Bouchsland. The season 
closed with a performance of Bossini's ^' Stabat Mater/' 
which inaugurated the practice of giving the ** Stabat '* 
for a closing piece, followed by Italian troupes for 
several years. It infused the season with a certain 
odor of sanctity, although it is sacred music written in 
purely operatic style. 

It was five long years before Chicago heard opera again* 
In the meantime Mr. McVicker had built a theatre on 
the site of the present ^' McYicker's," and in this new 
structure the Durand English Opera Troupe, comprising 
Rosalie Durand, soprano, Miss King, alto, Frederick 
Lyster, basso, and Georgia Hodson, tenor, gave perform- 
ances during the week beginning September 27, 1858. The 
novel feature of the season ¥ras a lady singing all the 
tenor roles. It was in this theatre, the following year, 
that grand opera was given for the first time, attended 
by the fashion and the chivalry of the city. When it 
is remembered that Italian opera was inaugurated by 
the Oarcia troupe in New York as early as 1826, and 
that New Orleans had regular seasons even before that 
time, it may seem that opera was a long time in reach- 
ing Chicago ; but in 1826 there were many more Indians 
than white men here, and when New Orleans was en- 
joying its r^^ar seasons of opera there were hardly 
half a dozen whites outside the walls of Fort Dearborn. 
Notwithstanding Chicago grew rapidly, even as late as 
the fifties it was considered by Eastern people as a place 



THE FIRST ITALIAN TROUPE 229 

in the far West, occupying a region still populated with 
Indians, bufEaloes, and coyotes. The first Italian troupe, 
however, met with such success in its season, beginning 
February 22, 1869, that others rapidly followed it. The 
first troupe included Teresa Parodi, Amalia Patti, Cora 
Wilhorst, who belonged to a wealthy New Tork family, 
Pauline Colson, Henry Squires, who died in Iowa last 
year at an advanced age, Brignoli, the elder Amodio, 
Junca, Nicolo, and Ettore Barili, Adelina Patti's 
brother, and Maurice Strakosch, conductor. The 
troupe gave fifteen performances of operas new to 
Chicago, including ^^Lucrem Borgia," ^^ Traviata,'' 
*a Puritani," "Rigoletto," ^*I1 Trovatore," "Martha,'' 
<*La Pavorita," "Don Giovanni," "Maritana," "Emani," 
and " n Poliuto." The season closed with an extra 
performance, March 11, for the benefit of Strakosch, 
the theatre company appearing in the comedy " Speed 
the Plough," and the opera company in acts from " La 
Traviata" and "The Barber of Seville." The two favor- 
ites were " II Trovatore " and " Martha," and the two 
favorite singers were Colson and Brignoli. If a refer- 
endum had been taken, I think " lllartha " would have 
polled the larger vote. The audience lustily applauded 
Brignoli's silvery singing of the timeful lays of Manrico 
in " n Trovatore," and did not care much for Parodi or 
Amalia Patti in the same opera; while in "Martha" they 
heard not only Brignoli, but the pretty and vivacious 
Colson and airs which were still more tunefuL When 
Colson sang "The Last Bose of Summer" and kissed 
her rose directly at the people, they simply went frantic, 
and kept her singing it until she was nearly exhausted. 



230 MUBIOAL MEMORIES 

not to mention BrignoFs patienoe. This enthusiasm 
is not to be wondered at. Remember, it was the first 
season of real opera. The orange had not been 
squeezed. Full dreas was not imperative. Seats were 
not five dollars each. Opera was something new and 
fresh, and people were still in the tune stage. They 
had not heard then of music dramas, motifs, the dra- 
matic recitative opera, or music of the future. They 
lived in the days of operatic Arcadia, where melody was 
bom and where the art of &e2 canto still lives. Conse- 
quently they adored ^^ Martha.'' Indeed it would be 
hard even in these days to make a cast which woidd 
equal that of almost fifty years ago, — Martha, Colson ; 
Nancy, AmaUa Patti; Lionel, Brignoli; Flunket, Junca; 
Tristan, Nicola. 

The Cooper English Opera Troupe came in the follow- 
ing April and gave several performances at North's Am- 
phitheatre, a huge bam-like stracture on Monroe Street, 
where the Ravels gave their inimitable pantomime for 
the first time and the first calliope was heard. The 
mention of this theatre recalls the memory of a ludi- 
crous personal mishap. I was anxious to write up the 
ingenious tricks and trap work used by Francois Bavel, 
the Harlequin of the troupe, and was invited behind 
during performance. The drop curtain, containing an 
aperttire just large enough to allow Harlequin to make 
a horizontal dive through it, was down, and Fran9ois 
in front, amusing the audience. As the manager and 
I were crossing the stage I was exactly opposite the 
aperture when Harlequin made his plunge. His head 
strack me amidships with such force that I was bowled 



OFERATIO RIVALRY 231 

over, while he bounded back, and wildly clutching in all 
directions with legs and arms, at last dropped upon the 
stage in full view of the convulsed audience. I retired 
from the field satisfied with that piece of Harlequin's 
machinery and without stopping to listen to his Gallic 
expletives. The Cooper troupe included Anna Milner, 
Lucy Estcott, Brookhouse Bowler, Aynesley Cook, Ru- 
dolphsen, and Miss Duckworth. The last named was 
a chorus singer, but I have named her with the prin- 
cipals because later she took a leading contralto posi- 
tion on the Italian stage under the name of Morensi. 
The troupe gave '^ Sonnambula,'' and ^^ Lucia,'' and 
also performed ''The Bohemian Girl'' and ''L'Elisir 
d'Amore " for the first time here. During the first 
week in the following December the town was in a 
fever of excitement over its first operatic war, for 
two companies were here at the same time, and a 
fierce rivalry ensued. An English opera troupe, in- 
cluding Lucy Estcott, Fannie Kemp, who afterwards 
married Bowler, Miranda, a very popular tenor, and 
Miss Duckworth, occupied McVicker's Theatre. This 
gave the English a great advantage at the very outset, 
as they had a well-equipped stage, while the Italian 
troupe had to make the best of a hall — the Metro- 
politan, which was on the northwest comer of Lasalle 
and Randolph streets. It was a fair troupe, including 
Parodi, Caroline Alaimo, Hattie Brown, Sbriglia, an ex- 
cellent tenor, and Banti, basso, and the Metropolitan was 
an admirable concert-hall ; but its stage was not very 
large, and it required considerable skill and ingenuity 
to secure operatic illusions. Under such disadvantages 



232 MUBIGAL MEMORIES 

the Italians gave ^' La Traviata/' « Emani/' " Norma,'' 
** II Trovatore," and " Poliuto." The English troupe 
not only gave ''The Bohemian Girl/' ''Ifaritana," 
''Bob Boy/' and "Guy Mannering/' but boldly met 
the Italians on their own ground and produced *'I1 
Trovatore/' "Lucia/' " Sonnambula/' "Lucrezia Bor- 
gia/' and "The Daughter of the Begiment." The 
struggle was fierce but brief, and ended in the rout of 
the Italians, who were very poorly managed. 

Between 1861 and 1863 there was another operatic 
gap. It was war time, and the people of Chicago were 
too deeply engrossed with (Jeorge F. Boot's " Battle Cry 
of Freedom " and " Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, the Boys are 
Marching" to listen either to Italian arias or English 
songs. The sweetest of prima donnas and the most tune- 
ful of Italian tenors warbled in vain to people who would 
rather go to the Court House steps and hear the Lum- 
bards and John Hubbard and Charley Smith sing the 
war songs. There were some incidental but poorly 
attended concerts, however, in 1861. One troupe, inr 
eluding Brignoli, Miss Hinckley, Susini, Mancusi, and 
MoUenhauer, produced operas like " Don Pasquale " and 
others which did not require a chorus and for which 
a piano was sufficient accompaniment, and MoUenhauer 
played 'cello solos. The performances were excellent 
but unremuneratiYe. The troupe was here in April, 
and it will be remembered that it was in April, 1861, 
that Fort Sumter was surrendered after bombardment 
by the Confederate batteries. People were not in a 
mood for operatic concerts. But Chicago was not 
entirely destitute of musical events that year. Inez 



THE WAR PERIOD 233 

Fabbri with her huBband, Richard Mulder, ^'pianist 
and composer for her Majesty the Queen of Holland/' 
and Abelliy the barytonei gave concerts in which Fabbri 
cut up all sorts of patriotic tricks. Cassie Matteson, 
the favorite local contralto, also gave concerts with 
Adams, the opera tenor, Jules Lumbard, and Sarah 
Tillinghast, the pianist, and the latter also gave a 
series of excellent organ recitals at St. Paul's Church. 
How many of Cassie Matteson's admirers, I wonder, 
attended her concert more than twenty years after this 
time, when she returned from her long wanderings in 
Australia and South Africa only to find how soon we 
are forgotten when we are gone ? There was no opera 
in 1862, but Oilmore livened up people with his patri- 
otic music and led his band most audaciously through 
the intricate mazes of the first movement of Berlioz's 
*^ Harold in Italy " symphony, Zoehler playing the viola 
solo part, which Junker used to play so admirably, — 
Junker of the Theodore Thomas orchestra, now teach- 
ing the young Japs musical ideas to shoot in &r-off 
Tokyo. Gottschalk and Carlotta Patti also gave some 
enjoyable concerts with popular programmes, to which 
reference has been made in a previous chapter. 

In 1863 Jacob Grau, thinkmg that the country was 
sufficiently safe to warrant an opera season, brought a 
troupe to McVicker's Theatre which included Lorini, 
better known as Virginia Whiting, Cordier, a charming 
little French soubrette, Morensi, Fanny Stockton, who 
died afterwards on the stage, Brignoli, Macaferri, Ital- 
ianized from McA£Eery, the only Irish-Italian operatic 
tenor I can call to mind, Lotti, a tenor grazioso. 



284 MUSICAL MEMORIHB 

wkoM singing of '^ Mdnen Engel^ nenn' Ich mein ** was 
a dream of beauty, Amodio the barytonei and Susini, 
basso. They gave ns '' Dinorah," ^* ScOian YesperB," 
'' Un Ballo en Mascheray** '' La JuiTe/' and Bomni's 
^^Moses in Egypt"' for the first time. Opera, therefore, 
made a little progress in the third year of the war. 
Besides this season of opera, home talent was busy in 
1668* Krs. Bostwick, an admirable artist, Miss Dewey, 
Miss Ellsworth, 11 Doches, better known by his stage 
name of De Passio, an ezoeUent barytone, who sobse* 
quently forsook the conoert stage for the more InoratiTe 
wine business, Mr. Sabin, Mr. Phillips, William Lewis, 
the Tiolinist, and Louis Staab, the pianist, joined hands 
in giving the Old Ladies' Home a benefit at Bryan Hall, 
which was dedicated in 1860 under the auspices of 
Hans Balatka, by Mrs. Bostwick, Louis Staab, De 
Passio, and Henri de Clerque, a finidied violinist The 
dedicatory poem for this occasion was written by Benjsr 
min F. Taylor, whose poetical talent has never been 
fully recognised except by some vendfiers who tried to 
steal his poems after he had passed away. Two or 
three of these poachers claimed the authorship of one 
of his finest poems beginning *' There 's a Beautiful Isle 
up the Biver of Time." I am glad that I can establish 
his authorship. I was associated with him in journal- 
ism and saw him write it one afternoon in the room we 
jointly occupied, and he read it to me for the first tune 
that day. The choir of St. Mary's, the church at that 
time being located on the comer of Madison Street and 
Wabash Avenue, also gave concerts at which Miss 
Conkey, who as Mrs. Crosby is now well known as an 



THE OIUU TBOUPEB 286 

illuslmtor of Wagner, played the j^ano exoelkiiUy, and 
it is rafreehing to rtate that she was not a pa^gSL of 
LisKt or LesohetiaEsky or any one dse, being a self-made 
player* The local orchestra also appeared in prke oon- 
certSy at whidi pianos, sewing madiines, albums, writing 
desks, watches, jewebry, and silver plate were distributed 
among the lucky ticket-holders. 

In 1864 there were three operatic seasons. Grau 
gave two weriu of opera at McVicker^s with a troupe 
including Vera Lorini, Gordier, Morensi, Gastri, Fischer, 
Steffani, Tamaro, Morelli, Hartmann, Fwmes, Crolletti, 
Barili, and Ifsacusi, and returned in May with the same 
company reinicm^d by Virginia Whiting and Amodio. 
This season is memorable for the first performance of 
Gounod's Faust, the cast of which was as follows: 
Marguerite, Vera Lorini; Siebel, Morensi; Martha, 
Fisdier; Faust, Tamaro; Mephistopheles, Morelli; 
Valentin, Amodio; Wagner, GoUetti The Soldiers' 
March was played by the Light Guard Band, whose 
appearance was hailed with acclamations, for there was 
much eiyic i«ide in CShicago at that time. In July 
Adelaide Phillips headed a small troupe including Man- 
cusi, Susini, Zapucci, Locatelli, and Brignoli, and gave 
'' The Barber of Seville " and '' Don Pasquale." Upon 
this occasion Brignoli, for the first and only time in his 
life, announced a ** farewell to America.'' He returned 
many times thereafter, of course. He had merely caught 
the farewell fever and had it light. 

Chicago made its banner record of opera in 1865. 
In January Leonard Grover brought the first thor- 
oughly equipped Grerman opera troupe and gave fifteen 



236 MUBIGAL MiafOBIBB 

perfonnanoes at MoVicker's. The troupe compriBed 
Frederioi, Johaimaen, and Rotter, sopranos ; Dzraba and 
CanisBa, altos; Himmer, Habehnan, and Tamaio, tenors ; 
Theodore Formes, Graff, and Haimer, barytones ; and 
Hermanns, Steineoke, and Urchs, bassos. It was a 
fine array of artists. ** La Dame Blanche,'' ^* Der Frei- 
schatz,'' ^ Tannhttuser," "FideUo," and ^^The Magic 
Flute " were presented for the first time. In December 
Orover gave his second season of German opera, with 
his troupe reconstructed as follows: Johanna Rotter 
and Bertha Johannsen, sopranos ; Sophie Dsiuba, Freda 
de Gebele, and Rose Cooke, altos; Habelman and 
Tamaro, tenors ; Duschnitz, barytone ; Steinecke, Herr- 
mans, and Weinlich, bassos. It was not so strong a 
troupe as the first one, but it gave some excellent per- 
formances. It was during this year that the Crosby 
Opera House was dedicated — an event of such impor- 
tance as to deserve a chapter to itself. Even conceding 
the superior adaptation of the present Auditorium to 
the production of opera, it is doubtful whether Chicago 
wiU ever have a more comfortable, convenient, and 
enjoyable audience-room or one with more perfect 
acoustics than Crosby's. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

THE CROSBY OPERA HOUSE 

ITS CONBTRUCnON — A HIVE OF ABT INDUBTBIE8 — DEDICA- 
TION IN 1865 — AN OVATION TO OENERAI8 GRANT AND 
SHXRUAN — OPBBA SEASONS — DEBUTS AND FIBST PEB- 
FORMANCE8 — THE LOTTEBT — THE HTBTEBIOUS MB. LEE 

— U. H. CB06BT LOSES THE HOUSE — NEW liANAOEllENT 

— GILIfOBE INAUOUBATES THE GHABTTT BALLS — A PE- 
BIOD OF DECADENCE — FBOM OPERA TO VAUDEVILLE — BIS- 
DECOBATION — ITS DESTBUCnON IN THE GREAT FIBB — 
SUMMABT OF OPEBATIC EVENTS 

THE Crosby Opera House is a landmark in the 
musical history of Chicago. It was a veritable 
hive of artistic industries. In addition to the 
opera auditorium it housed a large art gallery and 
numerous studios of music teachers, painters, and sculp- 
tors. It was built by an enterprising Chicago citizen, 
Uranus H. Crosby. He devoted to its construction the 
fortune which he had made in commercial business, 
and he likewise sacrificed it all in some mysterious way 
in its management, before the house was a prey to the 
terrible fire of 1871. 

The Crosby Opera House was located on the north 
side of Washington, midway between State and Dear- 
bom streets, and it also included a music hall fronting 
on State Street. It was four stories in height and was 
built in the French style, common in public edifices at 
that time. The auditorium occupied the entire rear of 



238 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

the building, and was divided into an orchesira, par- 
quette, and dress circle on the main floor, a balcony with 
fifty-six elaborately decorated boxes in the centre, and 
a family cirda TbB prosoepium circle was a single 
panel, upon which a copy of Guido Beni's '^ Aurora" 
was frescoed, with frescoes of Gomedy and Tragedy to 
the right and left. There were also sunken panels in 
the oeiliug containing portraits of composers. The 
decorations <^ the house were both rich and artistic. It 
was a model of comfort, conyenienoe, beauty, and safety 
as well, for it was provided with exits both to Washing- 
ton and State streets, ^ress from the upper tier to 
roo£i of adjacent buildings, and there were automatic 
steam appliances for deluging the stage in case of acci- 
dent. It was a combined opera house, art gallery, and 
home of arts and crafts, upon which money had been 
lavishly expended and of which Chicago was very 
proud. It was just such a structure as Chicago needs 
to-day. 

The opera house was completed in 1866, and its in- 
auguration was annotmced for April 17 of that year, 
but, on account of the assassination of President Lincoln, 
it was postponed until April 20. Upon that evening 
the house was densely crowded with one of the most 
briUiant audiences ever assembled in Chicago. Jacob 
Grau^ deeply impressed with the importance of the 
occasion as well as with his own personal relation to 
it, had brought a troupe of excellent artists, including 
Zucchi and Clara Louise Kellogg, sopranos; Morensi, 
Fischer, and Zapucd, altos; Massimiliani, Mazzoleni, 
and Lotti, tenors; Bellini, Orlandini, Lorini, and 



DEDICATION OP 0B08BY OPERA HOUSE 239 

Dubreul, baiytonee ; and Snsinii Colletti, Mulleri Pemi, 
and XimeneSy basaos* The veteran Carl Bergmann 
wielded the baton* George C. Bates, a prominent 
lawyer and flowery speaker of thoee days, delivered 
a brief and ornate address, and a poem was read by 
W. B. C. Hosmer. After these preliminary exercises 
'^ n Trovatore " was performed with the following cast : 
Leonora, Zucchi; Azuoena, Morensi; Manrico, Massi- 
miliani; Count Di Luna, Bellini; Fernando, Coletti. 
The repertory for the rest of the season was as follows : 
April 21, ''Lucia," with Kellogg and Massimiliani ; 
April 22, «n Trovatore"; April 24, ''II Poliuto"; 
April 25, "Martha"; April 26, "Norma"; April 27, 
"Faust"; April 28, "Linda"; April 29, "Norma"; 
May 3,* "Sonnambula" ; May 4, " I Puritani "; May 5, 
"Un Ballo en Maschera; "May 6, "Linda"; May 7, 
" Don Sebastian " (first time) ; May 9, " Don Sebastian "; 
May 10, "Faust"; May 11, "Lucresda Borgia"; 
May 12, " Martha" ; May 13,"nn BaUo en Maschera " ; 
May 15, "Emani '' ; May 16, " Don Giovanni " ; May 17, 
"Fra Diavolo" (first time); May 18, "Don Sebas- 
tian " ; May 19, " Fra Diavolo " ; May 20, closing per* 
formance, "Sonnambula," and the last act of "Lucia 
di Lammermoor." It was a record-breaking season for 
J. Orau. The first concert in the new opera house was 
given May 25, under the management of Max Strakosch, 
by Mademoiselle Behrens, soprano; Wehli, the "left- 
hander," pianist; and H^l^ne de E^tow, one of the 

* lliere wefe noperfonnanoeB the fint and aeoood of Maj, owing to the 
civic leoeptioii of the body of Lincoln on the way to ita laat restiqg- 
plaoe in Springfield, lUinoiB. 



240 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

feminine artists who have had the courage to master 
the 'cello and ntilixe it as a solo instrament. I par- 
ticularly remember her refined playing of OflEenbach's 
'^Musette'" and the Servais fantasia on themes from 
''The Daughter of the Begimenti'' and who of those 
who heard it is likely to forget Wehli's lightning left- 
handed performance of his own fantasia on themes 
from '' Lucia " ? It was a freak exhibition^ to be sure^ 
but it was ezcusabley for it always seemed to me that 
Wehli played better with one hand than with two. 
On the thirty-first another concert was given^ this 
time by the Oermania Milnnerchor for the benefit of 
the Northwestern Sanitary Fair^ the memorable fea- 
ture of which was Hummel's ''Military Septet/' in 
which Paul Becker played the piano part, the other 
six parts being taken by members of the Musicians' 
Union. On June 6 Orau returned with the same 
troupe and gave a second season^ which closed June 20. 
The memorable features of this season were the first 
performance of Verdi's "Sicilian Vespers/' in which 
Zucchiy Mazzoleni, and Bellini had the principal 
parts, and a performance of "The Daughter of the 
Begiment " in honor of Lieutenant General Grant and 
Major General Sherman, who were in attendance by in- 
vitation of the management and as guests of the city, 
for " war's stem alarums had changed to merry meet- 
ings, its dreadful marches to delightful measures." 
The cast for this gala occasion was as follows : Marie, 
CSlara Louise Kellogg ; Marchioness, Madame Fischer ; 
Tonio, Lotti; Sulpizio, Susini; Hortenzius, MuUer; 
Cartouche, Locatelli. The generals entered their box 



AN OVATION TO GENERALS GRANT AND SHERMAN 241 

» 

togeiheri amid roiuing cheers^ orchestral fanfares^ fol- 
lowed by the national anthem, the waving of flags, and 
fluttw of handkerchiefa. Greneral Grant acknowledged 
the ovation in his customary quiet manner, but Greneral 
Sherman, who was fond of being lionized, was more 
effusive in his recognition. It is only truth to say that 
neither of the war heroes seemed to be very deeply en- 
grossed with the doings of the vivandiere and her com- 
panions until the '^ Bataplan " was sung. Both of them 
rose to the occasion as Kellogg briskly directed the drum 
song straight at them. Perhaps it aroused memories of 
the scenes in camp and field through which they had so 
lately passed. I do not think either of them cared 
greatly for music. If General Grant did, he had no way 
of showing it. Perhaps, like Nietzsche, he wanted to 
express delight but did n't know how. As for General 
Sherman, I saw him once at a Cmdnnati Festival pre- 
tending to listen to the Beethoven Choral Symphony, 
the very picture of distress and wanting to get away. 
Verdi's ^' La Forza del Destine" was also given in this 
season, June 13, for the first time in this country, 
and Grau boasted that it was produced in Chicago 
even before it was heard in Paris or London. He did 
not say, however, that the opera was not a drawing card, 
which might have accounted for Frendi and English 
indifference. 

On November 8 Grau brought another Italian troupe 
to the opera house and gave a season which dosed 
December 1. With one or two exceptions it was a 
heterogeneous collection of mediocrities gathered from 
everywhere, indudmg No Man's Land, The most 

16 



242 MUSICAL MEMOUKB 

remarkabla thing aboat them mm their pictunequa 
nomeodftture, Thoee aimoiineed for ^ the first time in 
Ammw" were Leonilda Boichetti^ Olga Olginiy Mweo 
Gelliy end Sicnon Aneetui^ H y^^uiji ^j^ MUleri^ ^^^4 
Fellini. Other imknowxii were Noel Guidi^ Gafh 
PoUiniy Signom Magra^ MademoieeUe Ifanfred, and 
Signor Laporte. The only ones known to the paUic 
were Gazsanigay Cbletti, Qrlandini, Lotti, Tamaro, and 
hncj ffimoniy who made her debat, November 21, as 
Adina in ^^L'Elisir d'Amore." At the olose of the 
season away went these extraordinary songlurds, but, 
as in the case of Schumann's gypsies, ''who can tell 
where T '' The inde&tigable Orau, however, turned up 
again in 1866 and brought out '' L'Africaine '" June 17, 
for the first time, with the following cast : Selika, Qas- 
saniga; Inez, Boschetti; Yasco, Musiani; Nelusko, 
Orlandini; Don Pedro, Milleri. The performance was 
mediocre, but being a novelty, it drew crowds. In May 
ot the same year Madame Ghioni and Susini came with 
a scratch company for a short season, of which I recall 
(mly the first production of ''Crispino e la Comare" 
and CSanissa's charming singing and acting of the part 
ci Annetta. It is curious that this delightful little 
opera, after slumbering for nearly half a century, was 
revived last seascm in New York. There are many 
other slumbering little operas, both Frendi and German, 
which might be revived and would prove most grateful 
substitutes for the tiresome dramatic recitative works 
which are now forced upon an unwilling public. After 
concerts by members of Grover's old German company 
and the charming Bateman concerts in which Parepa, 



OP8EA 8BAaON8 243 

Brignolii Veiranti, MilLi the piaaisi^ and Oul Boaa 
appeared, an opera fleaaon of fifteen nights b^pm 
December 24 in which Max Strakosch presented 
Madame Ghioni, Madame F^tti-jStrakoBch, Mademoiselle 
CSanissa^ Madame Zapuooi, the tenors Ir£re and Errani, 
the barytones Marra, Locatelli, Sarti, and Paroniy and 
the bassos Susiniy Goletti, Ximenes, and Massio. The 
star of the tronpe was Sttore Lrfre, the tenor. He 
appeared in ""D Trovatore/' '' U Africaine,'' ''Fra 
Diavolo/' '' Emani/' ''Un BaUo en Mascher%'' '' Bobert 
the DeyiV' and '' Lucia di Lammermoor." He was a 
tenor of the grand style, with a rich, powerful voice and 
the genuine Italian method. No one, I feel sure, who 
heard his glorious voice in the ^^ Lucia'' sextet will 
ever forget Irfre* Jn the early part of 1867 Maretzek 
gave a season of opera in which Minnie Hauck made 
her first appearance, as well as the veteran bulEo 
Bonconi. He also brought out for the first time ^ Star 
of the North," '' Zampa," and Petielk's '< Carnival of 
Venice." The La Grange-Brignoli combination gave 
some concerts, but apart from these two artists the 
troupe was an inferior one. In October La Orange and 
Brignoli came again, this time with a small opera 
company, their leading people being Adelaide fhillips, 
Miss McCulloch, Massimiliani, Randolfi, Marra, Susini, 
Goletti, and SartL The season closed November 9, and 
the repertory consisted of the old stock Italian operas. 
Immediately following them came the Mendelssohn 
Quintette Club of Boston, as it was first oiganiaed, 
including Wilhelm Schultze, first violin, Carl Meisel, 
second violin, Thomas Ryan, viola and clarinet. 



244 1CU8IGAL MEII0RIE8 

Edward M. Heindl, flute, and Wulf Fries, 'cella They 
were the beet chamber music players of the day, occu- 
pying the same position then that the Kneisel Quartette 
does to-day. 

A memorable and mysterious occurrence, in which 
the Crosby Opera House was involved, happened the 
same year. It was generally believed that the house 
had been enriching its enterprising young proprietor, 
but it was suddenly apparent that it had been slowly 
but surely dragging him to the verge of bankruptcy. 
He had spent money extravagantly. Knowing little 
about the details of the operatic business, he was at 
the mercy of managers. He was generous to a fault, 
and undoubtedly his generosity had been abused more 
than once during the two years which had elapsed smce 
the brilliant inauguration night. To save himself, he 
resorted to a lottery scheme in which the opera house 
was the capital prize. It was advertised all over the 
country at a time when lotteries and gift enterprises 
were very popular. Besides the house itself, a large 
number of excellent paintings and minor prizes were 
offered, and a chromo was sent to each ticket-holder. 
This accounts for the profusion of copies of Hunting- 
ton's '^ Mercy's Dream,'' which may still be found hang- 
ing on parlor walls all over the Western prairies — - the 
only souvenirs of the great lottery which made such a 
sensation January 23, 1867. On that day thousands 
crowded into the Crosby Opera House, each one hoping 
to be its proprietor when he went out. There were 
two hundred and ten thousand numbers, but a consider- 
able bunch of them was held out by Mr. Crosby as 



THE MYSTERIOUS MR. LEE 245 

undispofied chanoes. A committee of well-known citizexis 
had charge of the drawmg^ and Mr. W. F. Coolbaugh^ 
the banker^ who afterwards ended his life so sadl j at 
the base of the Douglas monument^ was the chauman. 
The owner of the winning ticket was not among the 
thousands in attendance. He was not a citizen of Chi- 
cago. After a day had passed sceptics began to declare 
he was a myth. It was several days before he was dis- 
covered and identified as one A. H. Lee of Prairie du 
Bocher, lUinois. The air was at once full of wild stories. 
Some declared there was no such person. A report 
came from Prairie du Rocher of nocturnal visitants 
who arrived at his home with the news of his good 
fortune and of the dazed condition of Lee as he met 
the night-riders in his night-dress and contemplated 
the vision of dazzling wealth which had so suddenly 
showered upon him. As time passed, the mystery 
grew. There were stories that Lee sold it back to 
U. H. Crosby for $200,000. The veU of mystery 
grew still denser when it was discovered shortly that 
tl. H. Crosby had retired from the gay world in which 
he had cut so conspicuous a figure and gone to a quiet 
New England village (where he ended his days), and that 
the house had passed into the possession of his brother 
Albert. It is useless to try to remove the veiL It is 
sufficient to know that the Crosby Opera House contin- 
ued under the management of Albert Crosby, but its 
career was blemished after it had been dragged through 
the lottery. There was ^^a blot on the 'scutcheon." 

The new manager sought to reestablish the Opera 
House in public favor, and give it social distinction 



246 MUSICAL MEMOBIES 

by importing Oilmorey who brought his band, and 
with it Camilla Urso, Mrs. £L M. Smith the Boston 
soprano, Arbuokle the oometist^ and Dr. Guihnette 
the oratorio bassa Promenade concerts were given 
several evenings, and the charity balls, which have 
cut such a figure in fashionable life ever since, were 
inaugurated. There was another gleam of hope that 
the house might reclaim its artistic status when the 
combined forces of Maretasek and Grover appeared in 
February for a season of Italian and Grerman opera. 
The two impresarios brought with them Mesdames 
Kapp-Toung, Gaozaniga, Minnie Hauck, Antoinetta 
Bonconi, Natali Testa, Frederica Bicardi, and Signers 
Fbncani, Baragli, Giorgio Bonooni, Bellini, Antonncci, 
Enrico Testa, Barili, Banfi, Bicardo, Dubreul, Hermanns, 
and Habelman. Maretzek conducted the Italian, and 
Carl Bergmann the German contingent. The season 
lasted one week, and ^' Bomeo and Juliet ** was the 
principal feature, with Minnie Hauck as Juliet and 
Pancani as Bomeo. In March the skies brightened 
once more. The Bichings opera troupe appeared in 
the favorite old English operas with Caroline Bichings, 
Zelda Seguin, Campbell, Castle, Seguin, J. G. Peakes, 
Henry Peakes, and Pierre Bernard in the principal roles. 
Eichberg's pretty little opera, '^The Doctor of Alcan- 
tara," '' Cinderella," and Benedict's '' Lily of Eillamey " 
were the novelties. Opera bouffe followed in April, in- 
troducing the Lambda troupe, to which I have referred 
in a previous chapter. In May the La Grange-Brignoli 
combination gave a single concert and a performance of 
^^ Don Pasquale." After the summer vacation Bateman 




Thomas Whiffin 
Am Sir Jimph Porltr 






A PERIOD OF DEOADENCE 247 

bioaght the Tost^e opera bouffe oompany, and in Sep- 
tember Maretzek appeared with another combination of 
Italians and Germans^ including Agatha States, Louise 
Dorand, Johanna Rotter, Miss McCuUoch, Bosa CeUini, 
Jennie Appel, Brignoli, Habehnan, Macafferi, Bonconi, 
Hermanns, and Antonuoci, the season closing Octo- 
ber 17. The repertory was a curious conglomerate, 
"Martha,'' "FideUo," '^Emani,'* *^Don Giovani 
'<Fra Diavolo," '<Bobert the Devil," '< Der Freischiits, 
" Masked Ball,'' and " Crispino," following each other 
in regular succession. In October, however, Crosby 
Opera House took a downward slant when the spec* 
tacular " Humpty-Dumpty " was produced, and '^ all the 
king's horses and all the king's men " were not able 
to put it together again. In November the Bichings- 
Bemard Troupe (Bfiss Bichings was at this time Mrs. 
Bernard) reappeared with the old troupe, but pro- 
duced nothing new except '^11 Trovatore" and ^^La 
Traviata" in English. 

In 1869 Crosby Opera House strayed far afield from 
the purposes to which it was dedicated four years pre- 
viously. The programmes of that year show a curious 
medley of entertainments. Bfiss Kellogg's concert 
troupe, including Alida Topp, Herr von Eopta, and 
Signors Lotti and Petrella, were followed by ^' The Field 
of the Cloth of Crold," in which Mademoiselle Tumour, 
''queen of air," Alice Oates, Swiss bell-ringers, Leon 
Brothers the gymnasts, and other freaks appeared. 
Susan Gralton's opera troupe, with Blanche Galton, Pyne 
Cralton, '' Tom " Whiffen, and others presented a series 
of delightful operettas. It is a pity these cannot be 



248 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

reprodnoedy so that opera-goen of to-daj might know 
how operettas should be given; but such artists as were 
in that troupe oould hardly be found now. Nearly all 
of them were of the Fyne lineage^ which means that 
they had preserved the traditions of English opera at 
its best In April Alice Oates was frisking about in 
<< Humpty-Dumpty " again. In May the Desclauzas' 
opera bouffie troupe was brought by Gran. In July the 
Peak Family appeared with bell-ringers^ character per- 
sonatorSy a female piccolo player, and casino singers — 
in a wordy vaudevilley which was followed by a scratch 
Italian opera troupe. In September the Gregorys 
introduced trained animals, acrobats, and pantomimists, 
and late in the same month ^^ Formosa, or the Bail- 
road to Ruin," made such a success that it was speedily 
placed upon the boards at McVicker's Theatre and 
Wood's Museum, and was also given in black by Em- 
erson's and Manning's Minstrels. An English opera 
troupe composed of some of the old Richings artists, 
reenf orced by Parepa, Henri Drayton, and the charming 
little Bose Hersee, closed the year, Balf e's *^ Puritan's 
Daughter" being the only novelty. 

The story of 1870 may be told briefly. Fox and 
Kiralfy pantomimes, the ^' Seven Sisters, or the Daugh- 
ters of Satan on a visit to Chicago," another scratch 
opera troupe, made up of left-overs from the old 
troupes who were stranded and glad to catch at any- 
thing, the '^ Twelve Temptations," — owned by Colonel 
James Fisk, the gay cavalier, who always had a large 
stock of temptations on hand, and who finally suc- 
cumbed to them and went, in his own phrase, ^^ where 



B£3>E0ORATION 249 

the woodbine twineth/' — ^' Undine/' ''The Oieen 
Huntaman," «'The Black Crook," "The White Fawn/' 
and seyeral other spectacles combining colors enough to 
outdo a rainbow, followed each other upon a stage 
dedicated to high art. 

The next year (1871) opened with more of these 
glittering gewgaws, but in February the Crosby Opera 
House returned to its original uses. Maretzek made 
his annual appearance with a German troupe, including 
Lichtmay, Bossetti, Frederid, Bernard, Wilhelm Formes, 
Carl Formes, Himmer, Habelman, Yierling, and Fran* 
osch, and gave as a novelty ''The Merry Wives of 
Windsor,'' with Carl Formes as Falstaff. Those who 
saw his fine personation of the fat knight are not likely 
soon to forget it. Summer days came, and the house 
was closed for repairs and redecoration. During the 
winter of 1870 Mr. Crosby had hesitated for some time 
whether to continue in the amusement business, and 
had even requested his architect to draw plans for 
changing the auditorium into commercial offices. The 
persuasion of friends, however, induced him to continue. 
A change into "something rich and strange" was 
promised. The autumn days came. They were hot 
and sere, and furious burning winds swept across the 
prairies. Week after week passed without rain. There 
were warning voices in prairie and forest fires, and the 
whole city experienced a feeling of depression and a 
presentiment of something terrible to happen. But the 
work upon the Opera House went on. Eighty thousand 
dollars was expended in seatings, upholstery, frescoing, 
and painting, in luxurious carpets, superb bronzes, and 



260 MUPIGAL MDfCMUES 

costly minon. The evening ol October 9 wm set 
for the rec^praing of what was nearly a new Crosby 
Opera House. Theodore Thomas was to xededicate it 
to the higher music, with his incomparable orchestra. 
Marie Krebbs, the pianist, was to have been the solo 
artist. I regret that my programme for the opening 
night fell a prey to the impending disaster, but I re- 
member that the announcements of the season which 
was to be and never was, included, among other 
numbers, Schubert's quartet in D minor, Schumann's 
First and Fourth symphonies, Beethoven's Third and 
Fifth, and concertos by Rubinstein, Mendelssohn, Bee- 
thoven, littolf , Weber, Chopin, and Lisst, which Miss 
Sjrebbs was to have played. The work was concluded 
Saturday, October 7. I returned from my vacation that 
day and found upon my desk an invitation to see the 
Opera House lit up at seven-thirty the next evening. 
I was there at the appointed time, in company with 
others who were enthusiastic in their appreciation of 
the brilliant transformation whidi had been effected 
and over the seemingly brilliant prospects of the season 
of 1871-1872. Three or four hours later I saw Crosby 
Opera House lit up by the flames of the most destructive 
conflagration of modem times — a fire best described 
by the word which General Sherman used as a defi- 
nition of war. The beautiful structure seemed to melt 
away. I saw it a little distance off, when it first burst 
out in flame. It did not seem to catch fire at any 
particular point. It was as if a huge wave of fire 
swept over and devoured it. When Theodore Thomas 
and his orchestra arrived the following morning, they 



DBfirrRUCTION OF THE OVBBJL HOUBB IN THE FIBE 261 



sUqyped at the Twenty-second Street Station of the 
Lake Shore Railroad, A burning city barred their 
nearer approach. A pile of smoking bricks^ stones^ and 
iron^ one among thousands more of the same kind, 
strewn about in wild confusion, stood in the place of 
the beautiful auditorium where they were to have 
played. Crosby Opera House was no more ! Gone with 
all its memories and associations and ni^ts of pleasure I 
But the Opera House was not the only victim. Not a 
concert hall, theatre, museum, music school, or studio 
was left Many of the musicians fled from the city, for 
they felt that music would be the last of the phoenix 
brood to rise from the ashea 

To enter into details of opera seasons after the fire, 
or to recall personal memories of artists connected with 
them, would involve repetition of &cts already stated 
in personal sketches or mention of artists still upon the 
stage, which would be foreign to the scheme of these 
^' Memories/' In place of it I append a brief statement 
of the most important operatic events from the time of 
the fire to the dedication of the Auditorium, which may 
be valuable for reference : 

1872. Debut of Wachtel at the Globe Thntte. 

1873. (Februaiy) Maratiek Tkoupe. Debut of Luoea in "FaTorito'' and 
fifBt perfonnance of "Mlgnon"; Kellogg Thmpe. Debut of Jennie 
van Zandt and Joeeph Maae. 

1874. Strakoeoh Thnipe. Debute of NilMm, Guy, Ounpanini, Oapoul, and 
Del Puente. F&nt perfonnanoe of "Alda." 

1875. Stiakoeoh Thnipe. Debute of Albani, H^lbnm, and Tagliapietia. 
F&nt perfonnanoe of "Lohengrin*' with Albani ae Eba. 

1870. etiakoeeh Troupe. Debut of Madame PaJmieri. Flist perfonnanee 
of f'Semiiamide." 

1877. Pappenheim-Adame Qeman Troupe. 

1878. Stiakoeoh Thnipe. Debute of Marie Rose, Utta, and Pantaleoni. 

1879. Mapleeon Troupe. Debute of Center, Sinioo, Lablaobe, QalaMi, 



252 MUSICAL MEMORIEB 

and FolL Stimkoieh Troupe. Debute ci Teranta Siofer, Anna da 
Beiooea, Peirovitoh, and Oaetehnaiy. 

1880. Ifapleaon Troupe. Debute oi Marimon, Ambii6, and Valleiia. 
International Company. Debute d Lauia Sehizmer, Abbie 
Garrington, and Perugini. Fint peifonnanee d Bolto'a 

1881. Mapleion Troupe. Debut of Ravelli. Beauplan New Orleane 
Troupe. Debute of Tournier, Utto, Jourdan, and lAUaebe. 

1882. Mapleton Tkoupe. Debut of Enuna Jueh. Strakoieh Troupe. 
Debute of Bertha Riod, ICaneini, and Qeoise Sweet. 

1883. Mapleeon Troi^M, with PattL Debute of Meinwineki and 
ScalehL 

1884. Abb^ Troupe. Debute of Sembrich and FUieoh-lCadL Fint per- 
fonnanoe of ''La Qiooonda." Mapleeon Troupe headed by Patti. 

1886. Damroeeh Gennan Troupe. Debute of Matenia, Brandt, Schott» 
and Staudigl. Firrt peiformanee of Oluck'a "Orpheue'* and 
Wagner'a "Die Walkore.'' 

1886-1887. Ameriean Opera Thmpe. Fint perfonnanee of "Queen of 
Sheba" and "Nero." 

1889. Dedication of the Auditorium. 



CHAPTER XIX 

THE ORCHESTRA IN CHICAGO 
juuuB dthrxnfurth'b stort — ibach'b ''sharp corner'' — 

HOW THS FIRST ORCHESTRA. WAS ORGANIZED — VARIOUS 
PHILHARMONIC SOCIETIES — CARL RERGMANN'S FAILURE — 
THE FIRST MASQUERADE — HENRT AHNER's MELANCHOLY 
FATE — THE UNQER-MOZART RIVALRT — HANS RALATKA 
— THE PHILHARMONIC OF THE SIXTIES — ITB RISE AND 
FALL — THE PHILHARMONIC FUNERAL — EARLT CHAMRER 
MUSIC — A GLIMPSE AT THE SANGERFESTS — ADVENT OF 
TEOE THOMAS ORCHESTRA 

IT is nearly forty years ago that Julius Dyhr^ifurih 
told me the story of his wanderings, as we dined 
together at that cosy restaurant of Ibach's, at the 
^ Sharp Comer/' so famous in those days for its good 
dinners. Theodore Thomas, a connoisseur in matters of 
this kind, once said to me, ^* Ibach's is the only place 
I have found where you can order a dinner for a com- 
pany without specifying the courses and know that 
everything will be satisfactory.'^ Ibach's restaurant 
was an unpretending little place, homely within and 
without, where you were sure to find spotless linen, 
excellent service, dinners perfectly cooked, and the 
choicest wines of Ibach's own importation. It was a 
cheery Bohemian place, where you were always sure of 
meeting people whom you wanted to see. You were 
also very sure to meet Ibach at the door when you 
entered, and his old-fashioned practice of escorting you 



264 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

to the door and sending a ^' (kite Naeht " after you when 
you left was agreeable. If you were well acquainted 
with him, he would also play the zither for you while 
you were at table. We have plenty of el^antly decor- 
ated restaurants and gilded etrfU now, but memory goes 
back longingly now and then to Ibach's and to Billy 
Boyle's snug litUe retreat in the alley. The loss of 
these is one of the penalties imposed by the growth 
of municipal wealth and fashion. 

It was over a bottle of Ibach's choicest Mosd that 
Dyfarenfurth told me his story. He left Germany in the 
thirties^ with his fiddle as sole companion, to make his 
way in the world. In New York he made the acquaint- 
ance of another fellow-wanderer, one Joseph Hermanns, 
a pianist^ and they travelled together, giving concerts in 
various Ohio, Pennsylvaniai and West Virginia towna 
Then they went South and j^yed in New Orleans and 
other Southern cities. It is curious how many fordgn 
musicians, as soon as they landed, went to the South in 
those early days. It apparently indicates that the South 
at that time offered a better fidd for musicians than the 
North. Pyhrenf urth did not make his fortune concert- 
izing. On the contrary, the financial outlook was so 
gloomy that he went back to Germany in 1841. In a 
few years political afiEairs in Prussia became so un- 
settled and the revolutionary spirit so active, that he 
came back to the United States, and the year 1847 
found him in Chicago. Being of a social nature, and 
hail fellow well met with every one, and violinists being 
scarce at that time, he and his fiddle were in frequent 
requisition. In the latter part of December of that year 



HOW THE FIRST ORCHESTRA WAS ORGANIZED 265 

he gave a concert^ assisted by Bode^ a pianist^ and 
Signor Ifartinez, a guitar player of local celebrity^ and 
thus was formally introduced to the musical world of 
the city. As concerts did not pay very well, he bought 
a little tract of land on the western outskirts of the city 
and started a truck garden. At that tune many ex- 
patriated Grermans were flocking to this country, and 
some of them came to Chicago. They were always 
welcome at the Dyhrenfurth home, and as nearly all of 
them could play some instrument, they were all the 
more welcome. They played and practised together, 
and at last Dyhrenfurth suggested that they organize a 
little orchestra and give some concerts in the city* 
Thus was Chicago's first orchestra bom, and it was 
christened with the dignified name of '^ Philharmonic 
Society." On the fourth of September, 1860, the 
following advertisement appeared in ''The Chicago 
Tribune " : 

>^ Philhaemonio SuBSORiFnoH CoHOBET. Mr. Dyhren- 
furth begs leave to inform the public and lovers of music that 
he proposes giving a series of eight concerts, one a week, if a 
suflScient number of subscribers can be found to insure the 
expenses. The performance will be on a larger scale than 
heretofore, embracing solos, orchestra, and chorus. Terms for 
eight concerts, S8.00. The ticket admits one lady and gentle- 
man, with the privilege of one single ticket for 25c. Sub- 
scription tickets found at Burley & Co.'s bookstore.'' 

The first concert was given October 24, 1850, upon 
the occasion of the dedication of Tremont Hall, the 
orchestra being assisted by George Davis, Frank Lum- 
bard, and Dr. Dunham, vocalists. The programme 
included a potpourri, by the orchestra; a song, with 



256 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

vocal quartette aooompaDiment ; a violonoello solo^ by 
Carlino Lenssen; the ^Chicago Waltz,'' oompoeed by 
Lenflsen for the oocasion and performed by the orches- 
tra; a Yocal trioy by Messrs. Davis, Lumbard, and Dan- 
ham ; a medley overture of n^^ airs, and achoms bom 
Weber's ^^ Predosa." There was no r^^ular criticism in 
the papers of I860. Some friend who had attended the 
concerts would send in his impressions, and from one of 
these contributions I gather that the ^ Chicago Walts " 
was the favorite. The writer indulges in the following 
rhapsodical flight : 

^ To our taste, the gem of the evening was the * Cldcago 
Waltz,' composed for the violoncello by Lenssen, with guitar 
accompaniment It was soft, tender, lulling, wafting the 
listener as gently as gossamer is borne upon the breeze, and 
anon carrying him round and round and up and up in a spiral 
motion delightful to feeL" 

This reads like materialism run loose, but is it anymore 
absurd than the materialism of the latest production of 
the genius of to-day ? Is it more ridiculous than the 
^' Symphonia Domestica " of Richard Strauss, in which 
with varied cacophony he narrates the day's experiences 
of his baby and the antics of the assembled relatives ? 
The orchestra gave the series of eight concerts, as an- 
nounced, and at the close all concerned were out of 
pocket, — an orchestral result which is not exceptional 
even to-day. Dyhrenfurth, however, was not discouraged. 
In the Fall of 1861 he was again in the field ; and asso- 
ciating with himself Mr. Mould, the music dealer of 
those days, he gave two seasons of concerts, winding up 
with a grand concert and ball on New Year's five, at 



THE DYHRENFURTH ORCHESTRA 267 

Melodeon Hall. The ball was a brilliant suooeBS for 
those days. One paper says: ^' There were eighty 
couples present. The music was splendid. The orches- 
tra was fine. About ten o'clock it was reinforced by 
the theatre orchestra, and the hours glided away upon 
a tide of harmony.'' The Dyhrenfurth orchestra at 
that tame numbered twenty-two pieces. The names of 
the members of Chicago's first orchestra should be 
preserved, though all of them are now chiselled on grave- 
stones. They were as follows: First violins, Dyhren- 
furth, Geisler, and Buderbach ; second violins, Hartnung, 
Fondbar, and Leder ; violas, Salzman and Leder ; 'cello, 
Palme ; double basses, Schafer and Riditer ; trombone. 
Dean ; flutes, Schmitz and Lungear ; darinets, Salzman 
and Weinman; bassoons, Bamociotti and Lutting; 
cymbals, Thompson; kettledrum, Faber. The subjoined 
programme of the concert and ball alluded to above 
shows a decided advance over that of the first concert 

PART I 
L Owrtiue to ^'Zunpft'' HerM 



2. !'NoiitU80sni/'froin'<ILombardi'' V^rdi 

Mbb Famnt Raymond 

3. GUriiiet solo 

Mb. RAMociom 

4. Po^xmrri from ''Stmdella'' Fhtaw 

OBCHnTRA 

ft. Piano Bolo, ''L* Cnoovieniie" 

Mbb Emilt Ratmomd 

e. BftDad, I'Child of Earth" 

MiBB Famnt Raymond 

TChaniDacne nloD 



PART II 

Grand Promenade Gonoert and Danoe, Dyhrenfurth, eondoetor, Dean, 
ealler. 

17 



258 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

The concerto of 1860 and 1851 proved diaaatroos to 
Dyhrenfurth. During the next two yean he made 
several e£Eorto to recoup himself , hut at last abandoned 
the attempt to give regular seasons of concerto. Other 
aspiranto for orchestral fame and fortune appeared, but 
they did not fare much better. In 1862 another Phil- 
harmonic society was organiased with G. P. Abell as 
conductor, but the outlook was so discouraging that he 
resigned in 1853 and was succeeded by Christopher 
Plftgge* An e£Eort was now made to place the Philhar- 
monic Society on a substantial basis. Begular officers 
were elected and a board of directors appointed. Appli- 
cation was made to the Legislature for an act of incor- 
poration. The petition was excitedly discussed by the 
Solons at Springfield. There was the same rural jeal- 
ousy of Chicago which existo at the present day, and 
some of the farmers were not quite certain that ulterior 
and perhaps dangerous motives were not lurking behind 
that mysterious word ^' Philharmonic.'* At last, how- 
ever, they were convinced that the society had no inten- 
tion of setting the prairies on fire, and somewhat 
reluctantly granted the incorporation, but expressed 
their contempt for such municipal triviality by entitling 
it '^ an act to encourage the science of fiddling/' Plagge 
did not last long, and the fiddlers themselves found little 
pecuniary compensation in the new dignity of incorp<^ 
ration. 

In 1854 Plagge was succeeded by a great musician. 
Carl Bergmann came to Chicago from New York with 
the intention of making his home here. He advertised 
for pupils, and the directors of the Society, who were 



OARL BEBGMANN'8 FAILURE 260 

acquainted with his reputation in the East^ tendered 
him the conductorship. He took the baton with high 
hopes of building up the orchestra and advanciDg the 
standard of music iu the young dty. He gave two 
concerts which promised well, but he soon discovered 
that the German musicians did not like him and were 
forming cabals against him which would be sure to 
impair his usefulness, if not defeat his purposes. There- 
upon he promptly resigned and left the city. I have 
never been able to discover the cause of this opposition, 
and can only attribute it to the fact that he was too 
great a muBioian for them to comprehend. Pending the 
appointment of a new conductor, Dyhrenfurth reap- 
peared and gave a short season of promenade concerts, 
closing with a masquerade and ball. As it was the first 
ball of that kind ever given id the city, the following 
newspaper report of it may be interesting : 

** The hall was crowded with a gay assembly, a laige major- 
ity of whom were €n w$tumej and eveiything passed off right 
merrily. There was eveiy variety of oharaoteis represented, 
from a monk treading measures with the daughter of the 
regiment, to Brother Jonathan ogling a bevy of flower girls. 
The whole affair was creditable to Mr. Dyhrenfurth and gave 
entire satisfaction to all who partioipated in it Captain 
Robert Kinzie, the Indian agent, appeared in Indian costume 
and danced an Indian dance to suitable mosio." 

After Bergmann's resignation, the Society went to 
pieces, owing to internal dissensions, but was recon- 
structed in 1856 with Professor C. W. Webster as con- 
ductor. Webster had some reputation as a teacher, but 
^as evidently not the man for conductor, as he was 
speedily shelved, and this was the end of Philharmonic 



260 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

societies until 1860. In the latter part ol 1856 Henry 
Ahner organiBed an orchestra by combining the best 
players of the Light Guard and Great Western bands^ 
with some of the ex-Philharmonic musicians, and gave 
Saturday afternoon concerts with the asustance of 
Henry Perabeau, the pianist^ Ifadame Johannsen, the 
German opera prima donna, De Passio, the barytone, and 
other soloistflL Ahner was an interesting and most 
engaging personality. He had been trumpet-player in 
the old Germania Society which disbanded in New York, 
as I have ahready told, whose members scattered in 
all directions and did good work for music in various 
cities. Ahner went first to Providence, but not suc- 
ceeding there, came to Chicago. He had an orchestra 
of twenty-suL pieces, and modelled his concerts after 
those of the Germania Society. The programmes were 
popular, and so were the concerts for a time. He gave 
one series in 1866, beginning November 29, four series 
in 1867, and five of the sixth series in 1867-1858. 
That Chicago was not yet ready for orchestral concerts 
is shown by the fact that each series after the first 
drew smaller and smaller audiences. As Ahner had 
no financial backing and was a poor business man, 
he became discouraged, and withdrew from the field 
after the last concert, January 6, 1868. He had some 
money when he came to Chicago, but lost it all. His 
appeals for help were not recognised, but he labored 
on manfully and courageously. He was a man of ex- 
quisite refinement and most tender sensibilities, and 
being also of delicate physique, the strain was too much 
for him. I have a letter from him among my musical 



HENBT AHNER'8 MELANCHOLY FATE 261 

souvenirs^ written to me two days before his last concert, 
in which he desires me to print the programme and 
ask people to come to the concert, adding at the dose : 
'^I feel that I shall not trouble you again." The 
concert was given to a handful of people, and within 
two weeks afterwards he died penniless, broken-hearted, 
and almost alone. Two or three of us paid his funeral 
expenses, and accompanied his body to the cemetery 
one bitterly cold January afternoon in a blinding snow- 
storm, and left him to his rest. 

Never was there a musician of more honest purpose, 
a gentleman of finer quality, than Henry Ahner. Never 
did a musician work harder, and never was a musician 
more ungratefully treated or meagrely compensated. 
His career in Chicago resembled a tragedy. Julius 
linger followed Ahner. He, too, I believe, was an ex- 
Germanian. He was of coarser make-up, of better 
business ability, but not so good a musician as Ahner. 
He was aggressive, blustering, indifferent to praise 
or censure, and reckless in his methods. He began a 
series of afternoon concerts in February, 1868, with 
virtually the same orchestra as that which Ahner em- 
ployed. Possibly he might have forced the people of 
Chicago to attend them, for they rather liked his bom- 
bastic manner and hustling ways^ had not a competitor 
suddenly appeared upon the scene. One J. M. Mozart 
and his wife, who was an ezceUent singer, organized a 
scratch orchestra and gave opposition concerts on the 
same afternoons. Mrs. Mozart was very popular, and as 
Mr. Mozart kept in the background, Mrs. Mozart not 
only won out, but fairly drove Unger out of the city, 



262 MUSIOAL MEMORIES 

leaving a long train of creditors to mourn his departure. 
It was a disastrous victory, however, as it cost the 
Mozarts all they had and at last forced them in time 
to retire also. For two years Chicago was without an 
orchestra. 

Ten years elapsed after Julius Dyhrenfurth made 
his initial venture with his German compatriots^ and 
in that period the evolution of the orchestra had been 
slow, uncertain, and discouraging. Two or three Phil- 
harmonic societies had disappeared and eight conductors 
dropped their batons, but in 1860 a new conductor 
appears upon the scene at the head of an entirely new 
Philharmonic Society. In 1867 Hans Balatka came here 
from Milwaukee to conduct the annual Northwestern 
SKngerfest, and made a very favorable impression. 
In 1860 he came here to live, and his conspicuous 
ability as leader at the dedication of Bryan Hall, Sep- 
tember 17 of that year, still further commended him 
to Chicago musicians, and especially to the trustees 
of the new Philharmonic Society as the proper person 
to direct the orchestra. These trustees were E. I. Tink- 
ham, banker; U. H. Crosby, of opera-house fame; 
Samuel Johnson, real estate dealer ; Edward Stickney, 
banker; J. V. Lemoyne, attorney; and John Shortall, 
abstract maker, for many years afterwards president 
of the Humane Society. The Society was complete, 
all save its conductor. As Balatka had been tried 
and had demonstrated his ability, they unanimously 
tendered him the leadership. He accepted it, and 
Bryan Hall was selected for the concerts. The new 
scheme met with popular favor at once. Subscriptions 




Hans Balatka 



f 



HANS BALATKA 263 

were generous, the orchestra was an excellent one, 
and the hall was remarkably well adapted for concerts 
of this kind. The first concert was given November 
19, to a crowded house. It was evident that an or- 
chestra was no longer an experiment in CShicago, and 
from that time to this not a year has passed without 
orchestral concerts. I append the programme for the 
opening night. 

1. Symphony in D major, No. 2, op. 36 B^eOiavm 

2. Quintet and chonu from "Martha" FloUfw 

3. Overture to "The Merry Wives of Windsor" Nioolai 

4. Sextet from f Lucia" DonMH 

5. Solo for vidin De 



ElIIL WBIirBlBO 

6. Chorus from f'TannhAuser" Wagntr 

Chicago had heard Beethoven's Second Symphony 
before^ when the (rermania Society played it, but it 
listened to Wagner's music for the first time that even- 
ing. It is interesting to note that the conductor avoided 
interruptions by adopting the exact antithesis of the 
plan now in use. In the concerts of the Theodore 
Thomas orchestra the doors are closed when the con- 
ductor takes his place at the desk, until the conclusion 
of the opening number. In those days there was a short 
intermission previous to the performance of the closing 
number, so that those who did not wish to hear it could 
leave. The opening concert was a decided success, and 
before the close of the first season the concerts were all 
the rage. People were turned away every night. 
Balatka was the musical hero of the city. The trus- 
tees were overcome with delight. Not a cloud was 
visible in the musical sky. They cherished hopes of 



264 MUSICAL 1CEM0BIE8 

oompeimg with New York and Boston, and Chicago 
began to plume itself as a musical centre. The Society 
lived for eight years, and in that time gave fifty regular 
concerts, besides extra matm^esy which were largely 
attended, and at which popular music was performed. 
In 1863-1864 Balatka also gave ''Classical Chamber 
Concerts," in which Dr. Fessel, his fathei^in-law, played 
first violin ; Muller, second ; Numberger, viola ; Balatka, 
'cello; and Mrs. Kloss, piano. These, however, were 
not the first chamber concerts in Chicago. That credit 
belongs to the two series known as the '' Briggs House 
Concerts," given in 1860-1861 by Henri de Clerque, first 
violin; Buderbach, second violin; Melms, 'cello; and 
Paul Becker, piano. To these four musicians, and 
excellent ones they were, Chicago owes its first ac- 
quaintance with the classical composers, as weU as with 
Brahms, Schumann, Mendelssohn, Onslow, Liszt, and 
others of the modem school They were contemporary 
with the Mason-Thomas combination in New York, and 
their service for the higher music was not less patient, 
ambitious, and intelligent; but they were ahead of 
their time. Indeed the time has not arrived even yet. 
No local string quartette has been successful in Chicago. 
Even the Eneisel Quartette has had to work hard to 
secure a limited constituency. Chamber music is not 
popular — perhaps because it is the best and highest 
form of music. 

To return to the Philharmonic Society. For six 
years it was highly successful, and it gradually became 
a fashionable event. This was a misfortune, for fashion 
is fickle. In the sixth year the attendance began to 



THE PHILHARMONIC FUNERAL 265 

fall off and interest waned. In the seventh year the 
decadence was still more apparent. A desperate effort 
was made to restore the Society to its old position, and 
no one worked harder than Balatka himself. I was 
in the thick of it and know who did the hard work. 
But it was too late. The Society was moribund. The 
eighth season was a failure in point of pecuniary results, 
and the surplus of former seasons was exhausted. The 
trustees gravely and sorrowfully canvassed the condition 
of affairs, acknowledged they could see no way of re- 
plenishing their empty treasury, and rather than pile 
up a debt, decided to stop. The Society expired in 
April, and was tenderly deposited with the other PhU- 
harmonic mummies. Its assets were just sufficient to 
pay for a symposium of funeral baked meats which the 
trustees, Balatka, and the present writer consumed. A 
few touching tributes to the memory of the deceased 
were spoken, and then all departed with pleasant mem- 
ories of the old friend and regrets that they should not 
see it again. 

Looking back over its records, it must be acknowl- 
edged that the Society did a most important work for 
music in Chicago, and too much credit cannot be given 
to Ebns Balatka for his part in it. He was the first to 
lead the cause of the higher music here. He introduced 
all the Beethoven symphonies, except the Ninth ; the E 
flat major and G minor of Mozart ; the C minor and F 
major of Gkide ; the ^^ Scotch " of Mendelssohn, and the 
^'Triumphal" of Ulrich, besides a great number of 
minor pieces which are now standard in orchestral pro- 
grammes. He also presented a long array of soloists. 



266 MUSICAL MEMOBIEB 

among them the concert smgeni) Inez Fabbri^ Emma 
Gillingham Bostwick, Hattie Brown Ifiller, Frederika 
Magnusaen, Marie de Bohde, Emilia Paige, Mureo Celli, 
Freda de Gebele, Pauline Castri, Estelle Soames, Annie 
llain. Miss Dewey, Miss Selles, Julia Elkworth, Cassie 
Matteson, Charles B. Adams, Louis Dochez (de Passb), 
M. Ledogard, William Ludden, William Castle, Lotti, S. 
C. Campbell, and Alexander Biflchoff ; the violinista, 
Emil Weinberg, Henry de Clerque, William Lewia, 
William Buderbach, F. M. Sofge, and Camilla Urso; 
the pianists, Bobert Heller, James M. Wehli, Irma de 
Pelgrom, Bichard Mulder, Franz Staab, Fkul Becker, 
Adolf Baumbach, and Mrs. Kloss; and the 'oellists, 
Melms, Haig, and Henri MoUenhauer. 

Balatka soon emerged from the ruins of the Philhar- 
monic Society, and in June, 1868, conducted at the six* 
teenth festival of the German Sttngerbund of North 
America. Elated by his success, he reorganized the 
Philharmonic orchestra and gave a series of concerts in 
Farwell Hall in which he introduced Mendelssohn's 
^' Italian '' Symphony and '' Midsummer Night's Dream " 
music entire, Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, Haydn's 
E Flat Major Symphony, and Schubert's C Major Sym- 
phony. Although the financial result was far from en- 
counting, he undertook a second season in 1869 and 
gave the first concert November 28. On the next even- 
ing Theodore Thomas gave his first concert in Chicago 
in the same hall with his Central Park Garden orchestra. 
The masterly leading of the great conductor, then in 
his prime, and. the accuracy, taste, quality, and finish of 
that incomparable band of garden players, sounded the 



ADVENT OF THE THOliAS ORCHESfTRA 267 

death kndl of the hopes of Balatka. His second season 
was incontinently abandoned. It would have provoked 
fatal comparisons between the two orchestras. Four 
years later, at a time when Mr. Thomas's own affairs 
were in an uncertain condition, Balatka gave some 
orchestral concerts at the music hall on Clark Street 
opposite the Sherman House, but they were not very suc- 
cessful. In 1881 he was conductor of the twentynsecond 
festival of the German Stlngerbund of North America. 
The forces, which he directed with marked ability, were 
a large orchestra and mass chorus, including forty- 
six German societies reinforced by the Apollo Club 
and Beethoven Society of Chicago. He had also the 
assistance of an unusual array of solo artists, includ- 
ing Madame Peschka-Leutner, Emma Donaldi, Annie 
Louise Cary; William Candidus and Hugo Lindau, 
tenors ; and Myron W. Whitney, Franz Bemmertz, and 
Jacob Benzing, bassos. His programmes contained many 
important works, among them Bruch's '^Odysseus,'' 
'^Frithjof/' and ''Salamis," Mendelssohn's <' Elijah," 
Abt's '' Briinnen Wunderbar," Titl's '' Consecration of 
Solomon's Temple," Beissman's ^' Drusus ' Death, " In- 
troduction and third scene of ^'Lohengrin," Liszt's 
<<Tas8o" and ''Preludes," Schumann's Second Sym- 
phony, and Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. It was 
Balatka's triumph, and it consoled him for many bitter 
disappointments. 

In 1888 the Chicago Symphony Society was organized, 
with Louis Wahl as president and Balatka as conductor. 
Five concerts and public rehearsals were announced. 
An orchestra of sixty players was organized. Schu- 



1 



268 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

mann'B B Flat^ Bobinstein's ^ Ocean/' BeethoYea^s 
Sixth, and (Joldmark'B ^^ Gountiy Wedding*' symphonies, 
Liszt's ^Tasso" and other large woriu, besides vooal 
duets, triosy and quartettes, were promised^ and Lilli 
Lehmann, Matilda Maroello, Madame SchrUder-Hianb- 
tangel, Paul Kalisch^ and Alvary were engaged. A few 
concerts were given^ but the scheme was soon aban- 
donedy and this ended Balatka's active connection with 
orchestral work. The rest of his days were spent in the 
drudgery of teaching. I shall speak of him again in 
another connection. 

On March 6, 1891, the music lovers of Chicago 
were notified by the Chicago Orchestral Association 
^'formed for the purpose of maintaining a permanent 
orchestra of the highest character, resident in Chicago, 
and giving orchestral and other musical performances of 
the first class," that the first season of concerts and re- 
hearsals would begin October 16 and continue tw^ity 
weeks, and that the director, Theodore Thomas^ and 
his orchestra would aim at ^^the highest results com- 
parable with those attained by the New York Phil- 
harmonic Society and Boston Symphony Orchestra.'' 
For fourteen seasons Mr. Thomas made good this an- 
nouncement. Many obstacles were encountered, but 
one after another they were overcome. There were 
many dark and discouraging days in the history of the 
Association, but its members shared the faith and 
courage of the director and worked steadily on in the 
path marked out by him. When the appeal was made 
to the people that the burden was too heavy to be 
carried any longer without help, they nobly responded 



MR. THOMAS'S CROWNINQ ACHIEVEMENT 269 

by making the orchestra permanent and housing it in 
its own homa The fourteen seasons of this orchestra 
under Mr. Thomas's direction must be set down as the 
crowning achievement of his half century of work. 
The programmes of those years are the best he made 
during that long period. He was able to make them 
upon a high standard because for the first time he had 
players whose salaries were guaranteed, and hence he had 
little difficulty in procuring first-rank men and was not 
harassed by personal financial responsibilities. He had 
also for the first time a regular audience which unques- 
tioningly accepted programmes of the higher music. He 
left behind him a standard of music and musical per- 
formance which will make Chicago orchestra audiences 
unwilling to accept anything lower. He left to Chicago 
one of the three or four great orchestras of the world, 
now ably led by Frederick A. Stock, promoted from the 
ranks. This is the full flowering of the little seed 
which Julius Dyhrenfurth planted fifty-eight years 
ago. 



CHAPTER XX 
MUSICAL SOCIETIES 

THE EARLY SOCnETIES — THE MUSICAL UNION AND '^THB HAT- 
MAKEB8'' — THE IfSNBEI^SOHN SOCHETT — THE OEBMANIA 
MANNEBCHOR — INTERNAL DIBSEN8IONB — RIVAL OPERATIC^ 
AlIATEUR PERFORlfANCES — THE GERMANIA OEMUTUCH- 
KEIT — DTHRENFURTH'b PUNCHES — DIETTSCH AND HIB 



coroner's reports — THE CONCORDIA AND LIEDERXRANZ 
— THE ORATORIO SOaETT — A YICTDC OF FIRE — WINTER 
POST-FIRE ENTERTAINMENTS — ORIGIN OF THE APOLLO 
CLUB — A REMARKABLE CAREER — CARL W0LF80HN AND 
THE BEETHOVEN SOCIETT 

THE very early history of musical societies in 
Chicago is misty at best. Little is known about 
them, for apparently no records were kept. If they 
were, the omnivorous fire of 1871 must have destroyed 
them. We simply know that there were the Old Settlers' 
Harmonic Society in 1835 ; the Chicago Sacred Music 
Society, C. A. Collier conductor, in 1842; the Choral 
Union, J. Johnson conductor, in 1846; the Mozart 
Society, conductor unknown, in 1849 ; and the Manner- 
gesangverein, Charles Sonne, president, and Emil Bein, 
conductor, in 1852. Musical societies have nearly 
always been arenas for internal strife. Perhaps it is 
a sign of enthusiasm or restless activity. In any event, 
dissensions broke out in the ranks of the Mttnner- 
gesangverein in 1855 and eventually led to a secession 
of the discontented. The Society died in 1859, and 






■ . i*»i 



THE MUSICAL UNION 271 

meanwhile the seceders organized the Freie S&ngerbund 
and elected Henry Ahner conductor. Nothing pros- 
pered with which poor Ahner was connected^ and so the 
career of the Freie Stlngerbund was brief. 

•The year 1857 witnessed the organization of the 
. Chicago Musical Union, and of this society I can speak 
from personal experience. The f ollowmg officers were 
elected: President, J. S. Piatt; Vice President, J. G. 
Lumbard ; Librarian, A. L. Coe ; Secretary and Treasurer, 
D. A. Kimbark ; conductor, C. M. Cady. Cady was 
afterwards a partner in the music firm of Soot and 
Cady, successors to H. M. Higgins, who became so en- 
grossed with table tipping and spooks that his business 
was soon at loose ends. I met him many years after- 
wards at his ranch in Southern California where he was 
experimenting with seedless lemons. The best singers 
in Chicago were members of the Musical Union, and 
there were no dissensions in the ranks. They were a 
very happy family, and their principal objects were pub- 
lic entertainment, personal enjoyment, and social hilarity. 
They succeeded in all of them. The first concert was 
given April 7, 1857^ with a miscellaneous programme, 
the soloists being Mrs. C. Blakely and Kate Jones, 
sopranos; Fannie L. Collins and Mary Jones, altos; 
A. B. Tobey and A. Leonard, tenors ; J. L. Thompson 
and J. G. Lumbard, bassos; Franz and Louis Staab, 
pianists; and Henry Ahner, cometist. The Society 
lasted eight happy years; it disbanded because other 
societies offered dangerous competition, and also because 
of the pressure of business interests which claimed the 



272 ICUSICAL MEMORIES 

time of members. In 1857 it gave "The Creation," 
and in 1860 Bies's cantata, "The Morning/' and 
"Elijah/' On the seventeenth of November of that 
year there was a notable performance of George F. 
Root's pleasant little cantata, " The Haymakers," 
which was thus announced in the programme: 

METROPOLriAN HALL. 

Fridat EyBKiHQ, Nov. 17, 1860. 

The Operatic CSantata of the 

HAYMAKERS. 

In eoftume, with appropriate soeneiy, action, fanning implements, Ac 
By a company of ladies and gentlemen from tike 

Chigago Musical Union* 

Under tlie direction of 

Mb. Gbobob F. Root. 

Fanner Mb. Jules Q. Luhbabd 

Anna, Fanner's daughter Mbs. Mattibon 

Mary, 'f " Mbs. Thomas 

Katy, daily maid Mbs. Phillbo 

William, foreman Mb. Chables C. Phillips 

John, assiBtant foreman Mb. M. F. Pbicb 

Snipkins, a city youth, unused to rural affairs . . . Mb. E. T. Root 
Semi-Chorus of Mowers, Semi-Chorus of Spreaders, Semi-Chorus of Rakers. 

FULL CHORUS OF HAYMAKERS. 

Sceneiy painted eaqpressly for the Haymakers by 

Mb. J. J. Whttal. 

Doors open at 6}. Perfonnance to commence at 7^. 

Ticketo, 60 cents. 

To be had of Root ft Gady, No. 95 Clark Street; S. C. Qriggs ft Go.'s 
book store, No. 39 and 41 Lake Street; and at H. M. Higgins' music store, 
Randolph Street. 

Tribune Print, 51 Qark Street. 

The composer and nearly all the merry haymakers of 
1860 have fallen victims to the inevitable scythe of 
'^pallida mors," "Old Farmer" Lumbard, however, 
still remains to remind us of the days of Cassie Matteson 
and Charley Seaverus, Fanny Boot and Charley Phillips, 
Ella White and John Hubbard, Annie Main and Harry 



"THE HAYMAKERS" 273 

Johnson^ Julia EUsworth and John A* Jewett^ and a 
score more of young girls and fellows who were- good 
singers and who sang because they loved to in the days 
that are no more, and who are now either in the gray 
autumn of life or have passed over the river* The 
o£Glcers of the Society in 1860 were Dr. Levi D. Boone, 
president, Chicago's first and only Enow-nothing 
Mayor; B. F. Downing, a real estate operator, vice- 
president ; R* M. Clark, librarian ; T. H. Wade, pianist, a 
delicate little fellow, full of music to his very finger-tips, 
who died of consumption not long after this time ; and 
A. L. Coe, conductor. All these also are gone save 
Clark, and Clark is immortal. He still carries his tuning 
instruments and walks the streets of Chicago, as indifEer- 
ent to their roar and as careless of current comment as 
he did fifty years ago. Clark is a bit of old Chicago 
set down in the bustling, crowded, dirty new Chicago, 
sternly declining to recognize any of ite demands or ex- 
pectations. What cares a man for the Chicago of 1908 
who tuned for Adelina Patti more than fifty years ago, 
and who has tuned for nearly every great artist who 
h» bee. her. during thrt period t ClSTi. ol the vu. 
tage of the fifties and has mellowed with age. In 1863 
Balatka succeeded to the conductorship of the Musical 
Union, and brought out much excellent music with such 
soloists as Annie Main, Lizzie Fitch, Cassie Matteson, 
Julia Ellsworth, A. B. Sabin, and Jules Lumbard, vocal- 
ists; William Lewis, violinist; and Sarah Tillinghast 
and Nellie Conkey, pianists. The Society's crowning tri- 
umph was its performance in April, 1864, of Lortzing's 
''Czar and Carpenter" in English. The arrangement 

18 



274 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

was made by Balatka^ and it was given to large au- 
diences for five nights, with the following cast : Peter 
the Great, William 0. Faulhaber ; Peter Ivanoff, £. T. 
Boot ; Van Bett, J. O. Lumbard ; Mariay Annie Main ; 
Mrs. Brown, Mrs. C. B. White; Admiral Lefont, J. 
H. Brown ; Lord Syndham, 6. 0. Pearson ; Major de 
Chateauneufi Edward Schultze. During the following 
year the Society sang Mendelssohn's ^' Ninety-Kfth 
P^m " and Rossini's ^' Stabat Mater/' and then dis- 
banded. Daring the latter part of its career the Society 
probably escaped a terrible disaster. The members had 
planned an excursion to Milwaukee and tried to secure 
the steamer Lady Elgin for a certain date. As the 
steamer had already been engaged for that date, the 
excursion was deferred to a more convenient opportunity. 
The fate of the Lady Elgin on that trip is well known. 
Off Winnetka it collided with a schooner and sank, and 
hundreds of lives were lost. 

One of the causes of the disbandment of the Musical 
Union was the organization of the Mendelssohn Society 
in 1858, which took away many of its members. Harry 
Johnson, a favorite bass singer, was president of the 
Mendelssohn, and Adolph W. Dohn its conductor. Mr. 
Dohn was engaged in active business, but devoted all 
his leisure time to music. He was one of the best 
equipped musicians Chicago has ever had, — a man of 
strong intellectual grasp, a leader of great executive 
ability, and a musical scholar of more than ordinary 
attainments, as was shown afterwards in his leadership 
of the Apollo Club and in the important services he 
rendered to Theodore Thomas in his orchestral work. 




Adolph W. Dohn 



THE liENDELSSOHN SOCIETY 276 

Mr. Dohn did not believe in giving concerts until his 
society was ready. He kept the members at rehearsals 
for more than a year^ giving a recital now and then for 
personal friends, so that they might become gradually 
accustomed to singing in public. In 1865 the Society 
gave an important concert at the Sherman House, at 
which Mendelssohn's *' First Walpurgis Night/' ^^ May 
Song," "Nightingale,'* "Shepherds' Song," the chorus 
" Lord, Thou alone," from his " St. Paul," and Kuhlau's 
" Wanderer's Night Song," were sung. Mr. Bichel, the 
violinist, played a solo, and Becker, Bichel, and Balatka, 
the trio of Beethoven's in G, op. 1, no. 2. The Society 
created such an impression in this concert that it was 
engaged to dedicate Kingsbury Hall, April 13, 1862. 
Upon this occasion it produced Titl's cantata, " Conse- 
cration of the Temple," Harry Johnson taking the bass 
solos, and Stemdale Bennett's charming pastoral cantata 
" The May Queen," the solo parts of which were distrib- 
uted as follows: May Queen, Miss Sheridan; Queen, 
Miss Ghent; Lover, Mr. Jones; Robin Hood, Mr. de 
Passio. I have often wondered why this cantata has 
not been heard again, indeed why Bennett's delightful 
music has been entirely neglected. The Society sang 
for the last time at the Lincoln funeral services in 1866, 
which were held in St. Paul's Church. 

I come now to a most interesting period in the 
history of Chicago's musical societies. The year 1865, 
in which both the Musical Union and Mendelssohn 
Society disbanded, witnessed the organization of the Ger- 
mania Mttnnerchor, with John G. Gindele, president. 



276 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

and Otto Lob, conductor. The Germania started upon 
its career with flying colors and sounding trumpets, 
} but before the year closed there was the inevitable dis- 
sension, and Balatka, in spite of his musical devotion 
and good fellowship, as usual was at the bottom of it ; 
for it must be admitted that Hans was a past master in 
intrigue. He was proposed for membership, and at once 
the Germania divided into two hostile camps, — the 
adherents of Balatka and the adherents of Lob, There 
was many a hot time at the meetings, and Frau Musica 
at last gathered up her skirts and fled. The old hearty 
Austrinkens gave place to perfunctory Prosits. Steins 
no longer smote the table of a united brotherhood, and 
the salamanders lost in sonority. The strife at last 
waxed so fierce that the Lob faction seceded in 1866 
and organized a new Mttnnerchor, the Concordia, whose 
name was significant of the peace and harmony to pre- 
vail in the new society. Charles Kauffeld, the banker, 
was elected its president, and Lob conductor. In the 
meantime the (germania reorganized and elected Balatka 
conductor. The rivalry between the two societies was 
eager but healthful, for it gave Chicago the best 
amateur performances of opera it has ever had, and 
better indeed than many of the representations by pro- 
fesssional troupes. On the eighth and eleventh of 
February, 1870, the Germania produced "Der Frey- 
schUtz" with the following cast: Agathe, Mrs. Clara 
Huck; Annina, Flora Kuntz; Caspar, Koch; Max, 
Schultze; Zamiel, Janisch; Kilian, Meyer; Otticar, 
Mueller; Cuno, Thiem; Hermit, Goodwillie. The 
Concordia promptly met its rival in April with " The 



RIVAL OPERATIC ABiATEUR PERFORMANCES 277 

Magic Flute/' cast as follows: Pamina, Mrs. Clara 
Huck; Queen of Night, Mrs. Lang-^iegler ; Tamino, 
Bischoff; Sarastro, Hoffman; and Papageno, Foltz. 
The Germania retorted in May with '^ Stradella " and 
the following cast: Leonora, Flora Kuntze; Stradella, 
Schultze; Bassi, Saveri; Malvolio, Koch; Barberini, 
Hunneman. The version used was prepared by Dudley 
Buck. ^^ Stradella " was beautifully mounted, and its 
performance was so brilliant that the Concordia gave 
up the contest. Mrs. Huck, mother of Mrs. Marshal 
Field, Jr., was the bright particular star in the first two 
performances. She was a beautiful woman, a fine 
actress, and a well-»trained singer. She was also a 
great favorite both in American and German society. 
There have been few performances of opera in Chicago 
more satisfactory than these, for the solo work was well 
done, and both chorus and orchestra were incomparably 
better than those brought by impresarios. Have we 
lost all our singers that such representations cannot be 
repeated, or has Chicago become so big and so deeply 
engrossed in material matters that it has no time to 
give to their consideration ? Of the principal perform- 
ers in these operas at least two remain to tell us of the 
glories of those days. '^ Kilian " Meyer, still in com- 
mercial business, and ^' Papageno " Foltz, the architect, 
occasionally revive the old memories by singing for 
their friends. In 1867 the Germania also gave a series of 
pleasant summer night festivals at the Rink on the cor- 
ner of Jackson Boulevard and Wabash Avenue. In the 
course of time Balatka encountered more troubles, and 
finding that the spirit of discontent was dangerously 



278 ICUSIGAL MEMORIES 

increasing^ he resigned, and accepted the leadership 
of the Liederkranz Society. Julius Fuchs, I think, 
was his successor. He was a connoisseur not only in 
music, but in all the arts, and a scholar of ponderous 
learning and painstaking industry, whose catalogues and 
bibliographs attest to the extent of his cumbersome 
knowledge and his patient researches after information 
for which few cared but which the old man greatly 
prized. The subsequent career of the Germania is so 
well known that I need not follow it further. 

The social festivities of the Germania at Dyhrenfurth 
Hall on Randolph Street were Olympian in character. 
Emil Dietzsch and '^ Prince Carnival,*' Martin Meyer^ 
were conspicuous figures on these occasions. There was 
no more suggestion of merriment in Dyhrenfurth's face 
than you may find in the stony, immutable face of the 
Sphinx. He was stately in person and dignified in 
speech, and was regarded by his associates in their orgies 
with a sort of reverential deference. Liberties were not 
taken with him. Even the privileged jesters refrained 
from making him the target of their ridicule. But 
underneath this apparently austere exterior he had a 
quiet fund of humor, and now and then there was just 
the suspicion of a twinkle in his eyes, suggestive of a 
merry stir in his '^ inneres." It was a joyous spectacle 
on occasions when the purpose of the hour was too im- 
portant for beer, to see him brew the series of punches 
which were named for the dignitaries of the Church — 
the bishop, archbishop, cardinal, and pope. No disre- 
spect for the Church was intended by this nomenclature. 
The titles were simply meant to indicate the increased 



DYHRENFURTH'8 PUNCHES 279 

d^ree of excellence in each. How carefully and ten*- 
derly, even solemnly, he would mix the ingredients, and 
how lovingly he regarded each finished product as he 
ascended the scale ! And when the pope was finished 
and the bowl was garnished, what a radiant smilie would 
illuminate those heavy features as he stood there, ladle 
in hand, the very ideal of Oemiithlichkeit ! He was an 
artist at that work, and he knew it. But how few could 
achieve that dizzy climb and reach the summit un- 
scathed ! The artist could, therefore he was master of 
the feast and beloved by all. Martin Meyer was ^'a 
fellow of infinite jest, of most excellent fancy,'' as brisk 
as a bumble bee, and sometimes could sting like one 
with his apparently innocent quips. But Emil Dietzsch 
was the soul of every occasion* Everybody loved him 
because he loved everybody. He was the Admirable 
Crichton of the Grermania, and later of the liederkranz. 
He was a good singer, a capital burlesque comedian, a 
pleasant writer, a natural humorist, a genial restaura- 
teur, the best and most popular coroner Cook County 
has ever had, and a scholar in the classics and the 
modems. He was particularly happy in burlesque, and 
at one of the Germania's festivities he even made 
Dyhrenfurth laugh with his personation of Gretehen in 
'^ Faust." It must be borne in mind that Dietzsch was 
a man of massive build with a deep bass voice. He 
appeared in the conventional costume of Marguerite, 
wearing a blond wig and braids hanging down his 
back, and aped the demureness and simplicity of the 
maiden to the life, his corpulence and sonorous voice 
intensifying the comedy of the situation. During his 



280 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

versatile career he kept a restaurant, — I think it was 
on Wells Street, — and made a specialty of certain dishes, 
especially game, which was very plenty in those days. 
As achef he would have heen agreat success. He was in- 
tensely patriotic, and upon the occasion of one of the vic- 
tories in the Franco-German War he rode triumphantly 
into his restaurant upon his white horse, waving the 
German flag, and lustily singing ^^Wacht am Rhein." 
He combined the romance of Blondel, the mischief of 
Till Eulenspiegel, and the merry antics of Triboulet. 
In 1878 Dietzsch was coroner, and never did Cook 
County have a better, more useful, or more entertaining 
one. Coroners' reports are not usually regarded as of 
any consequence, from a literary, poetic, or philosoph- 
ical standpoint, but his three annual reports, published 
under the caption, '^ Coroner's Quest," are models of 
the humor, philosophy, and vital interest which may be 
found in statistics. In his apt hands they are elevated 
to the dignity of an art. The reports cover nearly 
every branch of learning from the days of the ancient 
Greeks and Bomans to the present, abound in pat quo- 
tations from the classics as well as from the modem 
writers, and are filled with poetic and romantic disquisi- 
tions upon the tragedies which came under his inquisi- 
torial scrutiny. In a luminous introduction he discusses 
the character and scope of statistics and gives us the 
views of Quetelet, Achenwall, and other great statisti- 
cians. He traces the history of the ancient coroners, 
the causes and peculiarities of suicide, and the views of 
ancient and modem sociologists concerning it. Ten- 
derly he laments the fate of those who have fallen 



DIETZSCH AND HIS CORONER'S REPORTS 281 

victims to disappointment in love and the tragedies of 
the pariahs. He seeks to find the reason why so many 
of his own countrymen commit suicide, and arrives at 
the theory that ^^ the habitual use of beer seems to have 
a tendency to direct their psychological ailments into 
the form of a metamorphosis from phlegmatic ease to 
melancholy, and, finally, suicidal mania." He devotes 
much space to homicides, and eloquently advocates com- 
pulsory education and better pedagogues as a remedy for 
acts of violence. He enlarges upon the study of natural 
science as a substitute for the cheap and sensational 
literature which exposes the child's mind to '^ a putrid 
psychological process of fermentation, the effect of which 
can scarcely ever be eradicated." He searches into the 
domestic economy and finds that ** the ennui and dolce 
far nienUj which is so frequently felt by women in 
hotels and boarding-houses while their husbands are 
out at business, and the many hours of the day which 
they must spend in lonely rooms without children or 
real occupation, are very often the first but significant 
circumstances to prompt suicide." But Dietsssch was at 
his best when describing some individual case which 
came before him. I quote one of many such, the touch- 
ing tale of Tshin Fo, a Chinaman who loved an Irish 
girl^ ^ not wisely but too well," and was deserted by her. 

** Longingly he looked forward to his wedding-day, when 
he could lead home the one he preferred above all the 
daughters of the Celestial Empire, in order to share with her 
the soft boiled rice and fat-fried rat. Then suddenly he 
learned the sad news, that she to whom he had con^dently 
intrusted his hard-earned coins and greenbacks had left for 



282 ICUSIGAL MEMORIES 

parts unknown, without leaving a tnoe behind her. That 
black, magnifioently braided pigtail, those almond eyes, and 
that broad Mongolian nose, could not finally win her ; bluah- 
ingly she followed the footsteps of her red-haited Pat from 
Limerick, and left the outwitted Celestial to his unutterable 
woe. For him there was no consolation, and, with gloomy 
thoughts about his misfortune, he resolved to die. Saying a 
last piayer to the primitive god, Taiki or Buddha, he locked 
himself in his room, threw himself upon the untouched bridal 
couch, with his face turned to the East, and shot himself with 
the usual bullet from a revolver, in the abdomen, which, ao- 
cording to the views of a spiritual Frenchman, is the seat of 
all evil, for all evils come from the stomach, as a result of bad 
digestion.'' 

Then in an outburst of reminiscent pity, Dietzsch reflects 
upon Tshin Fo's fate as he looks upon hb grave, which 
he accidentally discovered some time afterwards : 

*^ After the custom of his country, his friends had placed 
plates and vessels of all kinds around the grave, in the belief 
that the spirits of those who leave this world need some food 
upon the long journey into the unknown r^ons of superior 
happiness or temporary condemnation. Happy Tshin Fo, I 
thought, who seems to have understood tiie teaching of 
Buddha, thou didst kill thyself by thine own hands deliberately 
(honorably, according to the views of thy people), in order to 
complete the sooner the circle of thy life, and to enable tiiee to 
enter the place of thy destiny — the twenty-sixth heaven of 
heavens. * Peace to thy ashes.' But to thee, fiilse Christiaii 
girl, who broke his heart and stole away into thy hiding-place, 
to thee I would give the advice of Hamlet to Ophelia : * Get 
thee to a nimneiy,' Bridget'* 

Dietzsch's reports, and Carter Harrison's speech in 
Congress upon the proposition to abolish the Marine 
Band; noade about the same time, show that Chicago in 



HARRISON'S SPEECH ON THE MARINE BAND 283 

the old times had poets among her officials. I should 
like to quote a paragraph from the Harrison speech, 
for it is one of my musical memories : 

** For fifteen long dieaiy years at the other end of Penn- 
sylvania ayenue the White House has been occupied by a re- 
publioan, and during the winter months, of evenings, the 
Marine Band has been up theie at receptions to discourse 
sweet music for the delectation of a republican President, and 
for t2ie delectation of his friends. At every reception a re- 
publican President has stood in a certain room receiving his 
guests, and his pet republican friends, in white vests and 
white cravats, have stood behind him enjoying the dulcet tones 
poured forth from the silver throats of silvered instruments 
by twenty-four gentlemen in scarlet coats. For long years, 
of summer Saturday afternoons, twenty-four gentlemen in 
scarlet coats have caused twenty-four silvered instruments, on 
t2ie green in £ront of the White House, to belch forth martial 
music for the delectation of a republican President, and for 
the delectation of his republican friends* On the 4th of next 
March, sir, there will be a democratic President in the White 
House. Sir, is the democratic President to have no music ? 
DeUcaoy forbids me caUing names. Sir, when the great un- 
known gets here, shall we ha ve no music; shall no tunes come 
£rom those twenty-four silver-throated instrumeirts, blown out 
by these twenly-four gentlemen in red coats, to welcome him 
to t2ie White House? Shall we have no music when we in- 
troduce him to the American people ? Not by my vote. No, 
sir;neverl Never/** 

I wonder in what far-off regions Dietzsch now wanders, 
comforting unhappy shades or adding to the joys of 
cherubim and seraphim with his merry antics, and 
Harrison still enthrals rapt audiences with his eloquent 
periods. 



284 MUSICAL MEMORIES 



In 1869 the Oratorio Society was organised and the 
following officers were elected: President^ George L. 
Donlap; Yice-Presidenty K L Tinkham ; Treasurer, 
William Spragoe ; Conductor, Hans Balatka. Its first 
concert was given May 8 of that year, upon which 
occasion ^^The Creation*' was sung, with Madame 
PareparBosa and Mr. Rudolphsen in the solo parts. 
The Society performed several oratorios during its four 
years' existence, but it was always financially hampered 
because it was not generously supported. Oratorio is 
not very popular in Chicago unless eminent artists 
appear. To add to its troubles the Society lost all its 
property in the great fire of 1871. The Boston Handel 
and Haydn Society, however, made good many of its 
losses, and it was soon on its feet again with J. A. 
Butterfield as conductor. It gave ^^ The Messiah " in 
May, 1872, and a concert in the following Autumn. 
While getting ready for another concert in January, 
1873, it was again visited by fire and from this second 
blow it failed to recover. Bad luck had followed it 
continuously, and no further effort was made to keep it 
alive. 

I have already referred to the dissensions in the ranks 
of the (Termania M&nnerchor which forced Balatka to 
resign. He promptly accepted the same position in the 
Liederkranz Society, of which Edmund Jussen was presi- 
dent. During its career the Liederkranz devoted itself 
to the performance of opera on several occasions. In 
April, 1874, it gave a fine representation of ^'Masan- 
iello," with H^l^ne Hastreiter, Miss Kenkel, Bischoff» 



POST-FIRE ENTERTAmMENTS 285 

Schultze, Eochy Thiem^ Goodwillie, and Meyer in the 
principal roles. In March, 1875, it produced the fourth 
act of ^' The Huguenots/' in May, 1875, the fourth act 
of ^^Ernani," and on November 8 of the same year 
it gave a remarkable performance of '^ The Merry Wives 
of Windsor " at McVicker's Theatre, with the following 
cast: Mrs. Ford, Anna Rossetti; Mrs. Page, Kate 
Wordragen ; Anna, Mrs. Dony ; Fenton, Schultze ; Ford, 
Greiner; FalstafE, Koch; Page, Overbeck; Slender, 
Wolf; Gains, Meyer. 

The great fire of October, 1871, as I have already 
said, temporarily ended the activities of music in every 
direction, and it was slow in resuming them. In this 
connection a condensed statement of the entertainments 
which helped the people to bear up against the calamity 
during the gloomy winter following it may not be un- 
interesting. The record from October 23, fifteen days 
after the fire, to February 12 is as follows : 

Odcber tweniy4hird, — Wood's Museum Company in a perfonnance of 
f'The Poor Gentleman'' at Globe Theatre, Desplaines Street. 

October thirHgth. — Lecture on f Schiller" by Bayard Taylor, at Michi- 
gan Avenue Baptist Church. 

November fireL — Jane Coombe's Company at Standard Hall, then 
called the Michigan Avenue Theatre. 

November fourteenth. — Lecture by John G. Saze at Union Park Con- 
gregational Church. 

November eevenieentk, — Lecture to Young Men's Christian Association 
by Anna Dicldnson. 

November tweniy4hird. — Wyndham Company at Michigan Avoiue 
Theatre. 

November twenty-eeventh. — Lecture by Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

November twenty-^everUh, — Arlington's Minstrels at West Side Opera 
House. 

December eleventh. — Lecture by Elisabeth Cady Stanton. 

i>iosfn5«r fourteenih. — Concert at Martine's Hall for the benefit of St. 



286 MU8ICAL MEMORIES 

John'f Ghnraii, in iHiieh Mm. De Boode Rioe, piwuit, Mm. J. A. Farwdl, 
Mm. O. K. JohoMiif and Meww. Howard and Skian partieqiatod. Thia 
waa the fini oonoeii after the fire. 

DMmbir fiftrnnOL — Bamabee Oonoert Troupe at Miriiigan AYenna 
Baptift Chnroh. 

Dee$mb$r wintUmUk. — Leeture by ^i»A Twain. 

DeemiUmr twmUy-^bOL^L^ Orohettm at Buriii^ton Hall, State 
and Sixteenth atraeU. 

Deetmbtr Iip«ii4f-«H^- — Oonoert at Plymottth OoogrogatioDal Church 
by ehoir and J. R. Fla|^, oiganift. 

Fttnury lawi/A. -— Oari Boaa and Neuendmf Open Seaaon at Globe 
Theatre. 

I am now oome to a memorable event in the musical 
history of Chicago, — the organization of the Apollo 
Musical Club, now in its thirty-sixth year and stiU 
flourishing under the competent direction of Mr, Harrison 
Wild. There have been many versions of its origin, but 
I am in a position to state the authoritative one. The 
first conception of the Apollo Club is to be credited to 
Mr. Silas G. Ptett, now teaching music in New York* 
One Sunday afternoon in the early summer of 1872 
Mr. Pratt came to my house and suggested that the 
time was ripe for the organization of a singing society 
of male voices upon the lines of the Apollo Club of 
Boston. He brought with him the constitution and by- 
laws of the latter. We read them carefully and dis- 
cussed his suggestion from every point of view. It 
seemed to me also a favorable time for such a scheme. 
Six months had elapsed since the great fire, and no 
move of any kind had been made to revive the interests 
of music. There was no musical society of any kind 
in the city. Something ought to be done. A society 
such as Mr. Ptett proposed would have the field to 
itself for a time at least, and it could have the pick of 



ORIGIN OF THE APOLLO CLUB 287 

singers. At last I said to him : *^ I think your scheme 
is practicable. 60 ahead with it, and I will help you 
all I can." He urged me to take the presidency of the 
society, and I told him I would consider it. Mr. Pratt 
went to work with his customary energy and soon had 
a sufficient number of tenors and basses enrolled to 
make a good working mttnnerchor. Some time' in 
September following twelve of them met in an old 
church, comer of Wabash Avenue and Sixteenth Street, 
occupied at that time by Lyon and Healy's music store. 
After singing a few part songs, .which Mr. Ptett 
directed, a committee was appointed to draft a form of 
organization. At a subsequent and more numerously 
attended meeting the committee reported, and the report 
was accepted by the following gentlemen, who are the 
charter members of the Apollo Club: S. G. Pratt, 
Charles T. Root, Charles Y. Pring, Warren C. Coffin, 
Frank A. Bowen, Fritz Foltz, J. R. Banney, E. H. Pratt^ 
William H. Coulston, Louis Falk, Harry Gates, C. C. 
Philips, J. S. Marsh, W. W. Boynton, S. E. Cleveland, 
Edwin Brown, A. B. Stiles, Philo A. Otis, George C. 
Stebbms, F. & Pond, Charles C. Curtiss, Theodore F. 
Brown, H. Bocher, A. L. Groldsmith, William Sprague, 
A. B. Sabin, William B. Allen, John A. Lyndon, Wil- 
liam Cox, L. M. Prentiss, Frank G. Bohner, Frank B. 
Williams, and George P. Upton. The organization was 
then perfected by the election of the following officers : 
President, George P. Upton; Vice President, William 
Sprague; Treasurer, Frank A. Bowen; Secretary, 
Charles C. Curtiss ; Librarian, W. C. CofBn ; Musical 
Committee, Fritz Foltz, S. E. Cleveland, and Philo A. 



288 IfUaiCAL lIEMORIB» 

Otis. No conductor was choflen at that time. Mr. 
Pratt conducted the rehearsals for a short time. The 
Club finally decided to tender the leadership to Mr. A. 
W. Dohn, the former leader of the Mendelssohn Society. 
Mr. Bowen and the president waited upon Mr. Dohn 
and offered the position to him, which he somewhat 
reluctantly accepted on the condition that the Club 
would work hard and work t(^;ether and submit to 
his judgment on all musical points. He added in his 
characteristic way : ^* If the Club don't like me it can 
discharge me, and if I don't like the Club I will dis- 
charge myself without waiting for permission." Dohn 
was an admirable conductor and a rigid disciplinarian^ 
but the Club took to him kindly notwithstanding his 
exacting demands upon it as a whole and his brusque 
personal criticisms. In a short time he produced as- 
tonishing results. After working together for several 
months, both conductor and musical committee were 
satisfied that they might safely announce concerts. 
The evening of January 21, 1873, was fixed upon as 
the date of the first concert, and Standard Hall, the 
only available hall in the city, as the place. That 
concert not alone was the successful debut of a new 
organization, but it marked the beginning of a new im- 
pulse in music which was destined to exert a powerful 
influence upon musical progress and give the Apollo 
Club a widespread reputation. The programme of this 
concert was as follows: 

1. GHOBtm — !' Loyal Song'' XtMoimi 

9 r a "He of AU the Best, the Noblert" Stkmuam 

^- 1 6 S'Qieeting" TmOmi 

HoM Jbuica HAftEmji 



A REMABKABLE CABEER 289 

8. GDCtttm-^^AliVftytMore'' M/m 

4. Solo — I'The MeetiAg by the Seathoie" Loom 

Mil Fam Foioi 

&. Caomxm -^ i'Bewxe'* Ckrtd^imr 



Mb. Robbbt Qou»bbck 

7 r4r/i.«M J « "The Dnamy Lake" Stkumann 

7. UHOBTO— |6"TheSprii«orOurReiolciiig" Dwm^ 

a Solo — f'The Eri mug" SdwUrt 

HoM Jbbbica HaHKBTiL 

9. CHOBim — "Champagne Song" SthtotUr 

10. Solo — {'Salute a Beigamo" Suimi 

Ife. Fbank a. Bowbn 

11. GHOBim — f 'The mikr's Daughter" Haertd 

The Club gave four concerts during its first season, 
the soloists being Miss Haskell, Mrs. Fox, Miss Fanny 
Boot, Miss Ella A, White, and the pianists, Robert 
Goldbeck, Anna Mehlig, N. Ledochowski, and Emil 
liebling. Upon this occasion Anna Mehlig was one of 
the audience, and was so delighted with the singing 
that at the request of B(r. Dohn and myself she came to 
the stage and played two Chopin numbers. The Club's 
work made a great sensation. It was the most perfect 
MlLnnerchor singing a Chicago audience had ever heard. 
I^ success was evidently assured. 

The Club began its second season at the new Eings- 
buiy Hall, September 30, 1873, and was assisted by 
Mrs. L. A. Huck in solos, by Mrs. Farwell, Bfrs. 
Huck, Mrs. Johnson, and Messrs. Bischoff, Foltz, and 
Bowen in a sextet from Mozart's ^' Cosi fan tutti," and 
Messrs. Ooldbeck, Lewis, and Eicheim in the Beethoven 
Trio^ op. 19. It gave an extra concert with the 
Thomas Orchestra, October 16, and on November 18 
inaugurated McCormick Hall, Wieniawski, the violinist, 
and the Kunkel Brothers, pianists, being the soloists. 

19 



290 IfUSIGAL MEMORIEB 

McOormick Hall became the Club's home for a time^ 
and there it produced, with the Thomas Orchestra, 
Schubert's ^^ Allmacht/' Schumann's *^ Oipsy life/' and 
'' Paradise and the Perl" At the last concert in the 
hall| Mills, the pianist, was the soloist. 

The Club up to this time had sung as a Mannerchor 
but in the Autumn of 1874 there was a general desire 
expressed among the members for a change to mixed 
chorus. On the twenty-first of December the president, 
vice president, and conductor resigned. The M&nnerchor 
repertory was wellnigh exhausted, and Mr. Dohn did not 
care to lead a large mixed chorus. The president and 
vice president had doubts as to the success of such a 
change, which happily were not verified. Theodore F. 
Brown was elected vice president, and Carl Bergstein 
conductor. Bergstein conducted at three concerts, but 
proved unsatisfactory, and a change was made. In 
1875 the officers elected were G. W. Chamberlain, vice 
president ; £ 6. Newell, secretary ; William Cox, treas- 
urer ; E. D. Messinger, librarian ; and William L. Tom- 
lins, conductor. Mr. Tomlins first directed the Club, at 
the concert of November 17, 1875. Under his regime 
the Club was changed to a mixed chorus, the active 
membership was greatly enlarged, and the chorus was 
admirably trained, especially in attack and quality of 
tone. I have always thought that VLt. Tomlins's best 
results were obtained in the Club's festival of 1877, 
when, with the assistance of Mrs. H. M. Smith, the 
Boston soprano, Annie Louise Cary, alto, J. W. Winoh,!'*^-^ 
tenor, Myron W. Whitney, basso, the Thomas Orchestra, 
and a large chorus of children, the Club gave the firsft 




CUU. WoLMOHN 



A REMABKABLE CAREER 291 

part of Mendelssohn's ^^St. Panl/' Gounod's oantata, 
<^ By Babylon's Wave/' Sullivan's cantata, <' On Shore 
and Sea»" and Handel's ^^ Israel in EgypV' besides 
minor compositions. At this festival Mr. Tomlins dis- 
played the result of his indomitable industry and his 
experience in choral work at the best. He also in* 
augurated the practice of giving ^^The Messiah" at 
Christmas time. In his earlier interpretation of ^^ The 
Messiah" he produced excellent results, but after a 
time made changes which did not work to advan- 
tage. Since Mr. Tomlins's retirement from the Club 
he has devoted hin^self mainly to the training of chil- 
dren's voices, and to the development of certain pe- 
culiar theories in regard to music. The Club has 
continued to prosper under Mr. Wild's direction dur- 
ing the last ten or twelve years, and now ranks as 
one of the most important choral organizations in the 
country. 

A year after the organization of the Apollo Club the 
Beethoven Society literally sprang into existence. It 
was bom October 28, 1873. Carl Wolfsohn, a promi- 
nent Philadelphia musician, was here on a visit in 
October, and friends who were acquainted with his 
abilities as pianist, teacher, and conductor, assured him 
they would organize a society if he would remain here 
and take the conductorship. He accepted the offer, and 
the society was promptly organized and named for his 
favorite composer, a bust of whom he subsequently gave 
to linooln Park. Its officers at the outset were : Henry 
Greenebaum, president ; John G. Shortall, vice president; 



292 MUBIOAL MElfORIBS 

Agnes Ingenolly aecretaiy ; and J. IL Habbard, treach 
urer. The first concert was given Jannary 16, 1874. 
It was a memorable concert in one partkmlar, for, 
unlike the Apollo Club, the Beethoven Sodety b^gan 
its career as a mixed chorus. It was much the largest 
and by far the most important aggregation of male 
and female voices Chicago had yet heard. With this 
attraction, and aided by Mr. Wolfsohn's enthusiastic 
leadership, the Society enjoyed continuous success 
until Tomlins, with his mixed chorus, which was stQl 
better trained, made serious inroads upon its prosperity. 
There is no question that Mr. Wolfsohn was sincerely 
devoted to music, that he was uncommercial in every 
way connected with art, and that he labored honestly 
and indefatigably to make the Beethoven Society a 
power in music; but while he was a better musician 
than Tomlins, he was not so able a conductor. Still his 
society lasted eleven years, and in that time did some 
excellent work. One of its most memorable occasions 
was the concert given in December, 1874, upon the 
one hundred and fourth anniversary of Beethoven's 
birth. The Society sang the Beethoven Mass in C 
and '' Hallelujah Chorus," and the '' Choral Fantasie '' 
was given in fine style, Mrs. Begina Watson at the 
piano. In addition to the regular concerts the Soci- 
ety gave reunions, and Mr. Wolfsohn also gave four 
series of piano recitals, in one of which he played 
the Beethoven Sonatas, and in the second and third 
the principal piano music of Schumann and Chopin. 
The fourth was historical in character. They were 
most remarkable undertakings, and represented the 



WOLF80HN AND THE BEETHOVEN SOCIETY 293 

highest standards of piano music as well as of artistic 
performance. 

The societies organized since the Apollo Club and 
Beethoven Society do not come within the scope of 
these ^' Memories." They may be considered as current 
events. 



CHAPTER XXI 

SOME EVENTS AT HOME 

THE WOBLD'B fair MUBIC — ITB INCEPTION AND FAILUBE — 
WHAT WAS DONE AND NOT DONE — THE FORCES ENGAQED 
— MUSIC OF THE CIVIL WAR PERIOD — DR. OEOROE F. 
ROOT — HIS EARLY CAREER — " THE BATTLE CRT OF FREE- 
DOM " — HOW rr CAME TO BE WRTTTEN — ROOT AS A COM- 
POSER — THE AUDITORIUM — HOME OF GRAND OPERA — 
ITS DEDICATION — WORKS PERFORMED IN IT — MILWARD 
ADAMS'S MANAGEMENT — THE 8TUDEBAKER THEATRE — 
HOME OF OPERA IN ENGLISH — WORKS PERFORMED IN IT — 
CHARLES C. CURTISS'S MANAGElfENT 

BEFORE closing these memories I wish to say a 
little about the music of the Columbian Exposi- 
tion, the patriotic music of the Civil War period^ 
and also to show what the managers of the Auditorium 
and Studebaker Theatre have done for the advance- 
ment of music in Chicago. The last two topics con- 
cern establishments still in existence and flourishing 
under their original managers^ but they serve to close 
the events of the half century. 

The story of the World's Fair music is a tragic one. 
Never was a musical scheme more nobly planned, and 
never did one promise to be richer in results. It was 
devised by the ablest, most sincere, and most con- 
scientious of American directors, endowed with nearly 
fifty years of experience, the pioneer of instrumental 
music in this country, and the acknowledged leader 
in national musical progress. He was given, as he 



THE WORLD'S FAIR MUSIC 295 

supposed^ absolute authority. His scheme, if it had 
been carried out, would have exhibited the worid's 
musical progress from the classical period to the pres- 
ent. He prepared an exhaustive repertory of vocal and 
instrumental music and collected a brilliant array of 
artists and composers for the performances. I have 
already shown in the personal sketch of Mr. Thomas 
how his plans were frustrated by the incompetency 
of some of his assistants, the ignorance of some of his 
official superiors, and the jealousy and greed of commer- 
cialism. His administration should have ended Octo- 
ber 11, with brilliant success, and it would have done so 
had he been left free to carry out his plans. But he 
was too proud to be dominated by ignorance, too honest 
to yield to commercialism, too honorable to insult a 
great artist. It closed August 11, when he laid down 
his baton and retired, grieved and disappointed. How 
bitter was his disappointment those closest to him only 
knew. With his resignation the splendid scheme col- 
lapsed like a bubble. From August 11 to October 11 
an acephalous musical crowd controlled the World's 
Fair music, and mediocrity reigned supreme. Mr. 
Thomas's enemies had triumphed, but, like Samson, they 
pulled down the temple of music, and the World's Fair 
musical scheme was buried in the ruins. 

The Bureau of Music was composed of Theodore 
Thomas, director ; William F. Tomlins, choral director ; 
and George H. Wilson, secretary. The dedicatory ex- 
ercises took place October 22, 1892. The interpreting 
force included 6670 singers, 190 orchestra players, fifty 
bands of fifty each, and fifty drummers. The musical 



296 MUSICAL MEMORIEB 

selectionB were the ^' Columbus Hymn and Maich/' for 
orchestra, military bands, and chorus, written for the 
occasion by Professor Paine of Harvard University; 
the music to Miss Harriet Monroe's ode, written by 
George W. Chadwick ; Mendelssohn's cantata ^ To the 
Sons of Art " ; Beethoven's Chorus ** In Praise of 
God"; and the patriotic numbers ^^ StarSpangled 
Banner" and ^^Hail Columbia/' As the music halls 
were not ready at the opening, May 1, 1893, the pro- 
gramme simply included Paine' s '^ liarch and Hymn " 
without chorus, and the overture to '^ Rienzi." Upon the 
same day the Board of Lady Managers celebrated the 
opening of the Woman's BuOding with a programme 
including a ^^ Jubilate " for mixed voices and orchestra^ 
by Mrs. H. H. A. Beach of Boston ; a grand march for 
orchestra by Frau Ingeborg von Bronsart of Weimar ; 
the ^^ Dramatic Overture " by Miss Frances EUicott of 
London; and the so-called national tune '^ America." 
The inaugural concert was given on the next day with 
the following dignified programme : 

1. Overture, "GoDaeoration of the Houfe*' BeethoTen 

2. CoQoerto in A minor, op. 17 FKleiewBld 

loNACB Jaw PAnaBawBKi 

3. The Unfiniflhed Symphony Schubert 

4. Nootume, prelude, m*surka, and berceuse Chopin 

loNACB Jam Padbbswbki 

5. Prelude to "The MeisterBingerB" Wagner 

Thus was Mr. Thomas's scheme introduced. The in- 
strumental forces which he utilized during his adminis- 
tration were the Boston Symphony Orchestra^ Franz 
Kneisel, leader ; New York Symphony Orchestra, Walter 
Damrosch, leader ; the Kneisel Quartette ; and his own 



^THE fiOCIimES AND 80L0IOTS 297 

bond. The following is a complete list of the vocal 
societies which took part : 

St Paul Choral Association and Minneapolis Choral Associ- 
ation, S, A. Baldwin, leader ; Cincinnati Festival Association, 
Theodore Thomas, leader; Apollo Club of Chicago, W.F. 
Tomlins, leader ; Milwaukee Aiion Club, Arthur Weld, leader ; 
St Louis Choral Association, Joseph Otten, leader ; Brook- 
lyn Arion Society, Arthur Claasen, leader; Lineff Russian 
Choir, J. y. HlavaO) leader; Oerman-American Women's 
Chonuh (}abriel Katsenbeiger, leader ; Oennan Liederkranz, 
New York, Heinrioh ZoeUner, leader; Cleveland vocal so- 
ciety, Alfred Arthur, leader ; Columbus Arion Club, W. H. 
Lott, leader ; Dayton Philhannonio Society, W. L. Blumen- 
schein, leader ; Louisville Musioal Club, L. A« Torrens, leader ; 
Pittsburg Mosart Club, J. P. McCuUum, leader;. Omaha 
ApoUo Club, L. A. Torrens, leader; Junger Mannerehor, 
Carl Samans, leader; American Union of Swedish Singers, 
John R. Osteigren, leader ; United Scandinavian Singers of 
America, J. W. Cdberg, leader ; Scottish Choral Union (led 
by Ifr. Thomas) ; Stoughton, Mass., Musioal Society (organ- 
ized in 1T86), L. Soule, leader ; Topeka Chorus, Oeoige Wil- 
der, leader ; Emporia, Kans., Chorus, William Rees, leader ; 
Abilene-SaUna^ Kans*, Chorus, M. H. Hewitt, leader ; Newton, 
Kans., Chorus^ Mrs. Gaston Boyd, leader; Leavenworth, 
Kans., Chorus, Mrs. S. W. Jones, leader ; Hutchinson, Kans., 
chorus, B* S. Hoagland, leader ; Lyon, Kans., Chorus, W. C. 
Little, leader; Sterling, Kans., Chorus, Ifr. Van Diemen, 
leader; and Chicago Columbian Chorus, W. L. TomUns, 
leader. 

The instmmental soloists were as follows : 

PianuiU. — Ignace Jan Paderewski, W. H. Sherwood, Fanny 
B. Zeisler, Emil LieUing, Carl Stasny, Rata Oskleston-Lippe, 
Anna Wallin, Ada McGregor, Rubinstein Demarest, H. M. 
Field, Neallie Stevens, and NealUe Beder-Crane. 



208 MUSICAL MEMORIBB 

rioUmiiU. — a M. Loeffler, Max Bendiz, Adolph Btodaky, 
Biohaid Arnold, Maud Powell, Geoige MacDonald, J. Abfaie 
Clarke, Theodore Spiering. 

'OeUiiU. — Alwin Sohroeder, Bruno Steindl. 

EarpUt$. — Edward Schuecker, Esmerald Cervantes^ M. 
Aptommaa. 

ClarinetuL — J. Schreura. 

FluUit. — Vigo Anderaen. 

The following ia a list of the vocal aoloiata : 

Soprano$. — Amalie Matema, Minnie Fish Griffin, Fdioe 
SjMohoska, Lilian BlauYelt, Agnes Thompson, Electa Gif- 
ford, Emma Juch, Oorinne Moore-Lawson, GencTra Jdiin- 
stone-Bishop, Lilian Riye, Jennie Dutton, Helen Buckley, 
Lilian .Noidica, PrisciUa White, Medora Hansen, Madame 
Suelke, Caroline Ostberg, Sigrid Wolf, Signe Hille, Augusta 
OhrBtrom-Renaid, Carrie Benainger, Mabel Munio» Marie W. 
Pobert, Ernestine Colton, S. G. Ford, Kate Bulla, Louise 
Nikita, Emma Heckla. 

C<nUralto$. — Katharine Fisk, Lena Little, Christine Nid- 
sen-Dreyer, Maiy Louise Clary. Belle I. Wr^t, Bella 
Tomlins. 

Ten&r$. — Edward Lloyd, Whitney Mockridge, Wilhelm 
Herold, Frank A. Dunham, Ben Dayies, Charles A. Knorr. 

Barjftonei. — George E, Holmes, Louis Ehrgott, Egon 
Eisenfaaum, C. F. Lindquist 

Ba$$o9. — Ericksen F. Bushnell, A. F. Maish, Emil Fischer, 
Gardner Lamson, Plunket Greene, Conrad Behrens, Orme 
d'Arval, W. A. (Goodrich, Thomas A. Morris. 

The symphonies performed were Beethoven's thirds 
fifth, and seventh; Schubert's Unfinished and ninth; 
Schumann's third and fourth; Mozart's G minor and 
'^Jupiter"; Brahms's fourth; Tschaikowskys fourth and 
fifth ; RafTs third, and Chadwick's second* The large 
vocal works were the "Elijah," "Creation/* "Mes- 
siah," " St. Matthew's Passion," " St. Riul," " Utrecht 



THB SBABON'S WORK 299 

Jubilate," '^Jadas Maocabsdus/' Berlioz's ^'Requiem/' 
Brahms's ^^ Gennan Beqtdem/' Rossini's ^^ Stabat Mater/' 
and the '^ Hymn of Praise." 

During the one hundred and three days of the 
Thomas administration^ one hundred and thirty-five 
concerts of a high class were given under his super- 
vision, which may be grouped as follows: Popular 
orchestral concerts, 53; Music Hall series, 34; Be- 
dtal Hall series, 4; in the Woman's Building, 3; 
American artist series, 2. As already said, Mr. Thomas 
retired August 11. Then followed a hodge-podge of 
shreds and patches. Max Bendiz was given charge 
of the orchestra, and Mr. Tomlins remained as director 
of the vocal forces. Bendix gave twenty-nine popular 
concerts and six with a string quartet, organized as 
follows: First violin, Bendix; second violin, Knoll; 
viola. Junker; 'cello, linger. There were eight so- 
called song-redtals by a group of Thompsons. I think 
they hailed from Kansas, but their locale matters little. 
The Apollo Club sang two or three times, and Tomlins 
mustered his children several times and put them 
through their paces. There were sixty-two organ con- 
certs by twenty organists, the best known of whom 
were Guilmant, Eddy, Whiting, Carl, Lang, Wild, 
Middelschulte, Thunder, and Coeme. But where one 
person listened to the organ peals, ten thousand hung 
around the band stands and cheered Inness and Sousa. 
At last the Line£E Russian choir, which had been off 
barn-storming, returned and gave one funereal concert, 
October 11, to a handful of people, which put an end to 
the musical muddle — a finale not worth a doxology. 



300 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

Thus doses the mournful story of the World^s Fair 
music tragedy. It is little wonder that at a later date, 
when the managers of the Louisiana Purchase Expo- 
sition at St. Louis invited Mr. Thomas to take the 
musical directorship he promptly but respectfully de- 
clined and advised them to confine their music to the 
band stands in the open air. 

The mere mention of the patriotic songs produced 
during the Civil War period recalls memories of Dr. 
Greorge F. Boot* He was a courteous, refined gentle- 
man of the old school, always wearing a genial smile, 
and the cheeriest of optimists. Witness the closing sen- 
tence in his autobiography: ^^My wife and I would 
be glad to be permitted to see our golden wedding-day, 
which will be in 1896, and still more, to look over into 
the twentieth century, which will be five years later; 
but if that cannot be, we will be thankful for the pleas- 
ant life we have lived here, and hope for a pleasanter 
and still more useful life hereafter.'* 

As a composer, Mr. Boot was of the school of Lowell 
Mason, Webb, Hastings, Bradbury, and those other 
pioneers whose names are closely connected with the 
old-fashioned singing schools, musical conventions, and 
normal institutes, — departments of the craft which 
have gradually given place to more modem methods. 
He was of Massachusetts birth and proud of it, as is 
every son of the Old Bay State. Bis early days were 
passed in North Beading, a charming old-fashioned 
village in Essex County noted in the old days as the 
scene of the witchcraft superstition, and in these days 




Georob p. Root 



DB. QEORQE F. ROOT 301 

as the only section of Massachusetts where real New 
Englanders or Yankees may be found. He began his 
musical career in 1838 as a choir singer and organist^ 
and a year later organized a singing school and became 
identified with institutes for the instruction of teachers 
and choir leaders. All this in Boston and its vicinity. 
In 1844 he went to New York and entered upon the 
same duties on a more extensive scale. In those days 
he belonged to a vocal quartette, which made such a 
successful appearance in a New York Philharmonic 
concert that Theodore Eisfeld, one of the pioneers of 
chamber music before Theodore Thomas and William 
Mason were in the field, wrote a quartet for them. In 
1850 he went to Europe, heard everything worth hear- 
ing, and made some valuable acquaintances in England 
who were of great service to him in after years. Back 
at his work in 1861, he began composing. Stephen C. 
Foster^s songs were all the rage at that time, and their 
success tempted him to enter the same field, which was 
not so overcrowded as it is now. '^ Hazel Dell '' (1862) 
was his first essay in this line, and this was followed 
by ^^Bosalie, the Prairie Flower." About this time 
he also produced a sacred song, ^^ Shining Shore,'' 
which is stUl a favorite. ^^ Hazel Dell" and ^'Bosa- 
lie" are now almost forgotten, except by old timers 
who lived in that period when it was not a crime to 
be sentimental. In those days Braham and Henry 
Bussell were here singing sentimental ditties, and I, 
for one, would be glad to hear them now if only 
Braham and Russdl were here to sing them. 
It was in 1868 that Towner, Dr. Boot's brother, and 



302 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

C. M. Oady, who for a time was leader of the Musical 
Union, started a music store in Chicago. Dr. Boot was 
a partner in the concern, and this brought him to Chi- 
cago about the year 1861, and from those days until 
the time of his death he was a citizen here, well known 
and esteemed by all. The outbreak of the Civil War 
induced him to produce patriotic songs, which appeared 
at intervals, inspired by contemporaneous events in the 
great struggle. His first song was, ^' The first Gun is 
fired," but it did not make much of a hit. When 
President Lincoln issued his second call for troops, ^^ The 
Battle Cry of Freedom " occurred to him as a motive 
for a Boag, while he was reading the document. He 
dashed it off hurriedly the next morning at the store. 
There was to be a public meeting on the same day in the 
Court House Square. Frank and Jules Lumbard, who 
were the singers laureate of the war period, came to the 
store to get something new to sing. The Doctor gave 
them ^^The Battle Cry." They ran it over once or 
twice, went to the meeting, and shouted it in their 
trumpet tones, and before the last verse was finished 
thousands joined in the refrain. It spread from that 
Square all over the country. It was heard in camps, on 
the inarch, upon the battle-field. It became the North- 
em Marseillaise. I heard it sung once under peculiar 
circumstances, when I was with the Mississippi River 
flotilla, acting as correspondent for ^^The Chicago Tri- 
bune." There was a transport in convoy of the fleet, 
with troops on board. One evening, as I sat upon the 
deck of the gunboat wondering what would happen 
next day, for the Confederates were in our immediate 



i 



it 



THE BATTLE CRY OF FREEDOM" 303 



vicinity behind strong batteries, I heard a dear tenor 
voice on the transport singing ^ The Battle Cry of Free- 
dom." As the singer's notes died away on the evening 
air, the response of ^^ Dixie " came across the water from 
an equally clear tenor. As soon aa he had ceased the 
first singer kept up the concert by a vigorous shout of 
the song which declares the intention of ^^ hanging Jeff 
Davis on a sour apple tree, as we go marching on/' 
And then all was silent for the night. There was no 
song of the war time that equalled '' The Battle Cry " 
in popularity and patriotic inspiration. I think it 
was more effective than Work's '^ Marching through 
Georgia/' for that was reminiscent of the past, while 
'^ The Battle Cry " was an appeal in a crisis. Dr. Boot 
wrote several other war songs, among which ^^ Tramp, 
tramp, tramp, the Boys are marching" was the best 
known. He also persuaded Henry Clay Work to utilize 

ft ^^^ 

his song-writing ability in the national cause. The 
success of P. P. Bliss, the ^^ sweet-singing " evangelist, 
was also largely due to his encouragement. 

Dr. Boot was not a composer of great music. He 
did not write what is known as the higher music. He 
has left nothing for the orchestra. He wrote popular 
music of the better class, and music which always 
served a useful purpose. His compositions may be 
divided into four groups : 1. Sentimental songs for the 
fireside and concert room, like " Hazel Dell," ^* Eosalie," 
*< The Vacant Chair," and " There is Music in the Air." 
2. War songs, like « The Battle Cry," « Tramp, tramp," 
and ^^Just before the Battle/' 3. Sacred songs, like 



304 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

^* I will lay me down in Peace/' " The Shining Shore,'* 
and hundreds of others for the Church and Sabbath 
School, which are even better known in England than 
in this country. 4. Cantatas for mixed voices, and 
Psalm-books ior choirs. 

The war songs have disappeared with the occasion 
which inspired them. He never attempted to write a 
national anthem. And this brings up the old question, 
Why is it that we have not a national anthem of our 
own ? It should be humiliating to the national pride 
that our ^' Star-Spangled Banner " is sung to the tune 
of an English tavern drinking song ; that '^ Columbia, 
the Gem of the Ocean," is borrowed from ^^ Britannia, 
the Pride of the Ocean " ; that the melody of '^ Hail 
Columbia" is of uncertain origin; that the tune of 
'^ America " came to us after it had done years of ser- 
vice in France and England ; and that '^ Yankee Doodle " 
may have been an English country dance, or a Dutch 
children's song, or a Magyar melody, or a Biscayan air, 
or an outgrowth from the vocal motive in Beethoven's 
Choral Symphony, — anything, indeed, except an Amer- 
ican melody. The English have their *^ Rule Britannia " 
and '^ God save the Queen " ; the French, their ^^ Mm- 
seillaise " and ^* Partant pour la Syrie " ; the Germans, 
their ^'Heil dir im Siegenkranz" and '^Wacht am 
Rhein " ; the Austrians, their ** Emperor's Hymn " ; the 
Dutch, their ^'Wilhelmus van Nassouwe"; the Rus- 
sians, their impressive chorale, '^God preserve Thy 
People"; the Swiss, their ^^Banz des Yaches"; the 
Danes, their '^King Christian stod," — all of home 
production. All of ours are borrowed. It is said that 



THE CHIGAQO AUDITORIUM 305 

natiopal anthems axe inspired when the moment comes. 
The moment is a long time coming. 

The thought of the massive Auditorium, with its 
great strong tower ^^ standing four square" to all the 
winds of heaven, was first conceived by Ferdinand W. 
Peck, and his indomitable energy and enlightened lib- 
erality, aided by a cohesion of public-spirited men, for- 
warded its construction and crowned the scheme with 
success. It was dedicated to art, December 9, 1889, 
amid scenes of exceptional brilliancy. The President 
and Vice-President of the United States, Benjamin 
Harrison and Levi P. Morton, who had been nominated 
within its walls before it was finished, left their official 
duties in Washington to honor the occasion with their 
presence, thus making it a national event. The gov- 
ernors of several States, prominent Canadian officials, 
the State, county, and city officials, and distinguished 
men and women from all parts of the country, were in 
attendance. France had the honor of furnishing the 
first music performed at the dedication ; M. Theodore 
Dubois, professor of composition in the Paris Conser* 
vatory and successor to M. Saint-Safins as organist at 
the Madeleine, contributed a ^'Triumphal Fantasie'' for 
organ and orchestra; and M. de la Tombell, at one time 
a pupil of Dubois, a ^^ Concert Fantasie " for organ solo. 
The other numbers were Mr. F. G. Gleason's scholarly 
setting in the form of a symphonic cantata for tenor 
solo, chorus and orchestra of Miss Harriet Monroe's 
Festival Ode, written for the occasion, Mr. Walter T. 
Boot taking the solo and the Apollo Club the choral 

20 



306 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

work ; the choroBes, '^ See the Oonquering Hero eomes/* 
^^The Heavens are telling/' from the "Creation," the 
'' Hallelujah Chorus '' from the '' Messiah/' and '' Amer- 
ica." Adelina Patti completed the programme by sing- 
ing ^ Home^ Sweet Home,'* and the familiar Swiss Echo 
Song for an encore. 

The dedication was followed by a four weeks' season 
of Italian opera presented by the Abbey* Gran, and 
Schoe£Eel opera troupe, which proved to be one of the 
most successful, musically and financially, ever given 
in this country. There was a spirited competition for 
choice of boxes, and generous premiums were paid, due 
in part to civic pride, in part to the cajoling eloquence 
of Franklin Head, the auctioneer. George IL Pullman 
got first choice for $1600 ; B. T. Crane, second, $1000 ; 
Marshall Field, third, $1000 ; Samuel Allerton, fourth, 
$1000 ; C. M. Cummings, fifth, $900 ; B. C. Nickerson, 
sixth, $800; S. M. Nickerson, seventh, $800; Otto 
Young, eighth, $700; Marshall Field, ninth, $700; 
George S. Walker, tenth, $800 ; C. W. Fuller, eleventh, 
$900; W. L. Peck, twelfth, $800. The remaining 
boxes were disposed of at premiums ranging from $700 
to $126, and nearly all the chairs in the parquet were 
taken at a fifty-dollar premium. It was a testimonial 
to the municipal patriotism of the four highest bidders 
that not one of them was particularly interested in 
musia 

The season opened December 10, with a performance 
of Gounod's ^' Borneo and Juliet," cast as follows : Juliet^ 
Mme. Patti; Stefano, Mme. Fabbri; Gertrude, Mile. 
Bauermeister ; Tybalt, Sig. Perugini; Benvolio, Sig. 



OPERATIC SEASONS AT THE AUDITORIUM 



307 



Bieletto ; Mercutio^ Sig. Del Puente ; P&ris^ Sig. Lueini ; 
Gregorioy Sig. Cemusco; Capulet^ Sig. de Yaschetti; 
Friar Laurence, Sig. Marcassa; Romeo, Sig. Ravelli; 
Conductor, Sig. Sapio. The crowning event of the 
season, however, was not ^^ Borneo and Juliet'' with 
Patti and Ravelli, but Verdi's " Otello " with Albani 
and Tamagno. It was performed January 2, 1890, and 
its cast should be preserved : Desdemona, Mme. Albani ; 
Emilia, Mme. Synneberg ; lago, Sig. Del Puente ; Cassio, 
Sig. Perugino ; Roderigo, Sig. Bieletto ; Lodovico, Sig. 
Gastelmary; Montano, Sig. de Yaschetti; Otello. Sig. 
Tamagno; Conductor, Sig. Arditi 

The following table gives the number and duration 
of operatic seasons from the dedication of the Audito- 
rium to the present time : 



Dee. 

March 

April 

Not. 

March 

Jan. 

April 

Nov. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

March 

Nov. 

Feb. 

March 

Nov. 

March 

Dec. 

April 

M^h 

Dee. 

April 

Ibkich 

March 

April 



10 
10 
21 

9 
12 
11 
15 
IS 
23 
22 
14 

7 
13 
20 
13 
12 
24 
22 
31 



7 
14 
20 

2 
IS 



,1880 
,1890 
,1890 
,1891 
,1894 
,1895 
, 1895 
,1895 
,1896 
,1897 
,1808 
,1808 
,1899 
,1899 
,1899 
,1900 
,1900 
,1901 
,1902 
20-21 
,1903 
,1904 
,1905 
,1906 
,1907 



Abbey, Schoeffel, and Qiau troupe . . . four 

Abbey, Schoeffel, and Grau troupe . . . one week 

Metropolitan Qerman troupe three weeks 

Abbey, Schoeffel, and Qrau troupe . . . five weeks 

Abb^, Schoeffel, and Qrau troupe . . . four weeks 

Abb^, Schoeffel, and Qrau troupe . . . three weeks 

Damrosch troupe one week 

Damrosch troupe two weeks 

Abbey, Schoeffel, and Grau troupe . . . two weeks 

Abb^, Schoeffel, and Qrau troupe . . . four weeks 

Damrosch and Ellis Combination .... two weeks 

Maurice Grau troupe three weeks 

EIUs Opera troupe two weeks 

New Orleans French opera troupe .... one week 

Maurice Grau troupe three weeks 

New Orleans French opera troupe .... three weeks 

Savage Metropolitan English troupe . . . two weeks 

Maurice Qrau troupe one week 

Maurice Qrau troupe two weeks 

Mascagni's troupe two performances 

Maurice Grau troupe two weeks 

Oonried troupe two weeks 

Gonried troupe one week 

Gonried troupe one week 

San Garb troupe one week 



308 



MUSICAL MEMORIES 



April 8, 1007 OoniMd troupe 

Jan. 20, 1008 San Cario troupe threeweeks 

April 20, 1008 Oonried troupe 



It will be seen from this table that opera seasons 
during the last eight years have not only been less fre- 
quent, but that they have steadily diminished in length. 
During these nineteen years there have been 278 per- 
formances of opera in the Auditorium* Seventy-nine 
different operas have been presented, eighteen of them 
for the first time in this city. The following list of 
these operas may prove valuable for reference. The 
star indicates operas given for the first time here : 



nntTioM 



No. 01 PfltfORIIMfeOM 



Romeo and Juliet Dee. 10, 

William TeU Deo. 11, 

Fau0t Dec. 12, 

nTrovatore Dec. 13, 

Lucia di Lammermoor Deo. 14, 

Alda Deo. 16, 

Seminunide Dec. 17, 

Martha Deo. 21, 

Huguenote Dec. 23, 

Tnyiata Dec 24, 

Sonnainbula Deo. 27, 

^OtheHo Jan. 2, 

Baiber of Seville Jan. 4, 

Pinafore Feb. 10, 

MikMlo Feb. 20, 

Pirates of Pensance Mareh S, 

L'Africaine Mareh 10, 

Linda Mareh 11, 

*Lakine Mareh 13, 

♦flalammbo Mareh 14, 

TannhAueer April 21, 

Meiateninger April 23, 

LaJuive April 24, 

Lohengrin April 26, 

MadndBaU April 28, 

Fljring Dutchman April 29, 

Fidelio April 30, 

*Queen of Sheba May 1, 

Norma May 2, 

*Barber of Bagdad May S, 

*LaPoap6e May 6, 



889 
880 
889 



889 
889 
889 
889 
889 
889 
889 
890 
890 
890 
890 
890 
890 
890 
890 
890 
890 
890 
890 
890 
890 
890 
890 
890 
890 
890 



IS 

5 

38 

17 

15 

20 

4 



22 

6 

3 

8 

10 

32 

16 

5 

5 

1 

1 

3 

10 

6 

6 

27 

2 

1 

2 

6 

2 

3 

6 



AUDnORIUM STATISTICS 



309 



Don Gfovaont 

Walkiiere 

lolanthe 

Trial by Jttiy 

Patienoe 

Ounmi 

Bohemian Giri 

*Orpheiu 

Dinmh 

Rigoletto 

Hlgnon 

Gavalleria Rusticaiia . . 
PhDemon and Baucis . . 

TheBasoche 

Marriage of Figaro . . . 
Hamlet (fourth act) . . . 

I Pagliaod 

♦Werther 

*Falstaff 

Tristan and Isolde . . . 

Siegfried 

Der FreischQts 

QOtterdfimmerung . . . 

*La NavariBise 

^Mefistofele 

♦Lead 

La Boh^e 

La Favorita 

♦Sigurd 

♦Manon 

♦Eameialda » 

LaTosca 

MagioFhite 

♦Ifanru 

Rheingold 

Daughter of the Regiment 

Don Pasquale 

The Prophet 

The Elixir of Love . . . 
The GondolieiB 



LaGiooonda . . . 
Fledermaus . . . 
♦Hansel and Gretel 
Madame Butterfly 
Robin Hood . . . 
Serenade . . . . 



May 
May 9 

Sept. 15 
Sept. 18 
Sept. 25 
May 4 
May 6 
Nov. 11 
Nov. 18 
Nov. 25 
Nov. 30 
Deo. 4 
Dec. 26 
Jan. 2 
March 14 
Maroh27 
March 28 
March 29 
March 14 
April 17 
April 18 
Nov 26 
Nov. 27 
March 31 
March 3 
March 8 
Feb. 13 
Maroh24 
March 26 
March 27 
Dec. 31 
April 24 
April 3 
April 5 
April 7 
April 7 
April 16 
April 17 
March 23 
Jan. 25 
March21 
March 24 
March 27 
April 4 
April 10 
March 23 
April 12 
April 25 



1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1891 
1891 
1891 
1891 
1891 
1891 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1894 
1894 
1894 
1895 
1895 
1895 
1895 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1897 
1899 
1899 
1900 
1900 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1902 
1902 
1908 
1903 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1908 
1906 



9 

13 

4 

16 

4 

37 

16 

1 

1 

9 

7 

27 

6 

3 

6 

1 

13 
1 
2 
8 
10 
1 
4 
3 
1 
2 
3 
1 
1 
2 
1 
4 
4 
1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
1 
1 
2 
3 
1 
2 
1 
20 
10 
1 



An analysis of these statistics has a direct bearing 
upon a vexed question. There has been much complaint 



310 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

of late becauM managen repeat old operas, espe- 
cially ** Faust," "Carmen/' "CavaDeria Rusticana," 
"Huguenots/' "Aida,'' and "Trovatore/' and n^lect 
new works. The aboye table seems to furnish adequate 
explanation of their policy. It will be conceded that 
managers are not presenting operas from sentimental or 
educational motives. Their object is purely commercial. 
They find out what the public wants and will pay for. 
They would just as cheerfully produce new operas as 
old ones if the public desired them. They cost but little 
more. The salary list remains the same. The prin- 
cipals furnish their own costumes. Any old costumes 
will do for the chorus people and supernumeraries. The 
difference in the cost of producing new and old operas 
would not be considered if the public were clamoring 
for the former. Now, what does the table show ? The 
operas most frequently performed have been the six 
against which certain people have so stoutly protested. 
They have been the " best sellers," the money-makers. 
Of the eighteen new ones given in the Auditorium 
ten failed to pay expenses, and the other seven hardly 
warranted more than one or two presentations. Appar- 
ently, then, it is the fault of the public, and not of the 
manager, that old operas are given so frequently. This 
is not encouraging from the art point of view, but so 
long as opera is dominated by fashion and society there 
is little hope of change. Beethoven is the greatest 
master of all times, and yet his "Fidelio" has been 
given but twice in nineteen years at the Auditorium. 
Massenet and Saint-Saens are the greatest of contem- 
porary French composers, and their operas were not 



AUDrrORIUM ASSOCIATION 311 

wanted a second time. Paderewski is the most eminent 
of living pianists. His opera^ ^' Manru/' was given once 
to a handful of people. But ^' Faust '' and ^^ Huguenots " 
and '^ Carmen " go on like the brook, and apparently, 
like the brook, may go on forever. 

The Auditorium was abo the home of the Theodore 
Thomas orchestra from its first concert in 1893 until it 
dedicated its own hall, December 14, 1904, with the 
assistance of the Apollo Club and Mendelssohn Club, 
and many there are who still look longingly back to 
the old home placa It was also the home of the Apollo 
Club from the time of its opening until the season of 
1907-1908. The Apollo Club has been a hall-opener 
on many occasions. It christened Standard Hall in 
1872, Kingsbury Hall in 1873, McCormick Hall in the 
same year, and assisted in the opening of the Auditorium 
in 1889, and Orchestra Hall in 1904. The Auditorium 
has also been used for the brilliant charity balls, great 
political meetings and conventions, concerts, spectacles, 
social entertainments, church services, and the drama. 

Mr. Milward Adams has been its manager from the be- 
ginning, and to his able administration of its affairs is due 
its success. He came to the Auditorium amply equipped 
for his work. His active participation in the musical 
events of Chicago began in 1871, immediately after the 
great fire, in association with Mr. George B. Carpenter. 
Not long after Mr. Carpenter's death he took charge of 
the Central Music Hall, and also managed the never- 
to-be forgotten Summer Garden concerts given by Mr. 
Thomas in the old Exposition Building on the Lake 
Front. He was also Mr. Thomas's business agent for 



312 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

twelve years on the road. He managed the brilliant 
Mapleson operatic festival^ and the two great festiyals 
of 1882 and 1884. In 1889 he undertook the manage- 
ment of the Auditorium, and is still at his desk, nearing 
the twentieth year of his service. He has been con- 
nected with all the great musical enterprises of Chicago 
for thirty-seven years ; and, as I have been on terms of 
intimacy with him during that period, I know whereof 
I speak when I claim for him a leading position in the 
advancement of music and art in Chicago. An honest, 
intelligent, fearless, energetic, and resolute manager is 
an indispensable factor in the problem of the success of 
any scheme, and such Mr. Adams has always proved 
himself. Without such a promoter behind it, to coun- 
sel and control, the highest artistic endeavor may fail. 
Whatever Mr. Adams has undertaken has succeeded, 
and, as nearly all that he has undertaken has assisted 
in Chicago's artistic advancement^ Chicago owes him a 
debt of gratitude. 

The Studebaker Theatre is the home of English opera 
in Chicago, though the so-called grand operas have 
frequently been presented upon its stage. It is but one 
feature of the Fine Arts Building, and the Fine Arts 
Building is the accomplishment of Mr. Charles C. Cur- 
tiss. It is a hive of busy workers in music, painting, 
sculpture, literature, and the arts and crafts. Its various 
cells house the theatre, the music hall, the assembly hall, 
the Amateur Musical Club, the Fortnightly Club, the 
Caxton Club, '^ The Dial," the only high-class literary pe- 
riodical in the country, and many other associations of 



A REAL HOUSE OF CULTURE 313 

an artistic character, and the studios of a small army 
of busy workers in beautiful things. Mr. Gurtiss's busi- 
ness experiences fitted him to undertake a project of 
this kind, and his executive ability, refined taste, and 
artistic instincts have made it a success. He is a 
native of Chicago, and his father was twice mayor of 
the city in its early days. His whole life has been 
identified with music. He began his business career 
as a derk in the house of Lyon and Healy, and re- 
signed that position to become manager of the Boot 
and Sons Music Company. Subsequently he became 
identified with a prominent piano house, and during 
his administration as manager and president of the 
company, he built a music hall in connection with his 
business. It was this hall which suggested to him 
the idea of constructing a building which should at- 
tract the literary and artistic workers of the city, 
making for them an abiding home, and confining it 
strictly to the uses for which the building was in- 
tended. Thus from roof to basement it is filled with 
what is somewhat tritely called ^^the good, the true, 
and the beautiful," and no sordid or unclean things 
are allowed entrance. Though not a musician himself, 
Mr. Curtiss is one of the charter members of the 
Apollo Club, and was its first secretary. His whole 
life has been spent in the advancement of art in Chi- 
cago, and he has had the satisfaction of living to 
witness the rich fruition of his lofty ideals and to 
enjoy the rewards of his honorable struggle in the 
attachment of a host of friends and the success of 
undertaking. 



314 MUBIOAL MEMORIES 

The Studebaker Theatre was dedicated September 29^ 
1895, as the Studebaker Hall, and was opened as a 
theatre in the first week of April, 1899, by the 
Castle Square Opera Company with a performanoe of 
^' Faust/' As in the case of the Auditorium, ^* Faust,*' 
'^ Trovatore," and ^'Carmen" liead the list of grand 
operas in the number of performances, but for some 
curious reason the Studebaker*s patrons do not care 
much for the tragic wooing of Valentine and Raoul, 
or the heroism of Marcel, as the '^ Huguenots '* has 
had but a single hearing. Perhaps they have become 
too accustomed to the bright and cheery Studebaker 
repertory to be harrowed by the honors of Saint 
Bartholomew's Eve. Since 1899, eighty-eight differ- 
ent works of a musical character have been performed 
in the theatre, besides a large number of dramas and 
many concerts. These eighty-eight works may be 
grouped as follows : Grand operas, 28 ; light operas, 40 ; 
musical comedies, 20; and all in English. The fol- 
lowing is a list of the operas usually classed as grand^ 
with the number of performances of each : 

Faust, II times ; Carmen, II ; II Trovatore, 10 ; Martha, 9 ; 
A'ida, 7 ; Lohengrin, 6 ; Cavslleria Rusticana, 6 ; Romeo and 
Juliet, 4 ; Lucia, 4 ; Tannhauser, 4 : La Tosca, 4; OtheUo, 8 ; 
Mignon, 8: Fra Diavolo, 2; La Bohdme, 2; I Pagliaooi, 2; 
Rigoletto, Sonnambala, Der FreisohiitE, Tiaviata, Flying 
Dutchman, Oiooonda, Don Oiovanni, and Huguenots, 1 each. 

The light operas which have been given are as 
follows : 

Bohemian Oirl, 8 timM; Mikado, 6; Chimes of Nor- 
jnuuly, 4; Brminie, 8; Tarantella, 8; Beggar Student, 8.; 



THE 8TUDEBAKER 316 

El Gapitaii, 8; Wadding Day, 2; Don Pasquale, 2; Piiates 
of Pensanoe, 2 ; Boocaooio,2; Quean's Lace Handkerchief, 2 ; 
Pinafore, 2; Gipay Baron, Trial by Jury, Daughter of the 
Regiment, The Gbndoliers, lolanthey Maritana, Fledermaus, 
Lily of Killamey, Pygmalion and Gralatea, Black Huzzar, 
Nanon, Maaoot, Billee Taylor, Trip to Africa, Oirofl^ Oirofla, 
Little Tycoon, The Biiganda, Merry Monarch, Lady Slavey, 
Rob Roy, Prince Bonnie, Olivette, Patience, Wizard of the 
Nile, and Falka, 1 each. 

The vogue of the musical oomedy is clearly indi- 
cated by the number of performances of these extrava* 
ganzas, which are ^^ neither musical fish, fleshy nor 
good red herring/' The list is as follows: 

King Dodo, 282 times ; Prince of Pilaen, 184 ; Peggy from 
Paris, 120 ; Sultan of Sulu, 101 ; Shogun, 96 ; Woodland, 74 ; 
Girl and Banditi 72 ; Yankee Consul, 66 ; Mayor of Tokio, 66 ; 
Student King, 48 ; Flower Oirl, 48 ; Cingalee, 40 ; The Other 
Oirl, 40 ; The Hoyden, 40 ; Rose of the Alhambra, 82 ; Two 
Little Oirls, 82 ; Miss Pocahontas, 82 ; Man from Now, 24 ; 
Yankee Tourist, 24 ; The Winning Girl, 16 ; Ten Girls, Isle 
of Champagne, Tar and Tartar, Petticoats and Bayonets, and 
Ping Pong, 1 each. 

The Auditorium is the home of grand opera in 
Italian, French, and German. The Studebaker is the 
home of opera given in English. Other theatres have 
occasional performances of opera, but they are princi- 
pally devoted to the drama. The brilliant manner in 
which operas have been produced in the Studebaker 
again suggests the possibility that the strong belief of 
Theodore Thomas and Anton Seidl in the practical 
success of operas given in English may yet be realized 
upon a larger and more comprehensive style than 
either of these great conductors imagined. It is 



316 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

well known that Seidl was contemplating saoh a 
scheme, but it was interrupted by his untimely death* 
Theodore Thomas in his American opera season dem- 
onstrated that it was practical from the musical point 
of view. That his scheme failed, was due to business 
management for which he was in no way responsible. 
That it is feasible, Mr. Savage has also shown upon 
the Studebaker stage, and that American singers may 
cope with foreign singers in works of the highest 
class he has also demonstrated by his remarkable pro- 
duction of ^^ Parsifal" on the stage of the Olinob 
Theatre. 



CHAPTER XXn 



POSTLUDE 



I HAVE now perhaps sufficiently recorded in these 
<< Memories'' what the pioneers of music in Chicago, 
those who have borne ''the burden and heat'' in 
preparing the way for its development, have done for 
the art, as well as the important service which has been 
rendered by the great artists who have visited us. 
Among these pioneers I would assign a leading position 
to Julius Dyhrenfurih, George Davis, Frank and Jules 
G. Lumbard, John Hubbard, John G. Shortall, Edward 
S. Stickney, Edward I. Tinkham, John Y. Le Moyne, 
Otto Matz, Henry Ahner, Canon Enowles, Charles C. 
Curtiss, Edward G. Newell, Charles W. Hamill, Philo A. 
Otis, Adolph W. Dohn, Theodore Thomas, Hans Balatka, 
Carl Wol&ohn, George R Boot, William Lewis, William 
L. Tomlins, Fritz Foltz, Frederick Grant Gleason, 
Heman F. Allen, Silas G. Pratt, C. M. Cady, Carl E. R 
Mueller, George B. Carpenter, H. Clarence Eddy, and 
Dudley Buck. It would be pleasant also to dwell upon 
the important services still being rendered to the cause 
of music in Chicago by such trained and active workers 
as Dr. Florence Ziegfeld, Louis Falk, John J. Hatt- 
staedt, William S. B. Matthews, Emil Liebling, Freder- 
ick W. Root, Henry S. Perkins, Adolph Bosenbecker^ 



318 MUSICAL MEMORIES 

William H. Sherwood^ Harriflon Wild, Bemhard Ziehn^ 
William Castle, Frank T. Baird, Arthur Dunham, 
Clarence Dickinson, Wilhelm Middelschulte, Clayton F. 
Summy, Frederick J. Wessells, and Frederick Stock. 
These, however, still have their shoulders to the wheeL 
Some of them are growing gray in the service, hut they 
are still actively at work. They helong to the present, 
with which memory has no concern. 

With those who have passed away and with those 
who have retired I have been somewhat closely asso- 
ciated, and it has been pleasant to live over the days 
when '^ Music, heavenly maid, was young/' It is 
none the less pleasant, however, to be ^^ a looker-on in 
Venice " and watch the work of the toilers to-day, than 
it is to recall the work of the toilers of yesterday. As 
I sit by contented with this congenial task, I reflect 
that fifty years from now some chronicler may tell the 
story of another half-century, and thus preserve the 
century's history of music in Chicago and perhaps re- 
cord results more marvellous than any one can now 
conceive. 

In these ^'Memories'' my readers have been made 
acquainted with all the great artists who have visited 
Chicago and some who have not, with their triumphs and 
failures, their habits, peculiarities, jealousies, and quar- 

They have also been told the story of music in Chicago 
from its humble beginnings, more than seventy years 
ago, wellnigh to the present time. If I have written 
enthusiastically about the past, it is because I belong to 
it and have been closely associated with its musical 



POSTLUDB 819 

aoeompUshments. It has been a labor of love for me 
to tell the story^ though nearly ^^all^ all are gone, the 
old &miliar &oe8.'' I am not one of thoae, however, 
who believe the old times were the best times or that 
all the giants lived in those days. There have been 
brave soldiers since Agamemnon as well as before. 
But I do firmly believe that the labor of these jnoneers 
has made it easier for those who have followed them. 
They broke the ground and planted the seed. The 
work was rough and hard, and sometimes discouraging, 
and some did not live to reap any reward for their sow- 
ing, but passed away disappointed. Others have lived 
to see Chicago become a great musical centre. To the 
rising generation most of the artists mentioned in these 
'^ Memories " may not be more than the shadow of a 
name, but they have played an important part in the 
city's musical history. To those of the older generation 
their names will recall old associations, youthful enthu- 
siasms, and delightful recollections. But the past is 
past and the future is yet to be seen. The days which 
we reach, crowned with fruition, are no more pleasing 
than those with bright prospects in view. I make no 
doubt there will be other Pattis and Parepas, Marios 
and Brignolis, Richters and Thomases, that great 
operas and oratorios will be written, and that great 
symphonies will be produced worthy to rank with the 
immortal ones of Beethoven and Mozart, for the ways 
of the gods are full of providence, and that the musical 
future of Chicago will be greater than its past or 
present, notwithstanding its increasing materialism and 
commercialism. 



320 MUSIGAL MEMORIES 

In recalling the events of this long period I feel that 
I have been fortunate to have been permitted so many 
years of enjoyment and am glad that I can appreciate 
what is now being done for the advancement of muoc. 
I hope also to live many years yet^ to witness the 
great strides which mtiaic may make, for, like Andrew 
Cam^e, << I am not hankering for heaven." So I am 
thankful for the present with its accomplishments and 
the future with its promises, and yet as I lay down the 
pen and cast a longing look backward, once more the 
refrain of the old, old song haunts me : 

<< Ah I the days when we went gypsying, 
A long lime aga" 



INDEX 



INDEX 



Abbbt, 40, 170, 171 

Abbey, Qrau, and Sohoeffel opera 
troupe, 306, 307 

Abb^ Troupe, 262 

Abbott, Emiiui, 117, 150 

f Abbott kiss," 117 

Aben, Q. P., 258 

Abelli, bfti7tone.233 

AbOene-Saliiia (Kads.) Chorus, 297 

Abt, Fians, 200, 204 

Aoftdemy of Music, New York, 105 

Adams, Charies R., 130, 233, 266 

Maude, 150 

Milward. 311, 312 

Admission, nrst time charged in 
Chicago, 213 

Advertisement of "Jenny lind 
shawls," 21, 22; of Waohtel, 128; 
ctf the Campanalogians and of 
Spalcfinc, Risers, and Hanlon's 
Cmus, l29; oif Mr. Bowers's en- 
tertainment, Chicagp, 1834, 213, 
214; of Sig. MarBnes' concert, 
221 

f Africaine, L'," 93, 100, 165, 178, 
242, 243, 308 

f 'Ah I fon e lui," from "Traviato," 
39 

f Ahl non giunge," from "Sonnam- 
bula," 35, 39 

Ahner, Henry, 50, 64, 260, 261, 271, 
317 

"Alda," 104, 107, 126, 178, 261, 308, 
310, 314 

Aiken's Theatre, 79 

Aim^, 154, 170, 172 

AUimo, Caroline, 231 

Albani, 117, 175. 251, 307. SeeaUo 
Lajeunesse, Mile., and Qye, Mme. 

Aibani's (Bfme.) troupe, 227 

Albions, musical family, 223 

Alboni, Marietta (Countess Pepoli), 
26, 29, 30, 33, 43 

Albrechtj 54 

"All we hke Sheep have gone astray," 
202 



Allcghanians, minstrel troupe, 223 
Allen, Heman F., 317 

William R. . 287 

Allerton, Samuel, 306 
"Allmacht," Schubert, 290 
Amateur Musical dub, 312 
Ambr6, 118, 252 
"America," 296, 304, 306 
American Opera Company, 190 
American Opera Troupe, 133, 262 
American Union of Swedish Singers, 

297 
Amid, clarinet, 181 
Amodio» 131, 165, 234, 236 

, the elder, 229 

Alvary, 130, 268 

"Always More," Seifert, 289 

Anastasi, Sig., 242 

Andersen, Yigo, 298 

"Angel's Serenade," 116 

Announcements, managerial, 128, 

129 
Anschuts, Carl, 142, 181 
Antonucd, 246, 247 
Anvil Chorus, 199 
Apollo Club of Boston, 286 
Apollo Musical Club of Chicago, 267, 

274, 286-293, 297, 299, 306, 311, 

313 
Appel, Jennie, 247 
Aptommas, M., 298 
Arfouckle, cometist, 196, 199, 246 
Arditi, 146, 178, 227, 307 
"Arkansas Traveller, The," 66, 92 
Ailinffton's Minstrels, 286 
Amoul, with Durand troupe, 136 

Richard, 298 

Amoldi, double bass, 181 

tenor, 227 

Arthur, Alfred, 297 

Arthurson. tenor, 50 

"Artists' Association, The," 227 

Artists' Fund, 174 

"Artist's Life," Johann Strauss, 202 

Astor Place Opera House, 47, 161, 165 

Auber, 27, 31 



824 



INDEX 



Anditoriiim, CliingD, 41, 43, 44, 
236, 261, 252, 204, 306-312, 314, 
316 

AntogmplM, 144, 204, 206 

"Aye Maria,'' Oounod, 190 

Bacb's Mmb in B Minor, 207 

BMh's SuKe in B Minor, 207 

"BMsio, n," 142 

BMiiaa, barytone, 28 

Baini, FnuaL T., 318 

Belur Familj, 223 

Balatka, Hani, 234, 262-268, 273- 

278, 284, 317 
Baldwin, 8. A., 207 
f'Ballo en Maediera, Un" ("The 

Maaked BaU")i 234, 230, 243, 

247 308 
"Bambouto/' Qottachalk, 76 
Band, fint in Chieaco, 210 
Bandini, Lavinia, 1x2 
Banfi, 246 

"Banjo," Qottachalk, H 
Banks, General, 106 
Banti, baaao, 231 
Banyon, Juatice, 166, 167 
Baradi, Signor, 246 
"BaSe Bleue," 163 
"Barber of Bagdad, The," 308 
f Barber of Seville, The," 42, 136, 

220,236,308 
Barili, 34, 236, 246 

Antonio, 34, 48 

Ettoie, 220 

Barili-Patti, Gatarina (Cataiina 

Chieaa), 34, 36, 37 
Bamabee, 146, 140 
Bamabee concert troupe, 146, 286 
Bamuin, P. T^ 18, 10, 32, 36, 40, 210 
Barnr, Flora E., 148 
Bartlett, Jeane, 140. 160. Se$ alto 

Davia, Jeaaie Bartlett 
Bartoli, baaaoon. 181 
"Baaoche, The,'^ 300 
Baaaoa in grand opera, 120, 121, 131 
Bateman cMdren, 22 
Bateman conoerta, 242 
Bateman, H. L., 142, 246 
Bates, Qeoige C, 230 
!* Battle Cry of Freedom, The," Root, 

232 302 303 
f 'Battle Hymn of the Republic, The," 

201 
"Battle March," Brignoli, 02, 124 
"Battle of Prapie," 212 
Bauenneister, Mile., 306 
Baumbach, Adolf, 266 
Beach, Mrs. H. H. A., 206 



di Tettk," 47 
Beaobien,- Jean Baptbte, 212 
Maik, Chieago'a early fiddler, 

211, 212 
Beaupian New Oileane Troupe, 

252 
Becker, Paul, 240, 264, 266, 276 
"Bedelia." 148 
Beebe, Mn. May, 140 
Beecfaer, Lyman, 220 
"Beer eritacwn," 82 
Beethoven, 27, 77, 70, 82, 101, 102, 

310 
Beethoven Society, Chicago, 267, 

201-203 
Beethoven'a buat in fJncoln Paik, 

Chieago, 201 
Beethoven'a concerto, 260 
Beethoven'a ^shth oymphony, 207 
Beethoven'a Fnth symphony, 200, 

260,266,208 
Beethoven'a Maaa in C, 202 
Beethoven'a Maas in D Major, 207 
Beethoven'a Ninth aymplKmy, 186, 

207, 200, 267 
Beethoven'a Second symphony, 63, 

263 
Beethoven'a Seventh symphony, 208 
Beethoven'a Sixth symphony, 268 
Beethoven'a Third symphony, 200, 

260 208 
Beethoven'a Trio, op. 10, 280 
Beethoven'a trio in G, op. 1, no. 2, 

for violina, 276 
"Beggar Student, The," 314 
Behrena. Conrad, 208 
Mile., soprano, 230 

gianist, 76 
., 130 
Bdetti, baiytone, 18 
BeU, Digby, 148, 160 

Rose, 163 

"Belle H^fene, La," Offenbach, 162, 

168 
Bellini. 131, 238-240, 246 
Bendel, Frana, 200, 204, 206 
Bendiz, Max, 208, 200 
Benedetti, 161 
Benedict, Sir Julius, 18, 24 
Benita, John. 148 
Bennett, William Stemdale, 276 
Benaing, Jacob, 267 
Benainger, Carrie, 208 
"Beroeuae," Gottachalk, 76 
Beiger, 221 
Bergmann, Cari, 62-66, 181, 184, 

186, 230, 246, 268, 260 
Beigstdn, Cari, 200 



INDEX 



826 



BeilioB, 19. 27, 164» 166, 192 
Beriios'8 Hymn, op. 26, 206 
Beriioii's <'Reqinem," 299 
Bernard, 249 
Mn. (Ouoline Riehiop), 140, 

247 

Fiem, 246 

Bernhardt, 170 

Bernstein, yiolinirt, 181 

Besig, Tioiinirt, 181 

"Beware," Gersehner, 289 

Bialetto, 178 

Bichel, violinist, 276 

Bieletto, Sigttor, 307 

"BiUeeTa^^'315 

Biography of Theodore Thomas, 187 

Birmiiuham festivals, 133 

Bisohoff, Alexander, 88, 266, 277, 

284 2990 
Bishop. Anne, 27, 112-114, 223 

sir Henry, 112 

Bismarck, 94 

Biiet, 101 

"BhMdE Crtwic, T^" 156, 249 

"Blaek Domino, The," 142 

"BhMdE-Eyed Susan,'' 220 

"Black Huiiar, The," 316 

Blakely, Mrs. Cf., 271 

Blakely family, 223 

Blauvelt. Lilian, 298 

"BUnd Tom," 86 

Bhas, P. P., 308 

Bliflse, C, 214 

Blits, BiffKX, 223 

"Blue Danube," Johaim Strauss, 202 

Blumenschein, W. L., 297 

Board of Lady Ifanagen, Gbiumbian 

EwMition, 296 
Bob Acres, Jefferson as, 217 
"Boccaccio," 316 
Bochsa. harpist, 112 
Bode, B. August, 220, 266 
"Boh^me, La," 309, 314 
f'Bohemian Oiri, m," 137, 139, 

140. 146, 146, 231, 232, 309, 314 
Boielaieu, 27 
Boone, Dr. Levi D., 273 
Booth, 221 
Bordoni, 109 
B<»nuii, baiytone. 136 
Boschetti, Leonilda, 242 
Boston Orand Equestrian Arena, 

The, 216 
Boston Handel and Haydn Society, 

64, 223. 284 
Boston Ideals, 149 
Boston Menddssohn Quintette dub, 

64, 71, 243 



Boston symphony Ordiestra, 268, 

296 
Boston Tea Party, survivor of, 222 
Bostonians, The, 146, 147. 149 
Bostwiok, Eknma Qillingham, 834, 

266 
Botsford, flutist, 220 
Bouchsland, 228 

"Bouquet of Artiste," Qifattore's, 200 
Bowen, Frank A., 149, 287-289 
Bowers, Mr., 213, 214 



Bowler, Annie Kemp, 199 
231 



Brookhouse 



Bmp, ] 
,186, 



137, 139, 142, 



B^yd, If n. Oaston, 297 

Bqyle's, Bffljr JChiM^ 264 

B<^ton, W. W., 287 

Bradbury, 300 

Braoa, 116 

BrsEam. 301 

Brahmrs Fourth symphony, 298 

Brafams's "German Requiem," 299 

Brahma's Rhapsodie, 208 

Brandini, Sg., 242 

Brandt, 262 

Brausen, tenor, 61 

Brienti, EHse, 226 

"Brigands, The," 316 

Briggs House Concerte, Ghioago, 264 

Brignoli, 36, 48, 49, 67, 87, 92, 100, 

121-126, 142, 146, 162, 166, 172, 

176, 229, 230, 232, 233, 286, 243, 

247 
"Britannia, the Pride of the Ooean," 

304 
British Bbndes. 16^167 
Brodsky, Adolpli. 298 
Brooklyn Arion Sodety, 297 
Brooks. THUiam, from Lcmdon, 212 

Mis. William, 212 

Brown, Edwin, 287 

family of Providenee, 23 

Hattie, 231 

Iinpgene, 88 

J. El, 274 

Theodore P., 287, 290 

W. H., 216 

Bruckner's Unfinished 8|yn^liony, 

206 
"BrOnnen Wunderba%" Abt, 267 
Bryan HaU, Chicago, 196, 234, 262, 

263 
Bryant, Jerry, 138 
Buck. Dudknr, 130, 277, 317 
BucU^, HeMn, 298 

lu*., museum manacer, 222 

Buderi>ach, William, violinist, 267, 

264, 266 



826 



Bun, Ok, 85, 38, 89, 47, 87-64, 78, 

180, 108, 221, 222 
Bofdeil, NiohdM, 210 
BuiMU of If uiic, Golumbiaa Expo- 

Mon. 206 
Burke, Joaeph, 221 
Burinr, A. Q., 220 

A. H., 220 

k Co.'§ boointoie, ChioMo, 266 

Builiitftoii Hall, Ghioago, 286 

Bumeiitor, MBe., 110, 131 

Burtis, flftffgeant, of Fori Deubom, 

GlikMup,213 
Bofhneff, Eriokwn F., 208 
BoUwfleld, J. A., 284 

J. IL, 106 

rButterfly. Uadum,'' 300 

f By Babe's Wave," Qouood, 201 

G4DT, G IL, 271. 302, 317 
CUvmet old •eiUen' dub, 212 
Qkly4, 170 

'*Ouiip in Sileda," llmrbeer, 18 
CaMnpanaiggJang, Tho, 120 
Cbmpanini, Italo, 40, 107, 125-127, 

130, 175, 208, 261 
CSMnpannJQglani, minrtral ircmpe, 

Gbmpbell, 8. C, 138, 130, 246. 266 
Otfufidttfl, Wimam, 61, 130, 208, 267 
OaoiaM, alto, 128, 236, 242, 243 
f'Ctoitan, M,"316 
Gbpoul, 40, 126, 127, 130, 170, 176, 

261 
CSaraoeiolo, 178 
Ckidinatt, 178 
CSarl, ofsaokt, 200 
Oarieton, 106 

Gaifetoii Opera Oompaoj, 147 
CSarlo, flutist, 100 
"Ckrmeii," 101, 104, 126, 300-^11, 

314 

of Venioe," PetreDa, 30, 



243 

Gurpenter, Qeofge B., 311, 317 
Gamno, 00, 86. 86, 116, 127 
GarriogUm, Abbie, 262 
Garter, T. B., 216 
C^kruao. 37 
Gary, Annie Louise, 23, 88, 104, 107- 

109, 127, 176, 208, 261, 267, 290 
f Gbsto Diva'' from VNorma," 18, 

142 
GMtebnary. baaeo, 131, 262, 307 
Oastle Qarden, New York, 18 
Oastle Square Opera Gompany, 314 
OMtle, William, 106, 117, 138, 139, 

246, 266, 318 



Gaitri, Pituliiie. 235, 266 

"Gataimot of Niagara," Ole Bull, 221 

''Gayalleiia Rusttcaoa," 300, 310, 
314 

Gaxton Ghib, 312 

Gayvan, Geoisie, 140 

Gedantr5m, Baron Rolf, 40 

ObIU, Mureo, 242, 266 

GeOini, Rosa, 247 

Gentral Muflc Hall, Ghicago, 44, 311 

Central Park Garden playeie, under 
Theodore Thomas, 181, 266 

Gemusoo, Sunor, 307 

Gervantes, Esmerald. 298 

Ghadwiek. Geoige W., 296 

Ghadwicrs Seoond symphony, 298 

Ghaliapine, basso, 62 

Ghamber eooeerts, fiist in Ghioago, 
264 

Ghamber of Gommeroe, Ghioago, 
baO in. 197 

Ghambeilain, G. W., 290 

"Ghambly Oiri " (Albani), 118 

"Ghampagne Galop," 267 

"Ghampagne Song," Sohroeter, 289 

Ghanfrau's"Mose,"20 

Chapitf Butklinc(, Ghioago, 210 

Ghapin, Dr., GhMago, 117 

Ghaiity Balls, Ghicago, 106 

"Ghann has departed. The," 210 

Chatterson, Jolm, 130 

Ghaubert, M., " celebrated fire king," 
213 

"Ghernr and Fair Star; or. The 
Ghildren of Qyprus," 217 

Cberubini, 27 

basso, 178 

Ghicago, and Jenny Lind, 21, 22; the 
Pattis, 32, 34, 36, 37--46, 47, 48, 
60, 60, 74, 76, 96, 127, 162, 180, 
227,233; Ole Bull, 38, 47. 60, 61, 
73, 124, 180; Abbey-Mapleson 
competition, 40, 41 ; Parodi, 60, 74 ; 
Italian opera, 60, 121, 228; Ger- 
mania Society, 60-66,83, 260, 263; 
Gamilla Urso, 63, 64, 71; fint 
symphony performance, 63; mu- 
sical criticism, 63, 64, 74, 266: 
Heniy Ahner, 64, 260, 261; Gart 
Beiigmann, 65, 268, 269 j coupon 
tickets used for first tune, 61: 
Remenyi, 62; Vieuxtemps uia 
Thalbeig, 06, 73, 74; Nilsson, 66, 
67, 87, 88, 91, 92; WUhelmj and 
Garreno, 69, 127; in the eaify 
fifties, 73, 74, 228; Gottsohalk. 76, 
233; Rubinstein, 79; Von BOlow, 
82; Joseflfy, 83; AnnaMehlig,83; 



INDEX 



327 



WehH, the "left-hander/' 84; 
f'Blind Tom/' 85: the Great Fire, 
61, 90, 127-129, 172, 196, 197, 237, 
250, 251, 270, 284-286, 311; 
Luoea, 93; Gerster, 96. 98; La- 
grange, 99; Rose and Hauck, 
102, 108; Gkry, 107. 127; Ma- 
tema, 109; the Linooln Park Zoo 
and LiUi Lehmann, 110. Ill; 
Anne Bishop, 112: Fabbn, 113; 
Freisolini, 114; Di Ifurska, 116; 
Emma Abbott, 117; Albani, 117; 
Brignoli, 124; Mario, 127; Wachr 
tel, 128; Chariee R. Adama, 130; 
OMtehnaiv, 131; Gari Formes, 
132; Eh^h opera, 135-137, 148- 
150; pnees asked for seats, 136; 
Parepa, 142, 144; cleigymen, 144; 
Jessie Bartlett Davis, 147; opera 
boaffe, 152-158; managers, 160- 
162, 165. 168, 1697178. 179; 
Mapleson's cq>eratio festival, 178; 
Theodore Thomas, 180, 181, 183, 
193, 266. 268, 269; P. a GOmore, 
196, 197, 233; linoohi's nomina- 
tion, 196, 212; Emma Thttrsby, 
196; May festivals of 1882 and 
1884, 208, 209; eariy musical and 
dramatic events, 211-224; ad- 
mission first chaiged, 213; first 
concert. 214; first music teacher, 
214; first ohureh erected, 214; 
first churoh organ, 215; first 
"ladies' fair," 216; fint churoh- 
choir row, 216; first cireus, 216; 
first theatre, 216; first play, 216; 
first theatrical spectacle, 217; 
ladies' prejudice against theatre, 
218; first street band, 219; first 
museum, 219; eariy patriotism, 
220; Richard Hoffman, 221 ; sink- 
ing families, 221, 223; Joseph 
Jefferson, 217, 218; J. H. Mc- 
Vicker, 221, 226, 228; perform- 
ance of dignified music, 222-224; 
first performance of opem, 225, 
226; dress in 1850. 225; "The 
Artists' Association,'' 227; opera 
season of 1858, 228; of 1859, 229, 
230; Cooper English Opera 
Troupe, 230-232; music during 
war period, 232-235, 300, 302, 303 ; 
opera season of 1865, 235, 236; 
CitMby Opera House, 236-251 ; r/- 
tum^'of operatic events, 1872-1889, 
251, 252; Ibach's <'Sharp Comer/' 
253; Julius Dyhrenfurth, 253- 
259, 269, 278, 279; BUly Boyle's, 



254; musical sodtties and or- 
chestras, 255-278, 284-293 (see 
also Chicago and Geimania Society, 
above); Hans Balatka, 262-267, 
273, 276, 277, 284; first chamber 
concerts, 264; Adolph W. Dohn, 
274,275,288,290; £^Dietssch, 
coroner, 279-282; riseami of en- 
tertainments following the fire, 
285, 286; Worid's Fair music, 
294-299; Geoige F. Root, 300- 
303; dedication of Auditorium, 
305, 306; T€aum€ of operas pro- 
ducisd at Auditorium, 307-309; 
Milward Adams, 311, 312; Stude- 
baker Theatre, 312, 314, 315: 
Charies C. Curtiss, 313; musical 
pioneers, 317; stoiy of local mu- 
sic, 318. 319 
Chicago Chureh Choir Pinafore Com- 
pany, 147, 149 
Chicago Columbian Chorus, 297 
Chicago fire, see under Chicago 
"Chicago Journal." 53 
Chicago Jubilee, Gilmore's, 196, 197. 
"Chicago Mai^ine, The," 214 
Chicago May festivals of 1882 and 

1884 208 209 
Chicago Musical Union, 130, 271-274 
Chicago Orohestral Association, 268 
Chicago Philharmonic Society, 55, 71 
Chicago Sacred Music Society, 219, 

270 
Chicago S^phony Sode^, 267 
Chicago Theatre, The, 217, 227 
"Chicago Timee," 15^157 
"Chicago Tribune," 110, 255, 302 
"Chicago Walts," Lenssen, 256 
Chiesa, Catarina, 34 
Child, Lydia Maria, 58 
"Child of Earth," ballad, 257 
"Chimes of Nonnandy, The," 146, 

314 
Chinese suicide. Coroner Dietasch's 

report of, 281, 282 
"Clmig Chow m/' Offenbach, 153 
Choir^ first in Chicago, 215 
Chopm, 25 
Chopin concerto, 250 
Chopin's nocturne, prelude, masurka, 

and berceuse, 296 
Choral Fantasie, 292 
Choral Symphony, Beethoven, 241, 

304 
Choral Union, Chicago, 220, 270 
Christmas perfonnance of "The 

Messiah," 291 
Churoh, first in Chicago, 214 



828 



nvDsz 



Church of 8t. Aiugarius, Chica^, 

Jenny Lind's gift to, 21 
Giainpi-OeUag, baiytone, 44 
"Old Lo " 309 

Oncinnati CoU^ of Mmdc, 189, 190 
Cincinnati Festival Aasociation, 297 
Cincinnati festivab, 107, 186, 194, 

207-210, 241 
"Onderella," 246 
"Cingalee," 316 
"CiraMian Marah," Johann Strauas, 

203 
CircuB, fint in Chicago, 216 
aty Hall (Chicago) concert, 222 
aty Saloon, Chicago, 219 
Claasen. Arthur, 297 
danwilham, Lord, 27 
''Clara, Maid of Milan," Bishop, 137 
dark, Francis, Chicago, 22 

R. M., 273 

Clarkei J. Abbie, 298 

Clary, Mary Louise, 296 

Classioal Chamber Concerts, Ba- 

latka's, 264 
Qements. Edwin, 200 
ClernTi their tilts with Parepa, 143, 

Cleveland, S. E., 287 

Cleveland Vocal Society, 297 

Coe, A. L., 271, 273 

Coeme, organist, 299 

Coffin, Warren C., 287 

Colberg, J. W., 297 

ColettC 239, 242, 243 

"Collations," all suppers were, 197 

CoUetti, basso, 131, 227, 235, 239 

CoUier, C. A., 215, 219, 220, 270 

CoUins, Fannie L., 271 

Colson, Pauline, 229, 230 

Colton, Ernestine, 298 

f Columbia, the (>em of the Ocean," 

304 
Columbian Exporition music, 184, 

188, 189, 294-300 
Columbians, minstrel troim, 223 
Columbus Arion Club, 297 
"Columbus Hymn and March," 296 
"Coming through the Rjre," 39 
Commercial Building, Chica^, 219 
Complimentary ball, expensive, 166 
"Concert Fantasie.'' Tombell, 305 
Concert^ first in Cnicago, 214 
Concertma, 223 

Concordia M&nnerchor, 276, 277 
"Congressional Record" enlivened 

by Mayor Harrison, 179 
Conkey, Miss Nellie (Mrs. Crosby), 

234, 273 



C011I7, 106 

Conned opera troiQiey 307, 306 

^'Consecration of the House," Bee- 
thoven, 296 

"Consecration of Solomon's Ton- 
pie," Titl, 181, 267, 275 

Contralto, operatic, plight of, 121 

Conway, Hart, 148, 150 

Cook, Aynesl^, 136, 231 

Cooke, Rosa, 138, 236 

Coolbaugh. W. F., 245 

Coombs^B (Jane) Company, 285 

Cooper English Opera Troupe, 136, 

Cooper^ P. J. J., 148 

Coquehn, 170 

Cordier, Angiolina, 49, 233, 235 

"Coronation," 201 

{'Coroner's GNnst," DietMefa's aninial 
report, 280-282 

"Cool fan tutta," Mottrt, 289 

Coulston, William H., 287 

Count de la Porte of Park, 228 

Country Wedding Symphony, Gold- 
mark, 268 



Coupon tickets, first use of, in 

Chicago, 
"Court Favors," 137 



», 61 



Court House Conooi, Chicago, 221 

Court House Square, Chicago, 302 

Cowles, basso, 146 

Cox, William, 287, 290 

"Cracovieime, La," 257 

Crane, R. T., 306 

"Creation, The," Haydn, 68, 136, 

142, 209, 272, 284, 298 
Creswold, organist, 147 
"Criqi^o e la Comare," 165, 242, 247 
Crosby, Albert, 245, 249 

Mrs. (nSe Conkey), 234, 235 

Uranus H., 237, 244, 245, 262 

Crosby Open House, Chicago, 84, 

152, 155, 196, 236-251 
"Crossing of the Danube, The," 124 
"Crotchets and Quavers," Max Mar 

retiek, 166 
"Crown Diamonds," 31, 136 
Cummings, C. M., 306 
Curtis, George Wuliam, 24, 58 
Curtiss, Oiarles C, 287, 312, 313, 317 
Cussoni, 169 
"Osar and Carpenter," Lortsing, 273 

"Davb Blanchb, La," 236 
Damroech and Ellis Combinataoo, 

307 
Damrosch German Troupe, 252 
Damroech opera troupe, 307 



INDISX 



829 



DamRMtth, Walter, 296 

IVAiigri, Mine., 73-75 

Danids. Frank, 150 

lyArvBl, Onne, 298 

f Daughter of the Regiment, The," 

136. 137, 232, 240, 309, 315 
Davidise, William, 148, 150 
Davies, Ben, 298 
Davis, Geotge, 212, 220, 223, 255, 

256,317 

Jenie Bartlett, 146, 147 

Dawes, Gertrude, 22 

Dayton Philhannonic Societj, 297 

Dean and McKeniie, firat applicants 

for theatrioal license in Chicago, 

216 
Dean, Julia, 221 

tnMnbone, 257 

De Anna, barrtone, 178 

De Beloooa, Anna, 252 

De Beriot, 27 

De Gaux, MarohionesB, 46. iSsePatti, 

AdeUna. 

liarquis, 40, 42 

De Caeroue, Henri, 234, 264, 266 
De Gebele, Freda, 128, 236, 266 
De Katow, H^ldne, 239, 240 
DeKoven, Reginald, 146 
De Lagnuige, Anna, 99. See La- 
grange, Anna 
De Lossy, Henri, Baron de YiHe, 

40 
Del Puente, 40, 88, 175, 251, 307 
De Luda, 131 
De Lussan, 2Selie, 146 
Demarest, Rubinstein, 297 
De Meyer, pianist, 83, 204 
De Miranda, €V>unt, 92 
Dempster, ballad-singer^ 223 
De Munolc, Ernest, 'cellist, 44 
De PasquaUs, barytone, 178 
De Pasfflo (Louis Dochei), 234, 260, 

266,275 
De Pelgrom, Inna, 76, 266 
De Resske brothers, 170 
De Resike, Edouanl, 120 
De Ribas, oboist, 199 
De Rohde, Marie, 266 
Desdausas, 153 
Desclausas's opera boufiFe troupe, 

248 
Deshon, Frank, 150 
"Dettingen Te Deum," Handel, 207, 

209 
De Vaschetti, 178, 307 
De Vivo, Diego, 116, 117, 171-174 
De Vries, Mme., 227 
Signorina Rosa, 227, 228 



Dewey. Miss, 234, 266 

3apt 
"Dial, The." 312 



De 



iwey, Mi 
Wolfe, 



Captain, 145 



Diamond, Master, 219 
Dickinson, Anna, 285 

Clarence. 318 

Dietisch. Emil, 278-283 

Di Murska, Qma, 116, 117, 172, 175 



Traviata," 



"Dinorah," 147, 234, 309 
"Di Provensa, The,'' in " 

139 

"Distinguished" dtiiens, 197 
"Dijde/* 303 

Doches, Louis, see De Passio 
"Doctor of Alcantara, The," Eich- 

beig, 246 

of Boston, 22 




Doehler, violinist, 76 

Dohn, Adolph W., 181, 182, 274, 275, 

288-290, 317 
"DoW comer," Chicago, 214 
Domestic Symphony, Richard 

Strauss, 188, 256 
Donaldi, Emma, 267 
Donation parj^ for survivor of 

Boston l^a iVurty, 222 
"Don Giovanni," 93, 133, 229, 239, 

247, 309, 314 
"Don Pasquak," 165, 232, 235, 246, 

309,315 
"Don Quixote," Strauss, 56 
"Don Sebastian," 239 
Donv, Mrs., 285 
Dore, Qustav, 91 
Dotti, 178 
Downing. B. F., 273 

D. L., 201 

D'Oyley Carte troupe, 149 
"Dramatic Overture," EUicott, 296 
Drayton, Henri, 139, 140, 248 

Mrs., 139, 140 

"Dream of Gerontius," Elgar, 207 
"Dreamy Lake, The," Schumann, 

289 
DresBlm*. pianist, 61 
Druid nayers, 223 
Drummond's f Habitants," quoted, 

118 
"Drusus' Death," Rdssman, 267 
Dubois, M. Theodore, 305 
Dubreul, Amati, 139, 239, 246 
Duckworth, Miss, 231 
Duff amateur company, 148 
Dunham, Arthur, 318 

Dr., 223, 255, 256 

Frank A., 298 



Dunlap, Geoige L., 284 
Dunn, Arthur, 150 



880 



DfHEZ 



Dunuid Englbh Open Troupe, lad, 

228 
Dunuid, Louiae, 247 

RoMlio, 136, 228 

Diisehniii, barytone, 236 

DuttOM, Jennie, 298 

Dwicht, John 8., 58 

Dye, NftihMir Father Dye*"), 216 

Dyhienfurth Hall, Ghioaao, 278 

Pyhfenfurth, Julius, 263-269, 262, 

260, 278, 279, 317 
Dyhrenfurth orchestra, 267 
-^ ' ^ Sophie, 236 



ELuoB, Mme., 37, 170 

''Echo Soi^,'^ 18, 36, 39, 43 

Eddy, H. GUuenoe, 299, 317 

Edoum's !'moiBl ballet^' from Paik, 
167 

EhKott, Louis, 298 

Eloheim,289 

Ekhler, vioUnist, 198 

Eisenbaum, Ek^, 298 

Eisfeld, Theodore, 301 

''Elegy of Tears/^ 181 

f'EliSh," 88, 267, 272, 298 

f'Eaisir d'Amore, L'" ("The Elixir 
of Love''), 136, 231, 242, 309 

EUioott, Miss Frsnoes, 296 

Ellis opera troupe, 307 

Ellsworth, Captain, 113 

Julia, 234, 266, 273 

Ellsworth's Zouaves, 113 

Emerson. Ralph Waldo, 286 

Emerwn's Blinstrels, 2418 

"Emperor's H;rmn," 304 

Emperor William's Household Cor- 
net Quartette, 200, 201 

Empona (Kans.) Chorus, 297 

Encores, 38, 94 

En^ish opera, 136-139, 141, 146, 
148 24o 

"Eri khig, The," Schubert, 289 

"Enninie7' 147, 314 

f'Emani," 229, 232, 239, 243, 247, 
286 

Errani, tenor, 243 

"Esmeralda," 309 

Essipoff, pianist, 83 

Estcott, Lucy, 136, 231 

Ethiopian Serenaders, 223 

Ethiopian Warblers, Gray's, 223 

"Euryanthe," 209 

Exposition Building, Chicago, 41, 
m, 183, 311 

Fabbri, Ines, 43, 113, 114, 232, 233, 
266,306 



Faber, ketUedram, S67 

"Fair Land of P3and" fram '.'The 

Bohemian Oirl," 137 
"Fairest daughters of our city," 197 
"Faiiy Tempter, The," 219 
Falk, Louis, 287, 317 

Mrs. Louis, 149 

"F^Jka," 316 

"Fan of Trmr," Beilioa, 209 

"Falstaff," 309 

Farewell perfonnaoeei, 38, 42, 60, 

61, 236 
FarweU Hall, Chicago, 107, 266 
Farwell, Mnu J. A., 286, 289 
Faulhaber, William 0^274 
"Faust," 46, 93, 94, 126, 131, 147, 

178, 236, 239. 308, 310, 311, 314 
f Favorita, La,'* 93, 166, 229, 251, 

309 
Fechter's Uond Hamlet, 94 
Fellini, Bignor. 242 
Fenderson, Juliet, 196 
Ferranti, 61, 116, 142, 243 
Ferri, basso, 36, 162 
Fessel, Dr., 264 
Fessenden, W. H., 146 
"Festival Ode," Monroe, 306 
Festivals : Opera Festival, Chioico, 

41; Cincinnati festivals, 107, iSo, 



194, 207-210; Cd. iCapleson's 
operatic festival (1866), 178, 312; 
GUmore's, 194-203; Worcester 
(Eng.),194: Chicago May festivals 
of 1682 and 1884^206, 312; New 
YoriE May festival of 1882, 209 

"Festo Asoensbnis," Bach, 209 

"Fidelio," 133, 236, 247, 308, 310 

Field, H.M., 297 

— ^ juarsDau, ouo 

Mn., MarshaU, Jr., 277 

"Field of the Gtotii of Gold, The/' 
247 

Fine Arts Building, ChicMO, 312, 313 

"Fior di primavera," 1^ Addina 
Ffttti, 42, 43 

"Firemen's Quadrille, The," Julien, 
66 

"First Gun is Fired, The," Root, 302 

First Presbyterian Church, Chicago, 
214 

First Unitarian Church, Chicago, 219 

"First Walpuigis Night," Mendeb- 
sohn, 207, 276 

Fischer, Emil, 298 

Mme., 236, 238, 240 

FIsk, Col. James, 248 

Katharine, 298 

Fisk's opera troupe, 48 



INDEX 



SSI 



Fiteh, lanie, 273 

*'Five o'dock in the moniiiig/' 142 

Flu^, J. R., 286 

"FSdeimftus, Die/' 309, 316 

"F1eurdeTb6/' 153 

f'Floiodo»/' 148 

''Flower Giri, The/' 315 

''Flyiiig Dutehman, The/' 306, 314 

Fobert, Marie W., 208 

FoM, 252 

Folts, Frits, 277, 287, 280, 317 

Ford, 8. C, 208 

Formes, Gari, 132, 133, 173, 175, 181, 

235,240 

Theodore, 238 

Wilhehn, 240 

i'Fonnoea; or. The Railroad to 

Ruin," 248 
Forrest, 221 

Mis., 22 

Fomst-Macready riots, 185 
Fortnightly Ghib, 312 
Fortuna^barytone. 142 
"Forty Thieves, The," 157 
f'Fona del Destino, La," 

241 

Foster's songs. Stephen C, 301 
Fox and Kirauy pantomimes, 248 
Fox, Mrs., 280 
f'Fra Diavolo," 03, 132, 230, 243, 

247, 314 
Franoo-Prussian War, 200 
Franosch, 128, 240 
Frederici, 236, 240 
Fraie Sftngerbund, 271 
f'Fieischau, Der," 178, 236, 247, 

276, 300, 314 
Fremstad, Olive, 37 
French language on eariy show bills, 

213 
"French Laughing Song," 76 



Verdi, 



Fresiolini (Poggi), 114, 168 
" ~ iry,201 
L 71, 108, 



Fries, Hen: 
Wulf 



244 



"Frityof," Bruch, 267 
Fuchs, Julius, 278 
Fuller, C. W., 306 
Fumh-Madi, 40, 178, 252 

Qadb's qrmphony in C Ifinor, 265 

Qade's symphony in F Hajor, 265 

QadsU, Mme., 37, 170 

Galassi, 40. 251 

Qalli-liiftri^, 101 

Qalton, Blanche, 148, 150, 247 

Galton, Pyne, 247 

Galton troupe, 186, 153, 247 

Qarda opera troupe, 228 



Qarde RepubKeaine Band of 

200 
Gassier, 175 
Gates, MMty, 287 
Gasxaniga, 106, 172, 175, 242, 246 
Geisler, violinist, 257 
Geistinger, Marie, 154 
"Gem of Peru," Guarany, 117 
"Genevidve de Brabant,^' 153 

Genin, , of New York, 22 

"Gentle ZiteUa/' 210 
Geotge, Harrison, 61 
Gennan-Ameriean Women's Chorus, 

207 
German Uederkians, New Yoric, 207 
German Stagerbund of North Amer- 
ica, 266, ^7 
German Song Unicm, Chicago, 223 
Geimania M&nnerchor, 240, 275-270, 

284 
Germania Orchestra (or Society), 

50-55, 83, 260, 263 
Gerster, Etelka, 40, 06-00, 107, 251 
Ghent. Miss, 275 
Ghioni, Mme., 242, 243 
Gianinni, 178 
Gifford, Electa. 208 
Gift concert scneme, 224, 235 
Gilbert-Sullivan operettas, 148 
Gilmore Juvenile Company, 140 
Gihnore, Patrick Safsfold, 124, 104- 

202, 205, 233, 246 
Gifanore's Band, 201 
Gindeie, John G., 275 
"Gioconda, La/' 252, 300, 314 
"Gipsy Baron, The," 315 
"Gipsy Life," Schumann, 207, 200 
"Giri and Bandit," 315 
"Girofl^ Girofla," 315 
Giubetti, 225 
Gleason, F. G., 305, 317 
Glenn, Hope, 88 
Globe Theatre, Chicago, 128, 251, 

285,286 
"God, preserve Thy People," 304 
"God save the Queen," 304 
Goddard, ArabeUa, 200 
Goddard family of Providence, 23 
Godfrey, Dan, 200 
Goethe, 27 

Goldbeck, Robert, 230 
Goldsmith, A. L., 287 
"Gonddiera, The," 300, 815 
Goodhue, Dr., Chicago, 215 
"Good Night/' in "Martha," 130 
"Good-night, my dearest child/' 130 
Goodrich, W. A., 208 
GoodwilUe, 276, 285 



1 



332 



INDEX 



Goodwin. Fannie, 139 
"GdtterdAmmeniDg/' 309 
QottBchalk, Louis MoreaUi 36, 49, 

76-78, 104, 221, 233 
Graff, baiytmie, 236 
"Grand Ganiival of America," 222 
''Giand Carnival of Milan," 222 
"Grande Duobease, La," Offenbach, 

162, 168 
Grant, Gen., 19, 199, 240, 241 
Grau, Jacob C'J."), 167-169, 171, 

174. 233, 236, 238-242, 248 
Mauiioe, 68, 169, 169-171, 306, 

307 



ice, opera troupe, 307 



Graves, Dexter, 213 

Gray's Ethiopian Warblers, 223 

Great Western Band, 260 

"Green Huntsman, The," 249 

Greene. Plunket, 298 

Greenebaiun, Henry, 291 

"Greeting," Taubert, 288 

Gregory troupe, 248 

Greiner^ 286 

Grenadier Guards Band of London, 

200 
Griffin, Ella, 167 

Minnie Fish, 298 

Grign A Co., & 0., Chicago, 272 

Griar26 

Giiswold, Miss, contralto, 220 

Grover, Leonard, 84, 236, 236, 242, 

246 
Guidi, Noel, 242 
Guilmant, organist, 299 
Guilmette, Dr., 196, 246 
Gungl's band from Berlin. 61, 62 
1 'Gute Nacht, mein herslicnes Kind," 

130 
"Guy Mannering," 232 
Gye, Mme., 1 17. See aUo Albani and 

Lajeuneese, MUe. 

Habbuian, tenor, 46, 84, 86, 116, 

131, 236, 246, 247, 249 
Haberkom, kettledrum, 181 
"Habitants," Drummond, 118 
Hahn, Governor, 196 
Haig, 'oelUst, 266 
"Hail Columbia," 296, 304 
Haimer, barytone, 236 
Hair, musicians', 79 
f'HaUeluJah Chorus," 292, 306 
Hamill, Charies W., 317 
Hamilton, 106 
"Hamlet," 309 
Handel, 186 
f' Hansel and Gretel," 309 



"Harold in Italy," Bertioi, 233 
Harrington, Mrs. Jos^h, 220 
Rev. Joseph, 220 



Harrison, tenor, 136 

President Benjamin, 306 

Mayor Carter H., 8r., 178, 179, 



282,283 

presidential campaign (1841), 



219 



Zelda, 13& See Seguin, Zelda 

Hartmann, 236 
Hartnung, violinist, 267 
HaskeOuss Jessica, 288. 289 
HastingB, 300 

J. a, 219 

Hastreiter, BMne, 284 

Hatch, Alonso, 148, 160 

Hattstaedt, John J., 317 

Hauck, Minnie, 101-104, 243, 246 

Haveriv juvenile troupe, 149 

Haydn's £ Flat Major symphony. 

266 
Hayes, Catherine ("Kate" Hayes), 

26,32 
"Haymaken, The," Root, 272 
"Hasel DeU," Root, 301, 303 
"He (tf All the Best, the Noblest," 

Schumann. 288 
Head, Franklin, 306 
"Heart bowed down. The," 139 
"Heavens aie telling. The," 306 
" Hebron," 201 
Heckla, Emma, 298 
"HeU dir im Siegenkrans," 304 
Heilbron, 261 

Heindl, Edward M., 71, 198, 244 
Heinrich . Max, 209 
"Heldenleben," Richard Strauas^ 

188 
Heller, Robert, 266 
Henschel.208 
Hensen, Medora, 298 
"Herdsman's Song," 18 
!' Here's a Health to Thee, Maiy,'' 

219 
Hermanns, basso, 44, 46, 84, 128, 

132, 236, 246, 247 

Joseph, 264 

Herold, Wilhehn, 298 

Heraee, Rose, 119, 139, 142, 143,248 

Hersbe^ Hall, (Chicago, 124 

Hen, pianist, 161 

Henog, double bass, 181 

Hesse von Wartegg, Chevalier, 102, 

103 
Heth, Joyce, the Mermaid, 19 
Hewitt, M. H., 297 
Higgins, H. M., 271, 272 



INDEX 



SSS 



Hole, Signe, 208 
Himmer, tenor, 236, 249 
Hinckley. Hub, 232 
Hitchoook, Raymond, 160 
Hlavac, J. V., 297 
HoaglaDd, B. 8., 297 
Hodson, Geoi|^, 228 

MiB8, 136 

Hoffman, 277 

Richard, 18, 221 

Hoffmann, Edward, pianist, 61 

Mme. Varian, 61 

Hofmann, Joseph, 170 

Hoisington, J. A^220 

Holmes, Geoige E., 296 

f Home, Sweet Home," 39, 43, 89, 

306 
Hoppins family of Providence, 23 
Hoppins, Tom, his caricature of 

Fmni Abt, 204 
Homcastle, buffo basso, 61, 135 
Hosmer, W. B. C, 239 
Howard, Mr., 286 
Howell, Arthur, 139 
HowBon, Enuna, 139 
"Hoyden, The," 316 
Hubbaid, John, 232. 272, 291, 317 
Huck, Mrs. Clara (MrB. L. A. ), 276, 

277 289 
f Huguenots, The," 88, 128, 129, 

133, 140, 147, 286, 308, 310, 311, 

314 
"Humpty-Dumpty," 247, 248 
Hunneman, 277 
Hunt. Miss (Anna Thillon), 30 
Hutchinson, 221 
Hutchinson (Kans.) Chorus, 297 
Hutchinson family, 223 
f Hymn of Praise,^' Rossini, 299 



'I'm afloat," as sung by Hermanns, 

132 
' I know that my Redeemer liveth," 

88 
' I think I am just fourteen," 93 
'I will lay me down in Peace," 

Root, 304 
Ibach's restaurant, 263, 264 
'DBado,"43, 142 
'Ilmiote8oro,"122 
Illinois Theatre, Chicago, 316 
Impresarios, 169-179 
'In diesen heilgen Hailen," from 

"The Magic Flute," 133 
'In Praise of God," Beethoven, 

296 
' Inflammatus," Rossini, 199 



IngeiBoll, Agnes, 291 



InnesB Band. 299 

International Company, 252 

International Peace Jubilee, 200- 
205 

"Iolanthe,"309,315 

Irfre, Ettore, 130, 243 

"Iris," 309 

Irving, Henry, 41, 170 

Isherwood and MoKensie, theatri- 
cal managers in Chicago, 216 

"Lds and (Isiris," from f The Magic 
Flute," 133 

"Isle of Champagne," 316 

Israel, pianist, 76 

"Israel in £^t," Handel, 291 

Italian conouctors ci summer gar- 
den orchestras, 56 

Italian opera, first time in Chicago, 
50,229-232 

Italian opera in New Orleans, 228 

Italian opera in New Yoric, 228 

Italian opera, inspirations of, 130 

Italian Opera Trouoe, 227 

Italian Symphony, Mendelssohn, 
266 

Ives family of Providence, 23 

"Won," 157 

Jaell, Alfred, 53, 83 

James, Kate, 69 

Jamet. 175 

Janisch, 276 

Jarbeau, 160 

Jefferson, Joseph, 217, 221 

Mr., 8r., 217, 218 

Jenkins, impersonator, 219 
Jewett, John A., 273 
Johannsen, Bertha, 236, 260 
"John Brown's Body," 201, 303 
Johnson, Harry, 272-275 

J., 220, 270 

Mrs. O. K., 286, 289 

Samuel, 262 

Johnston, Samuel, 220 
Johnstone-Bishop, Qenevra, 298 
Jones, Kate, 271 

Mary, 271 

Mrs. S. W., 297 

Mr., 275 

Joseffy, iNanist, 83 

Jourdan, 252 

" Jubihite," Beach, 296 

Jubilee Singers from Nashville, 201 

"Jubilee Walts," Jobann Strauss, 

203 
Juch. Emma, 209, 252, 298 
"Judas MaccabflBUB," 299 
Judic, 154 



S84 



INDEX 



f Juive, W 234, 308 
Julien, Loiua Antoine, 66| 66 



l^aul, 36, 42, 47/60 



JuDca, baaso, 36. 131, 162, 229, 230 

Junger MinneroDor, 297 

JuaEer, 233, 299 

JuTOtor Qymphony, Moiait, 209, 

JuMen, Edmund, 284 

S'Jiiit before the Battle," Root, 



Kahu Fnuis OreiiAdier-R^giment 

Band of Beriin, 200 
KallMh, Paul, 268 



Mme., 111. 

TJIH 



Sm alUo Leb- 



Kai»- Young, Mme., 246 

Karl, Tom/61, 104, 146, 149 

Kaaohoeka, Felioe, 298 

Katienbemr, Qabriel, 297 

Kauffeld, Cbailes, 276 

Kellogg, Glaia Louiae, 98, 104-109, 
1177172. 176, 238-241 

Kellogg Troupe (Concert Troupe, 
Opera Troupe, and Concert Com- 
pany), 106-107, 14 

Kdmitte family, 223 



y), 106-107, 140, 247, 261 



Kelten, pianiet, 44 

Kemp, Fannie, 231. Sm Bowler, 

lIiB. Brookbouee 
Kendall, Mn. Eira, 160 
Kenkel, Miss, 284 
Kenniflon, David, 221, 222 
"Kennat Du das Landr " 94 
Kenworthy, Mr., ventriloquist and 

magician, 214 
Kiefer, olannet, 181 
IQmbark, D. A., 271 
f iOng Christian stod," 304 
f iOng Dodo," 316 
IQng, Mies, Alto, 136, 228 
KingBbuiy HaU, Chicago, 276, 289, 

311 
Kinaie houae, Chicago, 212 
Kiniie. John, Sr.. 211 

Giiptain Robert, 269 

Kloaa, itra., 264, 266 
Kneiael, Frani, 296 
KneiBel Quartette, 244, 264, 296 
Knoll, violinist, 299 
KnoiT. Chariea A., 149, 298 
Knowlea, Cftnon, 317 
Koch, 276, 277, 286 
Koppita, flutiat, 199 
Koaautb. reception of, 19 
Kraua, ignata, 223 
Erebb8,lUrie, 260 



"Kreutaer Sonata," Dee t lwive n , 68 
Kubhnan, baaaoon. 181 
Kullinger, French bom, 181 
Kunkel BrotheiB, pianiata, 289 
Kunkel's Nigbtii^ilea, 223 
Kunta, Flora, 276, 277 

L^BLACHK, 26, 261, 262 
Laborde, Mme., aoprano, 181 
Lacroix, trumpet, 181 
"Udiea* Fair/' fiiat in Chicago, 216 



«<Lady 



7i 



274 



Ladjr Managers, Boara of, Colum- 
bian Expoaition, 296 

"Lady SUv^," 316 

Lagnmge, Anna, 99*101, 116, 163, 
176, 243 

Lagruige-Brignoli eompany, 243, 
246 

Laieuneaae, MDe., 117. Sm dUo 
Albani ofid Qye, .Mme. 

Lake Shore Railroad atation, Chi- 
cago, concerta in, 196 

"Lifme," 306 

Lambel4, Aline, 162 

Lambda troupe, 246 

Lamaon, Garcmer, 298 

Lancaater, Mattie, 148 

Lang, organist, 299 

Lang-Zieader, Mn., 277 

Laporte, Sc., 242 

Larrabee, William, 220 

''Last Hope," Gottachalk. 76. 77 

"Last Rose of Summer, Tke,'^ 229 

Launn, violiniat, 181 

Laurence, Alberto, 139 

Leavenworth (Kana.) Chorua, 297 

Leder, viola, 267 

vidinist, 267 

Ledoohowaki, N., 289 

Ledogard, M., 266 

Lee, A. H., of Pndrie du Rocber, Itt., 
the myaterioua, 246 

Left-handed pianist, 84 

"Legende," Wieniairalnr, 68 

Lehmann, Lilti, 23, 101, 109-111, 
268 

Lemoyne, J. V.. 262, 317 

Lenacnow, conductor Germania So- 
ciety, 62 

Lenaaen, Oariino, 266 



Lenta, Gari, 64 

Leon Brothers, 247 

Leonard, A., 271 

Leonardi, Giovanni, 60 

" Let the Bright Seraphim," 199 

Letsoh, trombone, 181 

Levy, cometist, 142, 196 



INDEX. 



886 



L0WJ0, Samufll, 214 

WiDiftm, 234, 280, 273, 289, 

317 
''Liberty Duet," fnm t'PuritMii," 

131 
Lichtmay, 128, 249 
Liebbart, Louiw, 79 
liebliDg, EiniL289, 297, 317 
"Lieder ohne Wdrte," 77 
Liederknni Society, 278, 279, 284, 

286 
UAt Quaid Band, Chicago, 235, 

260 
light Guard Hall, Chicago, 74 
FlSj of KiUarn^, TW' Benedict, 

246.315 
Liuoob, Abraham, 131, 138, 196, 

212. 238, 239, 275, 302 
UneotQ Faik, Chicago, David Ke&- 

nieon buried in, 222 
Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, Leh- 

mann's interest in, 110, 111 



Lind, Jenny, 17-26, 28, 30, 82, 33, 
1, 39, 43, 
221 



35, 36, 39, 43, 49, 97, 112, 165, 
de Chamouni,'' 165, 239, 308 



Lindau. H 



Tt: 



267 



Lindquiflt, C. F., 298 
lineff RuMian Choir, 297, 299 
Lint, 27, 81 
Ljnt concerto, 250 
Lint'f Second RhaiMody, 83 
LitU, Marie, 118, 251 
Little. Lena, 298 
"little Tycoon," 315 
Little, W. C, 297 
Littolf concerto, 250 
f'litichen and FritMohen," Offen- 
bach, 153 
lioyd, Edwaid, 298 
Lob. Otto, 275 
Lobaowiti, Prince, 95 
LocateUi, baiytone, 235, 240, 243 
Loeffler, C. M., 298 
f Lohengrin," 91, 107, 118, 125, 178, 

209. 251, 267, 308, 314 
f Lord Lovell and Lady Nancy," 

217 
f'Lord Ifontag following Sontag," 

27 
"Lord, Thou alone," from Ifendele- 

■ohn's "St. Paul," 275 
"Lofgnette," "Dc Marvel'f," 24 
Lorim, Vera O^iginia Whiting), 233, 

235,238 
LoU, W. H.. 297 
Lotteiy to diapoae of Croiby Opera 

Houae, 244^245 



, tenor, 130, 288, 388, 240, 242, 

247^266 
T^fHiiwana Purohaee FrUMwil iTTfi nn" 

■0,300 
Louimlle Muaical dub, 297 
"Loyal Song," Kuecken, 288 
Lucca, PauBne, 36, 88, 89, 98-97, 

175, 251 
"Lucia di Lammennoor," 85, 100, 

124, 125, 178, 227, Sm, 231, 282, 

239, 240, 243, 268, 308, 814 
"Luda" aextet, 130 
"Lueia,"Thalbu|,75 
Ludni, Signor, 307 
"LucTMia Boigia," 29, 229, 282, 389 
Ludden, William, 266 
Lumbard, Frank, 117, 220, 228, 228^ 

232, 255, 256, 302, 317 
Julea a, 117, 220, 282, 238, 

271-274 302, 317 
Lungear, flute, 257 
"Luriine " 157 
Lutting, baaaoon, 257 
Lyndon, John A., 287 
Lyon and HeaJy'a muiio atoray 

Chicago, 287, 313 
Lyon (Sana.) Cborua, 297 
Lyater, Frederick, 136, 228 

ILua, Joaeph, 106, 251 
Macaferri (SfoAffeiy), 238 
Ifacafferi, 247 
MacDonald (Boatoniana), 146 

Georn, 298 

MacDoweU'a concerto, 86 
''lladame Butteifly," 309 
Madrigal Opera Campaay, Chicago, 

149 
"Magic Fhtte, The," 133, 236, 276, 

277,309 
Magnuaaen, Frederika, 266 
Magra, Signora, 242 
Mam, Annie, 266, 272-274 
Maiah, A. F., 298 
MaUbran, 169 
"Man from Now," 815 
"Man of Cobr" (Wilaon P. Ptety), 

213 
Muuumn' atoriea, 75 
"Mancilliner, Le,^' Qottaohalk, 76 
Manoini. 252 
Mancuai, 232, 285 
Manfred, MUe., 242 
MAnner<3eaangyerein, 270 
Manni, 178 

Manning'a Minatrda, 248 
"Manon," 309 
"Manru," 309, 311 



336 



INDBX 



MuMfield. RkhMd, 146, IfiO. 306 
IfuMkm nouae, Chieafo, 213 
Manven, Mr.. 226 
Maiflmm, Cot. Heniy, 102, 103 

GoL Jmum HetiiT, 36, 40, 60, 

80. 9S, 00, 102, 127, 147, 176-170 
MMfimm gptntio feitival, 178, 312 
liapkmi l>oiip0, 40, 261, 262 
llMfole, Daa, 220 

Maraello, lUtOdft, 268 

f Marehe da Nuit, U,'' QoltaofaAlk, 

76 
"Marehii^ throa|h Geoigia," 303 
Ifuguflritei, VAiioui» 88, 80, 03, 04, 

104, 118 
lliumi, 176 

Maietiek, BertuooA, 180 
Max, 20, 36, 40, 60, 60, 162, 

164-167, 243, 246, 247, 240 
MareUek Troupe, 261 
Marimon, 262 
Marine Band, 201,282, 283 
Mario, 127, 128 
''Mantana," 220, 232, 316 
Maridiam, Pauline, 166, 166 
Marirham, Pauline, amateur oom- 

pany, 148 
Mariowe, Julia, 160 
Marra, bamone, 243 
f Marriagelnr Lanterar'' 163 
f Marriage of Figaro, The/' 102, 142, 

143, 146, 200, 300 
''Manefllaiw,'' 60, 304 
Marah, J. 8., 287 
!'Martha," 121, 128, 120, 132, 138, 

178, 220, 230, 230, 247, 263, 308, 

314 
Mariine'f HaU, Chicago, 286 
Martinei, Signor, 221, 266 

Iridora, 61 

f'Marvel, Ik,"24 

"Maeaniello," 284 

Maeeagni's opera troupe, 307 

"Maeoot,''316 

f Masked BaD, The" ("Un BaUo en 

Maaoheia '% 234, 230, 243, 247, 306 
Maaon, Lowell, 300 
Mason-Thomas chamber concerts, 

184 
Mason-Thomas combination, 264 
Mason-Thomas Quartette, 66 
Mason, William, 301 
Massenet, 310 

Massimiliani, tenor, 238, 230, 243 
Masdo, basso, 243 
Materna, 100, 110, 208, 200, 262, 208 
Matteson, Cassie, 233, 266, 272, 273 



MatthewB, WlBiam & B., 317 

Mattkon, Mn., 272 

Mats, Otto, 317 

Matika, viola, 181 

Maurel, 176 

"May Queoi, The," Bennett, 276 

''May 8o^ Mandelamhw, 276 

"Mayor oTTokk), The," 316 

Maaaoleni, tenor, 238, 240 

MeAffeiy (Macaleiri), 233 

"M'Appan," 122 

McOormiok Hall, Ghieafo, 280, 200, 

311 
McCuOooh, MIh, 140, 243, 247 
MoCuUum, J. P., 207 
MoOrqgor, Ada, 207 
MoKenaie and Jeffenon Theatre, 

Chicago, 222 
Mcl^cksTi J. H., 221, 226, 228 
Mel^oker^s Theatre, Chicago, 124, 

221, 228, 231, 233, 286, 236^ 244, 

286 
MeWade, John R, 140 
"Meeting by the Seaahora, The," 

liOewe 280 
"Mefisto^eie " 104, 300. ^Sse "Me- 

phi8topheles" 
Mehfig, Anna, 88, 84, 289 
"Meinen ElnaBll nenn' l^l* msin." 

130,234 
Meinwinski, 252 
Mdsel, Ckri, 71, 108, 243 
"MeistefsiiKgen, The." 206, 308 
Melba, Mme., 37, 170 
Mebns, 'ceOo, 264, 266 
Melodeon Hall, Chieago, 267 
Mendelssohn, 26 
Mendelssohn Qub, 311 
Mendelssohn (Mb oi Hyde F^ 

Chleaga 140 
Mendelsecmn oonoerto, 260 
Mendelssohn Quintette Ghib of Bos- 
ton, 71, 243 
Mendelsshon Quintette Oub of Chi- 
cago, 64, 88 
MoQdetaw£n Society, 181, 274, 276, 

288 
Mente, oboist, 100 
"Mephistonheles " Boito, 262 
Mc»>nistopneles, Hermanns as, 132 
'/Mennr's Dream," Huntaiwtan's, 

244 
"Merry Monarch," 316 
"Merry Wives of Windsor, The," 

132, 240, 263, 286 
"Messe des Morto," Beriios, 200 
"Messiah, The," 88, 186, 2O0, 284, 

201,208 



INDEX 



837 



Mflonnser, E. D., 290 
Metropolitan German opera troupe, 

307 
Metropolitan Hall, Chicago, 42, 136, 

196, 231, 272 
Meyer, oboe, 181 

Jerome, 91 

1,276-279,286 



Meyerbeer, 93 

Michigan Avenue Baptist Churoh, 
Chicago, 285, 286 

Michigan Avenue Theatre (Standard 
Hall), Chicago, 286 

Middelachulte. Wilhelm, 299, 318 

f'Midfummer Night's Dream," Men- 
delssohn, 77, 266 

n,'* 88, 93, 94, 104, 106, 261, 



309,314 
"Mikado, The,'' 149, 308, 314 
Military, Lucca's love for the, 94-96 
"Militaiy Septet," Hummel, 240 
Miller, Hattie Brown, 266 
MiUeri, Signor, 242 
f' Miller's Daughter, The," Haertel, 

289 
Milner, Annie, 136, 231 
Mills, pianist, 142, 243, 290 
Milwaukee Aiion dub, 297 
Minneapolis Choral Association, 297 
Minstrel troupe, first in Chicago, 219 
Miranda, tenor, 231 
"MireiUe," Gounod, 117 
"Mirella," 178 
"Miss Pocahontas," 316 
Missouri Governor and PatU, 99 
Moekiidge, Whitney, 298 
"Moise/^Thalberg, 76 
Mollenhauer, Henri, 74, 199, 232, 

266 
"Mon«yMusk,"66,92 
Money thrown to actors on stage, 217 
Monroe, Miss Harriet, 296, 306 
Montague, 106 

"Moonlight" sonata, Beethoven, 77 
Moore-Lawson, Corinne, 298 
"Moral baUet," Edouin's, 167 
Morelli, barytone, 76, 236 
Morensi (Miss DuckwoHh), 231, 233, 

236, 238, 239 
Morini, barytone, 36, 60 
"Morning, The," Bles, 272 
Morris, Thomas A., 298 
Morton, Levi P., 306 
"Mose," Chanfrau's, 20 
Mosenthal, violinist, 181 
"Moses in Egypt." Rossini, 234 
"Mother's Prayer, The," 39 
Mould, Mr., 266 



Mosart, J. J., 261, 262 

Mrs. J. J., 261, 262 

Mosart Society, Chicago, 220, 270 

Mosart's £ flat BymplK>ny, 207, 208, 
266 

Mosart Q minor symphony, 209, 
266, 298 

Mueller, Cari E. R., 276, 317 

Mulder, Richard, 233, 266 

Muller, basso, 239, 240 

Mailer, violinist, 264 

Munro, Mabel, 298 

"Musette," Offenbach, 240 

Museum, first in Chicago, 219 

Museum of curios and "art won- 
ders," 222 

Mijsiani,242 

Music, Bureau of, Columbian Ebcpo- 
sition, 296 

Musical comedies, 166. 167, 316 

Musical criticism, early, 63, 64, 74, 
218,266 

Musioil festivals, see Festivals 

Musical Union, see Chicago Musical 
Union 

Musicians' Union, 240 
My Bark is on the Billow," 219 



« 



Nannbtvo, 176 

"Nanon " 316 

National Band from Dublin, 200 

Natbnal Peace JubUee, 198-200 

"Navanaise, La," 309 

"Near the Lake where drooped the 

Willow," 219 
"Nero," 262 

Neuendorf Opera Company, 286 
NevadiL Emma, 118, 178 
Nevada's (Emma) daughter, 118 
New Orieans Fraoch opera troupe, 

307 
New Orleans Opera House, 48 
New Orleans, opera in, 228 
New York Acaoemy of Music, 60 
New York Arion and Chicago Ger- 

mania M&nnerchor Commers, 130 
New York as Lucca saw it, 96 
New Yoric May fesdval of 1882, 

209 
New York Philharmonic Society, 64, 

66,268 
New York, popularity of theatre 

with ladies, 218 
New York Q^phony Orchestra, 

296 
Newell, E. G., 290, 317 
Newton (Kans.) Chorus, 297 
"Niagara," Ole Bull, 69, 221 



22 



338 



INDEX 



"Nibdungea Trilogy/' 09, 200 
Niblo'sTNew York, 165 
Nicholas, Ernest (Nioolini), 40 
Nichols, MiB. Qeoige Ward, 210 
NickeiwMi, R. C, 306 

8. M., 906 

Nisola,230 

Nioolini (Ernest Nicholas), 40, 43, 

178 
Nioolo, 74, 229 

Nielsen-Dreyer, Christine, 298 
Nietsscbe, 241 

"Nightingale," MendelMohn, 276 
Nightinsu««> Kunkel's, 223 
" Nightingale's TriU," 142 
NilJta, Louise, 298 
Nilflson. Christine, 29, 36, 40, 66» 

87-93, 96, 97, 123, 124, 130, 175, 

209,251 
f Ninety-fifth Psahn," Mendelssohn, 

274 
Ninth Regiment Band from New 

Yorit, 201 
Noble, Charies F., 149 
" Non tu sogni," from " I Lombardi," 

257 
Nordblom, tenor, 142 
Nordica, Mme., 37, 170, 298 
f Norma," 20, 34, 37, 136, 228, 232, 

239,308 
f'Nonna," a fantasie, upon one 

strinc, 222 
North Reading, Essex County, Mass., 

300 
North's Amphitheatre, Chicago, 230 
Northwestern SAnferf est, 262 
Northwestern Samtary Fair, 240 
Nowlin, Miss Maiy, 223 
f'Nosie di Figaro" 93. See '^Mar- 

liase of Figaro, The." 
Nurnbeiger, viola, 264 

VO, LucB di quest' anima," from 

"Linda," 39 
"O ma Chaimante," Gottschalk, 76 
Oates, Alice, 153, 154, 247, 248 
"Oberon," 142 

Ocean Sjrmphony, Rubinstein, 268 
"Odysseus,^' Bnich, 267 
"(Eil Crtve, L'/' 153 
Offenbach's contributions to opera 

bouffe, 152, 158 
Ohrstrom-Renard, Augusta, 298 
"Qjos CieoUoB," Qottechalk, 76, 77 
"Old Folks at Home," 89 
Old Folks' concert troupe, 140 
"Old Hundred," 199, 200 
Old Ladies' Home, Chicago, 234 



(Hd Settlers' Haimonie Qotkf^, 314, 
215, 270 



Olgini, Oka, 242 
"CHivette7'315 



Omaha ApoUo Club, 297 
"On Shore and Sea," SulliTan, 291 
Opera bouffe, 152-154, 157, 158 
Opera Festii^ Association, 178 
Opera, first in Chicago, 222, 225, 225 
C^ras from standpoint of mansger 

and public, 310 
Operas^ revival of, 242 
Cmtono in Chicago, 284 
Oratorio Societjr, ChicagD, 88, 284 
Orohestra, first in Chicago, 255 
Orohestra Hall, 311 
Oigan, first in Chicago, 215, 216 
Oibndini, 238. 242 
Orme, Gertrude, 61 
Ormeny, Louise, 79 
"Orpheus," Gluck, 207, 252, 309 
"Orpheus aux Enfers," Offoibaeh, 

m, 153. 158 
Osgood, Afine, 208 
Oskleston-Lippe, Rata, 297 
Ostbeig, Caroline. 298 
Osteisren, John R., 297 
"Othello" ("Otello"), 307, 308, 314 
"Other Giri, The," 315 
Otis, Philo A., 287, 317 
Otten, Joscmh, 297 
Overbeck,&5 
Ozfoid festivals, 138 

Padbbbwbki, I. J., 296, 297, 311 
Paderewsld's Concerto in A Minor, 

op. 17^ 296 
Paganim, 59 

"Pagliaoci, I," 131, 309, 314 
Paige, Emilia, 266 
Paine, Professor, 130, 296 
Pabne, 'cello, 257 
Palmer House, Chicago, 108 
Palmieri, Mme., 251 
Pancake, the " Jennv lind," 21 
Pancani, Sifpor^ 24o 
Pandbar, violinist, 257 
Pantaleoni, 251 
Paolo^Mari^, 154 
Pappenhdm, 40 
Pappenhdm- Adams German Troupe, 

251 
"Paradise and the Peri," 290 
PareparRosa, Mme., 119, 139, 141- 

146, 172, 173, 198, 199, 242, 248, 

284 
Parodi, Teresa, 20, 47, 49, 50, 74, 

163, 165, 229, 231 



INDEX 



389 



Faroni, buytoiie, 248 
f'Panifal/' 42, 209. 909, 316 
''Putant pour la Syne," 304 
Ftata 49 

"Patience/' 149, 309, 315 
Patriotic murio of Qvil War period, 

300,302-304 
Patriotic prima donnas, 50 
Patriotiam of eariy setUeiB, 220 
Patti, Adelina, 3»-48, 60, 89, 97-99, 

105, 122, 124, 125, 147, 162, 164, 

174, 175, 178, 227, 252, 273, 306, 

307 
Amalia (lime. Patti-Stra- 

koMh), 34, 36, 47-50, 74, 162, 163, 

180, 229, 230, 243 

Garios, 34, 46, 48; 49 

Oariotta, 34, 44-48, 76, 127, 

164, 175, 233 

Clotilde, 34 

Ettore, 34, 42 

Nioolo, 34 

Salvatore, 34 

"Paul and Viixinia," Maai6, 117 

Paulua, If., 200 

Peak Family, 248 

Peake,221 

PeakM.106 

Henry, 246 

J. G^ 246 

PearwKi, O. C, 274 

Peaae, Alfred, 61 

Peck, Ferdinand W., 305 

W. L., 306 

"Peny from Paris." 315 

PmE7 Countess (Marietta Alboni), 

5' Per piaoer alia Signora," from Ros- 
siniV^TunomltaiU," 18 

Perabeau, Heniy, 260 

Perkins, Heniy B., 317 

Jules, 102 

Peni, basso, 239 

PeninCjEmest. 181 

Peny, Wilson P., 213 

Pensani. 109 

Peruffini, 40, 252, 306, 307 

PescEka-Leutner, Mme., 200, 267 

"Petticoats and Bayonets," 315 

Petrella, ^gnor, 247 

Petrovitchj 252 

Philadelphia Philharmonic concert, 
137 

"Philemon and Bauds/' 309 

Philhannonic orchestra, 266 

Philhannonic Society, Chicago, 222, 
255,258,259,262-266 

Philleo, MiB., 272 



Phillips, Mr., 234 

Adelaide, 146, 150, 175, 198, 

199, 235, 243 

Charies C, 272, 287 

Philip, the "Sweet Singer," 



144 

Piccobmini. 114-116 
"Pinafore/^ 136, 146-151, 308, 315 
"Ping Pong/' 315 
"Phntes of Pensance, The," 149, 

308,315 
Pittsbuig Moiart Qub, 297 
Pittsbuig Orchestra, 206 
"Pisiicato Polka," Johann Strauss, 

202 
Plagemann, 54 
Plagge, Christopher, 258 
Plangon, M., 37 
Piatt, J. S., 271 
Plymouth Congregational Church, 

Chicago, 286 
" Pocahontas, Miss," 815 
Pogai (FreasoUni), 114 
Popani, G., 227 
Pomsot, Mile., alto, 181 
Point au Sable, Jean Baptiste, 212 
"Pdiuto, n," 165, 229, 232, 239 
PoUini, Cash, 242 
"Polonaise," Wieniawsky, 68 
Pond, F. S., 287 
"Poor Bessie," 219 
"Poor Gentleman, The," 285 
Post, Lilly, 150 
"Postilion of Lonjumeau/' Wachtel 

in, 128, 129, 173 
"Poup4e, U " 308 
Powell, Maud, 298 
Possolini, tenor, 28, 29, 227, 228 
Prairie du Rocher, 111., 245 
Pratt, E. H., 287 

Silas G., 281^-288, 317 

"Preciosa," Weber. 256 

Prejudice against theatre in Chicago, 

218 
"Preludes," Lisst, 267 
Prentiss. L. M.. 287 
Price, Mr., with Ethiopian Serenad* 

era, 223 

M. F., 272 

Prices of opera seats, 136 
Prices paid to artists, 36, 87 
Prices paid to hear Jenny Lind, 22 
"Prima Donna, The/' 137 
Prima donnas» grand opera, 120 
"Prince Bonnie/' 315 
"Prince of rasen," 315 
Pring, Charies V., 287 
Prise concerts, 224, 235 



340 



INDEX 



"Prophet, The," 165, 809 
Providence, !' Jenny lind fever" in, 

22 
Pnune, violinist, 44 
PuUman, Geoige If., 306 
f'Puritani, I," 178, 229, 239 
f'Puritan'f Daughter, The," 142, 

248 
*' Pygmalion and Qalatea," 315 
Pyne-Hanison troupe, 135 
Pyne, Louise, 31, 135, 153 
Susan, 135 

"Qranf of Sheba," 252, 306 
"Queen's Laoe Handkerchief, The," 

315 
"Quis Est Homo," from "Stabat 

Mater," 199 

Rachbl, Elise, 17 

Raff's Third mnphony, 298 

"RAk6osy March," 63 

Ramodotti, bassoon, 257 

Randolfi,243 

Ranny, J. R., 287 

f'Rana des Vaches," 304 

f'Rataplan," from "The Daughter 

of the Regiment," 241 
Ravel, Fran^ds, 230, 231 
Ravel pantomime, 230 
Ravelh, 252, 307 
Raymond, Mn., 109. iSss also Kel- 



logg, Clara 
--B.W. 



^. ,-»216 
Miss EmUy, 257 

Miss Fanny, 257 

L. W., 149 

"JMbsrdb^ baDs, 197 

f Reoollectlons," by EmUy Soldene, 

154 

by Maurice Strakoseh, 163, 164 

"Reooidati," Gottschalk, 76 

"Redemption " Gounod, 209 

Reder-Crane, Neallie, 297 

Rees. William, 297 

Reionardt. violinist, 196 

Reif, manist, 135 

Rein,^:mil, 270 

Reismger, Conrad Charies, 222 

Rejane, 170 

Remenyi, Edouard, 59, 60, 62-65, 

131 
Remmerts, Frans, 208, 209, 267 
"Rent Day," 220 
Repertory of eariy actors, 218 
"mverie," Vieuxtemps, 181 
Reynoldson, family name of Caroline 

AichingB, 137 



"Rhapeodie," for piano, WQhners, 

289 
"Rheingdd," 309 

"Rialto, The," Chicago theatre, 217 
Ricardi, Frederica, 246 
Ricardo, 246 
Riod, Bertha, 252 
Rice, Mn. De Roode, 286 

John B., 220, 226, 227 

Rice's Theatre, Chicago, 137, 220, 

221, 225, 226 
Richings, Caroline, 137-141, 246, 247 

Peter, actor, 137 

Richingv' troupe, 138, 139, 147, 246- 

248 
Richter, double bass, 257 

Alfred, 61 

"Rienii " 296 

"Rigdetto," 34, 105, 165, 229, dOO, 

314 
"Rigoletto" quartet, 130 
Rinaldini, 178 

Rink (Jackson Boulevard and Wa- 
bash Avenue), Chicago, 277 
"Rip Van Winkle," mam Drayton 

in, 140 
Ritter, pianist, 44, 45 
"Rivals^ The," 217 
Rive, Lilian, 298 
Riv4-King, inanist, 83 
"Rob Roy,''^232, 316 
"Robert the Devfl," 88, 138, 243, 247 
"Robin Adair," 43 
"Robin Hood," 309 
"Robinson Crusoe," Offenbach, 153 
Rocco, 165 
Rocher, H., 287 
Rohner, Frank G., 287 
Romam, VMlinist, 181 
"Romeo and Juliet," 43, 165, 246» 

306-308.314 
Ronooni, Antdnetta, 246 

Qioigio, 243, 246, 247 

Root, Charles T., 287 

E. T., 272, 274 

Fanny, 272, 289 

Frederick W., 317 

Geoige F., 232, 272, 300-W4, 



317 



Towner,301 
Walter T., 305 



Root and Cady, music dealers, 271, 

272 
Root and Sons Music Company, 313 
Rosa, Cari, 142, 143, 145, 198, 243, 

286 
"Rosalie, the Prairie Fk>wer " Root, 

301,303 



INBESC 



341 



''Rose of the Anunnbfa/' 316 
Rosenbecker, Adolph, 317 

Ro88, y of Providence, 22 

Roneita, Anna, 249, 286 

RooBi, Count, 27-29 

Cbunteas, 20. Sm Bontag, 

Henriette 
RoHnii,27 
Roth, pianist, 36 
Rotter, Johanna, 236, 247 
Rouiaud, August, 92 
Roie, Marie, 101-104, 261 
Rubinstein^ Anton, 68-70, 79-82, 

170 
Rubinstein concerto, 260 
Rudersdorf, Mme. Enninia, 146, 

200.206,206 
Rudolphsen, 136, 142, 231, 284 
"Rule Britannia," 304 
Rulla, Kate, 298 
Rummel, piraist, 83 
Russell, Ajinie, 160 

Henry, 301 

William H., 219 

Ryan, Thomas, 71, 198, 243 

SABor, A. R.. 234, 273, 287 

8aguf flash Tavern, Chicago, 212, 

216 
St. James's Church, Chicago, 216, 

216 
St. John's Church, Chicago, 286, 

286 
St. Louis Choral Association, 297 
St. Louis, WakeBeld Opera House, 

48 
St. Marjr's Church, Chicago, 234 
"St. Ifathew's Passion," 296 
St. Paul Choral Association, 297 
"St Paul," Mendelssohn. 291, 298 
St. Paul's Church, Chicago, 233, 

276 
Saint-Sates, 306, 810 
''Salamis," Bruoh, 267 
"Salammbo " 308 
Salaries paid to artists, 37, 163, 164 
"Salute a Bemuno," Siabert, 289 
Salvini, 126, 170 
Salvotti, Marie, 196 
Salaman. clarinet, 267 

viola. 267 

Samans, Qui, 297 
San Cario opera troupe, 307, 308 
San FVandsco, 32, 66, 98, 99, 133 
Singerfests origin of musical festi- 

valsj 210 
Sanquirioo, basso, 112 
Sans, Eleanor, 118 



Sapio, Sjgnor, 307 

Sarasate, violinist, 46, 170 

Saro^ Heinrich, 200 

Sarti, barytone, 243 

"Saterbesok, m," Ole BuU, 69 

Satter, Qustav, 181 

Sauret, 116, 127 

Savage, Mr., 316 

Savage Metropolitan En^ish opera 

troupe, 307 
"Savane, Le," Qottechalk, 76 
Saveri, 277 
Saxe, John G., 286 
Sbrigha, 231 
ScalcU, 40, 178, 262 
Scaria, Emil. 209 
Schafer, double bass, 267 
"Schiller," lecture by Bayard Tay- 
lor, 286 
Schirmer, Laura, 262 
Schmits, flute, 267 

French horn. 181 

Schoeffel, 306. 307 
Schoeffler, 170 
Schott, 262 

Schreiber, oometist, 36 
Schreurs, J.. 298 
Schroeder, Alwin, 296 
SchrOder^Hanlstftngel, Mme., 268 
Schubert's Ninth qymphcxiy (in C 

Major), 207, 209, 266; 298 
SchubeH's quartet in D Minor, 260 
Schubert's Unfinished Qymphony, 

296,298 
Schuecker, Edward, 296 
Schuhae. Edward, 274, 276, 277, 286 

Wifhefan, 198, 243 

William, 64, 71 

Schuman, Mme., soprano, 181 
Schumann, Clara, 26 
Sohumann-Heink, Mme., 30, 37, 170 
Schumann's First mnphony (m B 

Flat), 260, 267, 2& 
Schumann's Fourth symphony, 260, 

298 
Schumann's Mass in C Ifinor, 209 
Schumann's Seoond symphony, 267 
Schumann's Third symphony, 298 
Soolari, basso, 127, 176 
Scotch l^ymphony, Mendelssohn, 266 
Scott, Sir Walter, 27 
Scottish Choral Union, 297 
Seaverus. "Charley" 272 
Seoond Rhapsody, Lisst's, 83 
"See the Conquenng Hero Comes," 

199,306 
Seguin, husband of SSelda Harrison 

Seguin, 138, 221, 246 



84S 



Btmhi, EKMbeth, mother of ParafM 
Rom. 142 



troim, 137 



100, 138, 139, 246 
Soldi, AnUm, 315, 316 
Seiko, lCi«, 266 
Sembrioh, Mnio., 28, 37, 40, 170, 

262 
"Samlnmide,'' 178, 261, 308 
Semotkindkni and eeiitJiiieDtolini, 

Theodora Thooui'f Itoodom frao, 

187 
Serboliiii, 178 
"SeraoAde," 809 
"SeranoftA," lor phno, lint, 280 
Serraii f oakMiA, 240 
f'Sevn Sielen; or. The Dwii^ten 

of Sotea OD a VWit to (Mangp," 

24S 
"Shan Ooner/' Ghioafo, 263 
f'SheDMnto' Som/' MeodelMohn. 

276 
Sheildaii, Mki, 276 
Shermaii, Qon., 240, 241, 260 
Shetmaa Houee, Chicago, 91, 92, 

267,276 
Sherwood, W. H., 297, 818 
««ShiiiiQK Shore," Root, 301, 304 
"Shogun," 816 

Shorten, John Q., 262, 291, 317 
''Skdliaa Vemn," 234, 240 
SMenbouig, Mme., 227 
SMler, flute, 181 
''Siegfried," 309 
''Sigurd," 309 
Simone, Lu«y . 76, 242 
"Sfaibad the Sailor," 166, 167 
Sfaig«r, Tbrenta, 262 
SiiMii« familiee, 221 
Sinibo,*261 

"Sb" and "llr dear fellow," 177 
"Six^HBX," Offenbaoh, 163 
Slav muaiciaae, 187 
"Sleepgr Hottow," Max Maretiek, 

166 
Skm. Mr., 286 

Oaear, 216 

Smith and NisEon'e Hall, Chicago, 76 
Smith, Benjamin, 216 

"Chulejr," 232 

B., 216 

Mn. H. M., 196, 246, 290 
EBtene,266 



"Sonnambula," 104, 136, 178, 226, 

228, 231, 232, 239, 308, 314 
Sonne, Chariee, 270 
Scmtag, Henrietta (Gounteas Roan), 

26-30, 33 
Soule, L., 297 
Souaa Band, 299 
South viflited by foreign mneiciana, 

264 
^Mlding, Rogers, and Hanhm'e 

Giroua, 129 
"Speed the Floi«h," 229 
Spiering, Theodore, 296 



The," 



Sofce, F. M«, 266 
Soldene, Enuly, 164 
"Soldien' Maroh," 236 
f'SoUtude of the Pnirie," Ole BuU, 
69 



^ra^, William, 284, 287 
"Spnng of our Rqjoieiog, 

Durmer. 289 
Springfield, lU., 218, 239 
Squirae, Henry, 44, 229 
Staab, Fiani, 76, 266, 271 

Louis, 234, 271 

"Stahat Mater,^' Roarini, 228, 274, 



299 
Standard Hall (Michigan Avenue 

Theatre), ChicMo, ^, 288, 311 
Standard Theatre Oompany, 148 
Stanley, Burton, juvenue troupe, 149 
Stanton, Eliiabeth Gady, 286 
"Star of the North," 243 
"Star43pangled Banner," 60, 114, 

137, 199, 203, 220, 296, 304 
Start>ird, Annie, 139 
Stamy, Cari, 297 
States. AgaUia, 247 
Staudigl, 262 
Stebbins, Qeoige O., 287 
Steffam,236 
Steffanone, 47, 166 
Steinbaoh, 178 

Steindl. Bruno, 298 s. . 
Stemecke, basBO, 236 
Storting (Eans.) Chorus, 297 ^ 
Stetson, John. 149 
Stevens, Nealiie. 297 
Stewart,Mri., " female gramophono,** 

223 
Stioloiey, Edward, 262, 317 
StUes, A. B., 287 
Still, John A., 219 
Stock, Frederick A., 208, 269, 318 
Stockton, Fanny, 233 
Stone, Marie, 146, 148, 160 
Stoiy. Wilbur F., 166, 166 

Mn. Wilbur F.. 166 

Stoughton (Mass.) Musical Society, 

297 
"StradeUa," 132, 267, 277 
StrakoBch^ Mrs., 109. See aUo Gary, 

Annie Louise 



INDEX 



S4S 



SlmkiMeli, Uuanee, 34, 35, 40, 47, 50, 

103, 108, 114, 161-164, 174, 180, 

229 

Max, 162, 174-176, 239, 243 

8ii»ko0ch Troupe. 251, 252 
f'StntDcer, The,'' fint i^y pro- 
duced in Chicago, 216 
Stnuas, Johaon, 200, 202-204 

Richard. 188, 202, 256 

Btudebaker Hall, Chicaffo. 314 
Stttdebaker Theatre, Quoago, 294, 

312, 314-^16 
"Student lOng, The," 315 
Suck, 'oeOktriOS 
Sudke, Mme., 298 
Sullivaa cmerettas, 148, 149 
''Sultan of Sulu," 315 
Sununer Garden oonoerts, Chicago, 

183, 311 
Sununy, Clayton F., 318 
"Suomla tromba," from "Puritani," 

131 
"Suian and Yankee Doodle," 222 
Sunni, baaso, 131, 175, 232, 234, 235, 

239,240,242,243 
"Swan of Eiin^' (Kate Hayes), 32 
f'Swedieh Nightingale" (Jenny 

Und), 32 
Sweet, Qeorn, 252 
Swin Bell Ringers (The Campana- 

logians), 129, 247 
"Sim Echo Song," 306 
f'Qymphonia Domestica," Strauas, 

aee Domestic Symphony 
Symphcmy, first heara in Chicago, 53 
Efynnebeig, Mme., 307 

Taffajtklli, Signor, 227, 228 

Tagliapletra, 69, 251 

Tamagno, 307 

Tamaro, tenor, 235, 236, 242 

"Taming of the Shrew,'^ 104 

"TannhAuser," 209, 236, 263, 308, 

314 
"TannhAuser Overture," 76 
"Tar and Tartar," 315 
"Tarantella," 314 
"Tasso," Lisit. 267, 26B 
Taybr, Bayard, 18, 286 

Beqjamin F., 234 

Taulwaaser, oboist, 199 

Teacher of music, first in Chicago, 214 

"Ten Girls," 315 

!'Ten Years of Music in the United 

States," Bernard Ullman, 161 
Tenors in grand opera, 120, 121 
f Tenth l^mphony" celebration at 

Cincinnati, 186 



Ternina, 170 

Teny, Ellen, 41, 89 

Testa, Enrico, 246 

NataU, 246 

Thackeray. 32 

Thalbeig, Mme., 75 

Sigismund, 66, 73-76, 83 

"ThalbeiK of Song, The," 27 

Thalbeii^yieuxtemps-D'Angii con- 
certs,!^ 

Theatre, first in Chicago, 216 

Th6o, 154 

"There's a Beautiful Isle up the 
River of Time," 234 

"There is Music in the Air," Root, 
303 

Thiedemann, 54 

Thiem, 276, 285 

Thillon, Anna, 26, 30, 31 

M., 30, 31 

Thomas, Mis., 272 

Orchestra, 68, 83, 181, 208, 233, 

263, 269, 289, 290, 311 

Theodore, 38, 42, 52, 55, 64, 67, 



68, 83, 84, 126, 130, 161, 180-193, 
207-210, 250, 253, 266-269, 274, 
294-297, 299-301, 311, 31^-317 

Thompson, cnrmbal, 257 

Agnes, 298 

A. H., 148 

«sar, 64 

J. L., 271 

Lydia, 155-157 

Thompsons, from Kansas, 299 

Thome, Colonel, of New York, 34 

"Thousand and One Nights," Jo- 
hann Strauss, 202 

Thunder, organist, 299 

Thuisby, Enuna, 61, 118, 196 

Tiberim, tenor, 50 

Tietjens, 175 

"Tin Eulenspiegel," Richard Strauss, 
208 

Tillinghast, Sarah, 233, 273 

Tilton, Mra. E. S., 149 

Tinkham, E. I., 262, 284, 317 

"To the Sons of Art," Mendelssohn, 
296 



Tobey, A. B., 271 
"Tod 



und VerUftrung," Richard 

Strauss, 208 
Toedt, Theodore J., 44, 206, 209 
Tombell, M. de la, 305 
Tomlins, Bella, 298 
William L, 208, 290-292, 295, 

297, 299, 317 
Topeka Chorus, 297 
Topp, Alida, 247 



1 



344 



INDEX 



"Tornado eboruM/' 202 

Torrens, L. A., 297 

Tormni, 175 

"Toflca, U," 309, 314 

To0t^, 153 

Tostte opera bouffe company, 247 

Tournier, 252 

"Tiamp, Tramp, Thunp, the Boya 

are itarehing?' Root, 232, 303 
TraveUera' Home, Chicaco, 214 
"Traviata, La," 42, 117, 165, 229, 

232, 247, 306, 314 
Tr«beUi.40 
Treffs, Jetty, wife of Jobami Strauas, 

204 
Tnemoot House, Chicago, 37, 227 
Tremont Music Hall, Chicago, 38, 

227,255 
Trevor, with Durand troupe, 136 
"Trial by Jury," 309, 315 
"Tribe of Jesse from the Old Granite 

State," 221 
"Trip to Africa, A," 315 
"Tristan and Isolde," 309 
"Triumphal Fantasie," Dubois, 305 
Triumphal l^ymphony, Ulrich, 265 
Trotting match on Prairie Horae 

Coum, St. Louis, 21 
"Trovatore, D," 106, 128, 136, 146, 

165, 229, 232, 239, 243, 247, 308, 

310, 314 
T^faaikowsky's " 1812 " overture, 56, 

124 
Tschaikowsky's Fifth svmphony, 298 
Tschaikowaky's Fourtn mnpnony, 

296 
Tucker, Heniy. 220 
Turner HaU, Chicago, 69 
Tumour, MUe., 247 
Twain, Mark, 286 
"Twelve Temptations," 248 
"Two LitUe Oiris," 315 

Ullmak, Bernard, 35, 161, 162, 181 
Ulmar, Oeraldine, 146, 150 
"Undine," 249 
Unger, 'cello, 299 

Julius, 261 

Union Park Congregational Church, 

Chicago, 285 
United Scandiiuivian Singers of 

America, 297 
Urchs, basso, 236 
Urso, Camilla, 53, 54, 68, 70-72, 196, 

246,266 
f'Used Up," 220 
"Utrecht Jubilate," 298, 299 
Utto, 252 



"Vacaut Chair, The,** Root, 303 
VaUeria, Alwina, 40, 118, 252 
"Valley Foise," aU^orieal tableMi, 

137 
Vandenhoff, €ieoiK.22 
Van der Stucken, 16., 206 
Van Diemen, Mr., 297 
Van Zandt, Jamie, 106, 251 
Venerable choruses, 109 
"Vensano," 43 
"Venaano Walts/' 76 
Verdi, 60 

Verger, barytcme, 87, 92 
VestvaU, 165 
Vioini, 178 
Vicinq,40 

">rie Pariaieniie, U,** 153 
Vioiing, 128, 249 

Vieuxtemps, Henri, 65-68, 73, 87, 92 
Vocal quartette, fiiat in Chicago, 223 
Vogrich, pianist, 63, 64 
Von Arnim, Bettin*, 27 
Von Bronsart, FVau Ingebocg, 296 
Von BOlow, 27, 28, 81-63, 221 
Von Kopta, Herr, 247 
Von Mottke, 94 
Von Rahden, Baron, 95 

"Wacht am Rhein," 280, 304 
Waohtel, Theodor, 48, 128-130, 172, 

173, 251 
Wade, T. H., 273 
Wagner, Cosuna, 109, 110 
Richard, 42, 76, 81, 109, 110, 

186, 192 
Wagner operas, and Addina Patti, 

^; and Matema and T<ehmann. 

109, 110: and Albani, 118; and 

Charks R. Adams, 130; first pro- 
duction in Chicago, 263 
Wahl, Louis, 267 
Wakefield Opera House, St Louib, 

48 
Walker, Qeoige 8., 306 
"Walktkre, Dm," 209, 252, 309 
Wallhofen, Baron, 95 
Wallhofen-Luoca, BaioDeas Pauline 

(Pauline Lucca), 93 
Wallin, Aima, 297 
"WalpurKis Night," te$ "First Wal- 

purgis Night"' 
Waltzes, Jobann Strauss's, 202, 203 
"Wanderer," Schubert, 132 
"Wanderer's Night Soi«," Kuhlao, 

275 
War songs, 232, 300, 302-304 
Ward, Artemus, 78, 115 
Warner, S. P., 220 



INDEX 



345 



I 

i 



WarreD, Seth P., 215 

TTilliain, 217 

Watflon, Mra. B^gina, 292 

Webb,aOO 

Weber, 27 

Weber concerto, 250 

Webster, C. W., 259 

"Wedding Day, The," 315 

Wehli, James M., 84, 85, 200, 239, 

240,266 
Weinberg, Emfl, 263, 266 
Weinlich, basso, 236 
Weinman, cluinet, 257 
"Welcome to America," 18 
Weld, Arthur, 297 
"Werther " 309 
Wessells, Frederick J., 318 
West Side Opera House, Chicago, 

285 
Wetheraby, Elisa, 155 
f'When Johnnv comes marching 

Home Again/' 195 
"When the Swallows Homeward 

Fly," 204 
Whiffen, Tom, 135, 136, 148, 150, 

247 
White, Mrs. C. B., 274 

Miss Ella A., 272, 289 

Priscilla, 298 

Richard Grant, 155 

"White Fawn, The,^' 155, 249 
Whiting, organist, 299 

VuxinMi (Lorini), 233, 235 

Whitney, Myron, 88, 133, 134, 146, 

149, 150, 208, 267, 290 
Whytal, J. J., 272 

Wieniawski (or Wieniawsky), vio- 
linist, 67-69, 79, 170, 289 
Wigwam, Chicago, scene of Lincoln's 

nomination, 131, 212 
WM, Harrison, 286, 291, 299, 318 
WOder, Geoi^se, 297 
Wilhdmj, August, 64, 69, 70 
"^^helmus van Nassouwe," 304 
Wilhorst, Cora, 229 
William, Emperor, of Germany, 94 
"William Tefi," 306 
Williams, Frank B., 287 



Willis, N. P., 105 

Wilson, George H., 295 

Winant, Emily, 208, 209 

Winch, J. W., 290 

"Wine, Woman, and Song," Joharm 
Strauss, 202 

Winkelmann. Hermaim, 209 

"Winning Girl, The," 315 

"Witch Dance," Paganini's, 39 

"Wizard of the NUe, The," 315 

Wolf, 285 

Sigrid, 298 

Wolfsohn, Cari, 291, 292, 317 

Woman's Building, Columbian Ex- 
position, 296 

"Woodland," 315 

Woodru£F, violinist, 58, 59 

Henry, 150 

Wood's Museum, 248 

Wood's Museum Company, 285 

Wordragen, Kate, 285 

Work, Henry Clay, 303 

World's Fair mumc, 294-^300 

Wright, Belle L, 298 

Wyndham Company, 285 

Wythe, Miss, music teacher, 214 

XnaofSB, basso, 239, 243 

"Yankee Consul, The," 315 
"Yankee Doodle," 304 
"Yankee Tourist, The," 315 
Young Men's Christian Association, 

Chicago, 285 
Young, Otto, 306 

"Zampa," 53, 54, 243, 257 
Zapucd, Mme., 235, 238, 243 
"Zarathustra," Richard Strauss, 

188 
Zdsler, Fanny B., 297 
Zerrahn, Carl^M, 204 
Ziegfeld, Dr. Florence, 317 
Zienn, Bemhard, 318 
Zoehler, viola, 233 
Zodlner, Heinrich, 297 
ZOhler, flutist, 199 
Zuochi, soprano, 238-240 



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